Analysis brackets

Brackets are used in musical analysis to indicate structure in musical pieces. Simple horizontal brackets are supported.

\layout {
  \context {
    \Voice
    \consists Horizontal_bracket_engraver
  }
}
\relative {
  c''2\startGroup
  d\stopGroup
}

[image of music]

Analysis brackets may be nested.

\layout {
  \context {
    \Voice
    \consists Horizontal_bracket_engraver
  }
}
\relative {
  c''4\startGroup\startGroup
  d4\stopGroup
  e4\startGroup
  d4\stopGroup\stopGroup
}

[image of music]

Selected Snippets

Analysis brackets above the staff

Simple horizontal analysis brackets are added below the staff by default. The following example shows a way to place them above the staff instead.

\layout {
  \context {
    \Voice
    \consists "Horizontal_bracket_engraver"
  }
}

\relative c'' {
  \once \override HorizontalBracket.direction = #UP
  c2\startGroup
  d2\stopGroup
}

[image of music]

Analysis brackets with labels

Text markup may be added to analysis brackets through the text property of the HorizontalBracketText grob. Adding different texts to brackets beginning at the same time requires the \tweak command.

Bracket text will be parenthesized after a line break.

\paper { tagline = ##f }

\layout {
  \context {
    \Voice
    \consists "Horizontal_bracket_engraver"
    \override HorizontalBracket.direction = #UP
  }
}

{
  \once\override HorizontalBracketText.text = "a"
    c''\startGroup d''\stopGroup
    \once\override HorizontalBracketText.text = "a'"
    e''\startGroup d''\stopGroup |
  c''-\tweak HorizontalBracketText.text
        \markup \bold \huge "b" \startGroup
     -\tweak HorizontalBracketText.text "a" \startGroup
    d''\stopGroup
    e''-\tweak HorizontalBracketText.text "a'" \startGroup
    d''\stopGroup\stopGroup |
  c''-\tweak HorizontalBracketText.text foo \startGroup
    d'' e'' f'' | \break
  g'' a'' b'' c'''\stopGroup
}

[image of music]

Measure spanner

Measure spanners are an alternate way to print annotated brackets. As opposed to horizontal brackets, they extend between two bar lines rather than two notes. The text is displayed in the center of the bracket.

\paper { tagline = ##f }

\layout {
  \context {
    \Staff
    \consists Measure_spanner_engraver
  }
}

<<
  \new Staff \relative c'' {
    \key d \minor
    R1*2
    \tweak text "Answer"
    \startMeasureSpanner
    \tuplet 3/2 8 {
      a16[ b c] d[ c b]  c[ d e] f[ e d]
    }
    e8 a gis g
    fis f e d~ d c b e
    \stopMeasureSpanner
  }
  \new Staff \relative c' {
    \key d \minor
    \tweak text "Subject"
    \tweak direction #DOWN
    \startMeasureSpanner
    \tuplet 3/2 8 {
      d16[ e f] g[ f e] f[ g a] bes[ a g]
    }
    a8 d cis c
    b bes a g~ g f e a
    \stopMeasureSpanner
    \tweak text "Counter-subject"
    \tweak direction #DOWN
    \startMeasureSpanner
    f8 e a r r16 b, c d e fis g e
    a gis a b c fis, b a gis e a4 g8
    \stopMeasureSpanner
  }
>>

[image of music]

See also

Internals Reference: Horizontal_bracket_engraver, HorizontalBracket, horizontal-bracket-interface, HorizontalBracketText, horizontal-bracket-text-interface, Measure_spanner_engraver, MeasureSpanner, measure-spanner-interface, Staff.


LilyPond Notation Reference v2.25.17 (development-branch).