于是，LilyPond 诞生了！这个系统把音乐家从繁琐的排版细节中释放出来，让他们能够专注于音乐制作。LilyPond 与音乐家携手，秉承古典音乐传统雕版印刷术最优良的传统，共同打造具有最高出版质量的乐谱。
|特色||What can LilyPond do?|
|例子||I want to see some music!|
|自由||Freedom and the GPL.|
|制作||Real-life use of LilyPond.|
|评价||What do people say about it?|
|文本输入||You write music as text?!|
|编辑更简单||Other ways of working with LilyPond.|
LilyPond allows musicians to produce elegant sheet music that is easy to read. Its developer community has spent thousands of hours developing powerful music engraving software that results in beautifully engraved music. All of LilyPond’s style settings, font designs and algorithms have been inspired by the finest hand-engraved music. LilyPond output has the same strong, balanced and elegant look as the best-engraved classical scores. This is further explained in our 文章.
Spend less time with tweaking the output; LilyPond gets the formatting correct right from the start. It determines spacing by itself, and breaks lines and pages to provide a tight and uniform layout. Clashes between lyrics, notes, and chords are resolved and slurs and beams are sloped, automatically!
LilyPond takes ASCII input, which you can produce in your favorite text editor, quickly and comfortably. The input contains all the information, so there is no need to remember complex command sequences: simply save a file for later reference.
Put fragments of music into texts without cutting and pasting pictures. Integrate music into LaTeX or HTML seamlessly, or add music to OpenOffice.org with OOoLilyPond. Plugins are also available to allow LilyPond code in various blogs and wikis, making online collaboration possible.
Text-based input also makes score-writing possible for users with severe physical disabilities. Dexterity-impaired users who are unable to type or control a computer mouse can use speech-recognition software to edit LilyPond files. Even users who are totally blind can use screen-reading software to write LilyPond files – an impossible task in graphical-based score-writing programs.
All settings can be changed to suit your personal typographical taste. If that still is not enough, there is always the built-in scripting language Scheme, a dialect of the powerful language LISP. Settings, variables and functions are all documented in the comprehensive program reference manual.
它也是自由软件。It comes with source code, and permission to change and copy it. So, are you irritated by a bug, or yearning for a feature? Simply add it yourself, or pay someone else to do it.
LilyPond runs on all popular platforms: GNU/Linux, Mac OS X, and Windows. LilyPond comes with extensive documentation and 数以百计的范例文件。There is an active user community answering questions on the lilypond-user mailing list, while the development team makes sure that problems are solved quickly.
Several developers, themselves active LilyPond users, have also written tools specifically aimed at making the process of editing LilyPond files faster and more effective. For some examples, see 编辑更简单.
LilyPond is a powerful and flexible tool for engraving tasks of all kinds. Please browse our gallery of examples and be inspired!
This organ work by J.S. Bach is a fairly typical engraving project in LilyPond.
复杂的乐谱 Complex Notation
This example from Goyescas by Enrique Granados shows some of the more advanced features of typesetting, including kneed beams, cross-staff stems, and voice-follow lines.
LilyPond also supports various types of ancient notation, such as this passage of Gregorian chant.
Contemporary composers find LilyPond well-suited to displaying unusual notation. Here is an excerpt from Trevor Bača’s Čáry, for unaccompanied bass flute.
Various performance materials can be created from the same source code. This is an excerpt of Nicolas Sceaux’s engraving of Handel’s Giulio Cesare, in full score, piano-vocal reduction, and a violin part.
TAB 吉他谱 (Tablature)
LilyPond 支持 TAB 吉他谱 (六线谱)，which can be customized to suit any instrument that reads from tablature. The tablature staff is generated automatically from notes entered for the 5-line staff.
Standard output can be modified heavily. Here is an impressive Schenkerian analysis, created by Kris Schaffer, for an article in Linux Journal. The colors have been added for better visibility.
LilyPond is excellent for vocal music of all kinds, from sacred hymns to opera. Here is a 中世纪经文歌 with slightly unusual requirements. The tenor voice is written in a different meter than the others, but must line up as if it were in the same meter. LilyPond handles this most elegantly. Note also the incipits with Vaticana style clefs, the slashed stems indicating plicated notes, and the ligature braces above certain groups of notes.
It is simple to create pop lead sheets with melody, lyrics, chord names, and fretboards. In this example you see some of the predefined fretboard diagrams, but these can be heavily customized to suit nearly any situation.
LilyPond is excellent for large projects like operas or works for full symphony orchestra, as well. In addition, the text-based input provides greater accessibility – this example was contributed by Hu Haipeng, a blind composer.
GNU LilyPond is written and maintained by a community of enthusiasts. It is published under the GNU General Public License and the GNU Free Documentation License, giving everybody the freedom to fix, modify, and extend the program. Creating beautiful music should not require hundreds of dollars of software!
- No cost: download and try it out! What do you have to lose?
- Sharing: if you like the program, give a copy to 您的朋友， 老师、学生和同事！
- