### 1.1.1 Writing pitches

This section discusses how to input pitches. There are two different ways to place notes in octaves: absolute and relative mode. In most cases, relative mode will be more convenient.

#### Absolute octave entry

A pitch name is specified using lowercase letters `a` through `g`. The note names `c` to `b` are engraved in the octave below middle C.

```{
\clef bass
c4 d e f
g4 a b c
d4 e f g
}
```

Other octaves may be specified with a single quote (`'`) or comma (`,`) character. Each `'` raises the pitch by one octave; each `,` lowers the pitch by an octave.

```{
\clef treble
c'4 e' g' c''
c'4 g b c'
\clef bass
c,4 e, g, c
c,4 g,, b,, c,
}
```

Common octave marks can be entered just once on a reference pitch after `\fixed` placed before the music. Pitches inside `\fixed` only need `'` or `,` marks when they are above or below the octave of the reference pitch.

```{
\fixed c' {
\clef treble
c4 e g c'
c4 g, b, c
}
\clef bass
\fixed c, {
c4 e g c'
c4 g, b, c
}
}
```

Pitches in the music expression following `\fixed` are unaffected by any enclosing `\relative`, discussed next.

Music Glossary: Pitch names.

Snippets: Pitches.

#### Relative octave entry

Absolute octave entry requires specifying the octave for every single note. Relative octave entry, in contrast, specifies each octave in relation to the last note: changing one note’s octave will affect all of the following notes.

Relative note mode has to be entered explicitly using the `\relative` command:

```\relative startpitch musicexpr
```

In relative mode, each note is assumed to be as close to the previous note as possible. This means that the octave of each pitch inside `musicexpr` is calculated as follows:

• If no octave changing mark is used on a pitch, its octave is calculated so that the interval with the previous note is less than a fifth. This interval is determined without considering accidentals.
• An octave changing mark `'` or `,` can be added to respectively raise or lower a pitch by an extra octave, relative to the pitch calculated without an octave mark.
• Multiple octave changing marks can be used. For example, `''` and `,,` will alter the pitch by two octaves.
• The pitch of the first note is relative to `startpitch`. `startpitch` is specified in absolute octave mode. Which choices are meaningful?
an octave of `c`

Identifying middle C with `c'` is quite basic, so finding octaves of `c` tends to be straightforward. If your music starts with `gis` above `c'''`, you’d write something like `\relative c''' { gis' … }`

an octave of the first note inside

Writing `\relative gis''' { gis … }` makes it easy to determine the absolute pitch of the first note inside.

no explicit starting pitch

The form `\relative { gis''' … }` serves as a compact version of the previous option: the first note inside is written in absolute pitch itself. (This happens to be equivalent to choosing `f` as the reference pitch.)

The documentation will usually employ the last option.

Here is the relative mode shown in action:

```\relative {
\clef bass
c d e f
g a b c
d e f g
}
```

Octave changing marks are used for intervals greater than a fourth:

```\relative {
c'' g c f,
c' a, e'' c
}
```

A note sequence without a single octave mark can nevertheless span large intervals:

```\relative {
c f b e
a d g c
}
```

When `\relative` blocks are nested, the innermost `\relative` block starts with its own reference pitch independently of the outer `\relative`.

```\relative {
c' d e f
\relative {
c'' d e f
}
}
```

`\relative` has no effect on `\chordmode` blocks.

```\new Staff {
\relative c''' {
\chordmode { c1 }
}
\chordmode { c1 }
}
```

`\relative` is not allowed inside of `\chordmode` blocks.

Music inside a `\transpose` block is absolute unless a `\relative` is included.

```\relative {
d' e
\transpose f g {
d e
\relative {
d' e
}
}
}
```

If the preceding item is a chord, the first note of the chord is used as the reference point for the octave placement of a following note or chord. Inside chords, the next note is always relative to the preceding one. Examine the next example carefully, paying attention to the `c` notes.

```\relative {
c'
<c e g>
<c' e g'>
<c, e, g''>
}
```

As explained above, the octave of pitches is calculated only with the note names, regardless of any alterations. Therefore, an E-double-sharp following a B will be placed higher, while an F-double-flat will be placed lower. In other words, a double-augmented fourth is considered a smaller interval than a double-diminished fifth, regardless of the number of semitones that each interval contains.

```\relative {
c''2 fis
c2 ges
b2 eisis
b2 feses
}
```

In complex situations, it is sometimes useful to get back to a certain pitch regardless of what happened before. This can be done using `\resetRelativeOctave`:

```\relative {
<<
{ c''2 d }
\\
{ e,,2 f }
>>
\resetRelativeOctave c''
c2
}
```

Music Glossary: fifth, interval, Pitch names.

Notation Reference: Octave checks.

Snippets: Pitches.

Internals Reference: RelativeOctaveMusic.

#### Accidentals

Note: New users are sometimes confused about accidentals and key signatures. In LilyPond, note names specify pitches; key signatures and clefs determine how these pitches are displayed. An unaltered note like `c` means ‘C natural’, regardless of the key signature or clef. For more information, see Pitches and key signatures.

