Articulations and ornamentations

A variety of symbols that denote articulations, ornamentations, and other performance indications can be attached to a note using this syntax:

note\name

The possible values for name are listed in List of articulations. For example:

\relative {
  c''4\staccato c\mordent b2\turn
  c1\fermata
}

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Some of these articulations have shorthands for easier entry. Shorthands are appended to the note name, and their syntax consists of a dash - followed by a symbol signifying the articulation. Predefined shorthands exist for marcato, stopped, tenuto, staccatissimo, accent, staccato, and portato. Their corresponding output appears as follows:

\relative {
  c''4-^ c-+ c-- c-!
  c4-> c-. c2-_
}

[image of music]

The rules for the default placement of articulations are defined in scm/script.scm. Articulations and ornamentations may be manually placed above or below the staff; see Direction and placement.

The type of grob that an articulation creates depends on what it is attached to.

\override Score.Script.color = #(universal-color 'vermillion)
\override Score.MultiMeasureRestScript.color = #(universal-color 'blue)
\override Score.CaesuraScript.color = #(universal-color 'orange)
a'2\fermata r\fermata
R1\fermata
g'2 \caesura \fermata f'2

[image of music]

In addition to articulations, text and markups can be attached to notes. See Text scripts.

For more information about the ordering of Script and TextScript grobs that are attached to notes, see Placement of objects.

Selected Snippets

Modifying default values for articulation shorthand notation

The shorthands are defined in ‘ly/script-init.ly’, where the variables dashHat, dashPlus, dashDash, dashBang, dashLarger, dashDot, and dashUnderscore are assigned default values. The default values for the shorthands can be modified. For example, to associate the -+ (dashPlus) shorthand with the trill symbol instead of the default + symbol, assign the value \trill to the variable dashPlus:

\paper { tagline = ##f }

\relative c'' { c1-+ }

dashPlus = \trill

\relative c'' { c1-+ }

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Controlling the vertical ordering of scripts

The vertical ordering of scripts is controlled with the script-priority property. The lower this number, the closer it will be put to the note. In this example, the TextScript (the sharp symbol) first has the lowest priority, so it is put lowest in the first example. In the second, the prall trill (the Script) has the lowest, so it is on the inside. When two objects have the same priority, the order in which they are entered determines which one comes first.

Note that for Fingering, StringNumber, and StrokeFinger grobs, if used within a chord, the vertical order is also determined by the vertical position of the associated note head, which is added to (or, depending on the direction, subtracted from) the grob’s script-priority value. This ensures that for fingerings above a chord the lower note is associated with the lower fingering (and vice versa for the other direction); it doesn’t matter whether you input the notes in the chord from top to bottom or from bottom to top.

By default, the least technical scripts are positioned closest to the note head; the rough order is articulation, flageolet, fingering, right-hand fingering, string number, fermata, bowing, and text script.

\relative c''' {
  \once \override TextScript.script-priority = -100
  a2^\prall^\markup { \sharp }

  \once \override Script.script-priority = -100
  a2^\prall^\markup { \sharp }

  \set fingeringOrientations = #'(up)
  <c-2 a-1>2
  <a-1 c\tweak script-priority -100 -2>2
}

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See Default values for script-priority.

Creating a delayed turn

Creating a delayed turn, where the lower note of the turn uses the accidental, requires several overrides. The outside-staff-priority property must be set to #f, as otherwise this would take precedence over the avoid-slur property. Changing the fractions 2/3 and 1/3 adjusts the horizontal position.

\relative c'' {
  \after 2*2/3 \turn c2( d4) r |
  \after 4 \turn c4.( d8)
  \after 4
  {
    \once \set suggestAccidentals = ##t
    \once \override AccidentalSuggestion.outside-staff-priority = ##f
    \once \override AccidentalSuggestion.avoid-slur = #'inside
    \once \override AccidentalSuggestion.font-size = -3
    \once \override AccidentalSuggestion.script-priority = -1
    \once \hideNotes
    cis8\turn \noBeam
  }
  d4.( e8)
}

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See also

Music Glossary: tenuto, accent, staccato, portato.

Learning Manual: Placement of objects.

Notation Reference: Text scripts, Direction and placement, List of articulations, Trills.

Installed Files: scm/script.scm.

Snippets: Expressive marks.

Internals Reference: CaesuraScript, MultiMeasureRestScript, Script, TextScript.


LilyPond Notation Reference v2.25.17 (development-branch).