Setting MIDI volume

The minimum and maximum overall volume of MIDI dynamic markings is controlled by setting the properties midiMinimumVolume and midiMaximumVolume at the Score level. These properties have an effect only at the start of a voice and on dynamic marks. The fraction corresponding to each dynamic mark is modified with this formula

midiMinimumVolume + (midiMaximumVolume - midiMinimumVolume) * fraction

In the following example the dynamic range of the overall MIDI volume is limited to the range 0.2–0.5.

\score {
  <<
    \new Staff {
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = "flute"
      … music …
    }
    \new Staff {
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = "clarinet"
      … music …
    }
  >>
  \midi {
    \context {
      \Score
      midiMinimumVolume = 0.2
      midiMaximumVolume = 0.5
    }
  }
}

Simple MIDI instrument equalization can be achieved by setting midiMinimumVolume and midiMaximumVolume properties within the Staff context.

\score {
  \new Staff {
    \set Staff.midiInstrument = "flute"
    \set Staff.midiMinimumVolume = 0.7
    \set Staff.midiMaximumVolume = 0.9
    … music …
  }
  \midi { }
}

For scores with multiple staves and multiple MIDI instruments, the relative volumes of each instrument can be set individually;

\score {
  <<
    \new Staff {
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = "flute"
      \set Staff.midiMinimumVolume = 0.7
      \set Staff.midiMaximumVolume = 0.9
      … music …
    }
    \new Staff {
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = "clarinet"
      \set Staff.midiMinimumVolume = 0.3
      \set Staff.midiMaximumVolume = 0.6
      … music …
    }
  >>
  \midi { }
}

In this example the volume of the clarinet is reduced relative to the volume of the flute.

If these volumes properties are not set then LilyPond still applies a ‘small degree’ of equalization to certain instruments. See scm/midi.scm.

Installed Files: scm/midi.scm.

See also

Notation Reference: Score layout.

Internals Reference: Dynamic_performer.

Selected Snippets

Replacing default MIDI instrument equalization

The default MIDI instrument equalizer can be replaced by setting the instrumentEqualizer property in the Score context to a user-defined Scheme procedure that uses a MIDI instrument name as its argument along with a pair of fractions indicating the minimum and maximum volumes respectively to be applied to that specific instrument.

The following example sets the minimum and maximum volumes for flute and clarinet respectively."

#(define my-instrument-equalizer-alist '())

#(set! my-instrument-equalizer-alist
  (append
    '(
      ("flute" . (0.7 . 0.9))
      ("clarinet" . (0.3 . 0.6)))
    my-instrument-equalizer-alist))

#(define (my-instrument-equalizer s)
  (let ((entry (assoc s my-instrument-equalizer-alist)))
    (if entry
      (cdr entry))))

\score {
  <<
    \new Staff {
      \key g \major
      \time 2/2
      \set Score.instrumentEqualizer = #my-instrument-equalizer
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = "flute"
      \new Voice \relative {
        r2 g''\mp g fis~
        4 g8 fis e2~
        4 d8 cis d2
      }
    }
    \new Staff {
      \key g \major
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = "clarinet"
      \new Voice \relative {
        b'1\p a2. b8 a
        g2. fis8 e
        fis2 r
      }
    }
  >>
  \layout { }
  \midi {  }
}

[image of music]

Known issues and warnings

Changes in the MIDI volume take place only on starting a note, so crescendi and decrescendi cannot affect the volume of a single note.


LilyPond Notation Reference v2.25.14 (development-branch).