A sharp pitch is made by adding `is` to the note name, and a flat pitch by adding `es`. As you might expect, a double sharp or double flat is made by adding `isis` or `eses`. This syntax is derived from Dutch note naming conventions. To use other names for accidentals, see Note names in other languages.

```\relative c'' { ais1 aes aisis aeses }
```

A natural pitch is entered as a simple note name; no suffix is required. A natural sign will be printed when needed to cancel the effect of an earlier accidental or key signature.

```\relative c'' { a4 aes a2 }
```

Quarter tones may be added; the following is a series of Cs with increasing pitches:

```\relative c'' { ceseh1 ces ceh c cih cis cisih }
```

Normally accidentals are printed automatically, but you may also print them manually. A reminder accidental can be forced by adding an exclamation mark `!` after the pitch. A cautionary accidental (i.e., an accidental within parentheses) can be obtained by adding the question mark `?` after the pitch.

```\relative c'' { cis cis cis! cis? c c c! c? }
```

Accidentals on tied notes are only printed at the beginning of a new system:

```\relative c'' {
cis1~ 1~
\break
cis
}
```

#### Hiding accidentals on tied notes at the start of a new system

This shows how to hide accidentals on tied notes at the start of a new system.

```\relative c'' {
\override Accidental.hide-tied-accidental-after-break = ##t
cis1~ cis~
\break
cis
}
```

#### Preventing extra naturals from being automatically added

In accordance with traditional typesetting rules, a natural sign is printed before a sharp or flat if a previous double sharp or flat on the same note is canceled. To change this behavior to contemporary practice, set the `extraNatural` property to `f` in the `Staff` context.

```\relative c'' {
aeses4 aes ais a
\set Staff.extraNatural = ##f
aeses4 aes ais a
}
```

Music Glossary: sharp, flat, double sharp, double flat, Pitch names, quarter tone.

Learning Manual: Pitches and key signatures.

Snippets: Pitches.

Internals Reference: Accidental_engraver, Accidental, AccidentalCautionary, accidental-interface.

#### Known issues and warnings

There are no generally accepted standards for denoting quarter tone accidentals, so LilyPond’s symbols do not conform to any standard.

#### Note names in other languages

There are predefined sets of note and accidental names for various other languages. Selecting the note name language is usually done at the beginning of the file; the following example is written using Italian note names:

```\language "italiano"

\relative {
do' re mi sib
}
```

The available languages and the note names they define are:

LanguageNote Names
`nederlands``c` `d` `e` `f` `g` `a` `bes` `b`
`català` or
`catalan`
`do` `re` `mi` `fa` `sol` `la` `sib` `si`
`deutsch``c` `d` `e` `f` `g` `a` `b` `h`
`english``c` `d` `e` `f` `g` `a` `bf`/`b-flat` `b`
`español` or
`espanol`
`do` `re` `mi` `fa` `sol` `la` `sib` `si`
`français``do` `ré`/`re` `mi` `fa` `sol` `la` `sib` `si`
`italiano``do` `re` `mi` `fa` `sol` `la` `sib` `si`
`norsk``c` `d` `e` `f` `g` `a` `b` `h`
`português` or
`portugues`
`do` `re` `mi` `fa` `sol` `la` `sib` `si`
`suomi``c` `d` `e` `f` `g` `a` `b` `h`
`svenska``c` `d` `e` `f` `g` `a` `b` `h`
`vlaams``do` `re` `mi` `fa` `sol` `la` `sib` `si`

In addition to note names, accidental suffixes may also vary depending on the language:

Languagesharpflatdouble sharpdouble flat
`nederlands``is``es``isis``eses`
`català` or
`catalan`
`d`/`s``b``dd`/`ss``bb`
`deutsch``is``es``isis``eses`
`english``s`/`-sharp``f`/`-flat``ss`/`x`/`-sharpsharp``ff`/`-flatflat`
`español` or
`espanol`
`s``b``ss`/`x``bb`
`français``d``b``dd`/`x``bb`
`italiano``d``b``dd``bb`
`norsk``iss`/`is``ess`/`es``ississ`/`isis``essess`/`eses`
`português` or
`portugues`
`s``b``ss``bb`
`suomi``is``es``isis``eses`
`svenska``iss``ess``ississ``essess`
`vlaams``k``b``kk``bb`

In Dutch, German, Norwegian, and Finnish, `aes` is contracted to `as`; in Dutch and Norwegian, however, both forms are accepted by LilyPond. Exactly the same holds for `es` and `ees`, `aeses` and `ases`, and finally `eeses` and `eses`.

In German and Finnish, LilyPond additionally provides the more frequent form `asas` for `ases`.

```\relative c'' { a2 as e es a ases e eses }
```

Some music uses microtones whose alterations are fractions of a ‘normal’ sharp or flat. The following table lists note name suffixes for quarter tone accidentals; here the prefixes semi- and sesqui- respectively mean ‘half’ and ‘one and a half’.

Languagesemi-sharpsemi-flatsesqui-sharpsesqui-flat
`nederlands``ih``eh``isih``eseh`
`català` or
`catalan`
`qd`/`qs``qb``tqd`/`tqs``tqb`
`deutsch``ih``eh``isih``eseh`
`english``qs``qf``tqs``tqf`
`español` or
`espanol`
`cs``cb``tcs``tcb`
`français``sd``sb``dsd``bsb`
`italiano``sd``sb``dsd``bsb`
`norsk``ih``eh``issih`/`isih``esseh`/`eseh`
`português` or
`portugues`
`sqt``bqt``stqt``btqt`
`suomi``ih``eh``isih``eseh`
`svenska``ih``eh``issih``esseh`
`vlaams``hk``hb``khk``bhb`

In German, there are similar name contractions for microtones as with normal pitches described above.

```\language "deutsch"

\relative c'' { asah2 eh aih eisih }
```

Most languages presented here are commonly associated with Western classical music, also referred to as Common Practice Period. However, alternate pitches and tuning systems are also supported: see Common notation for non-Western music.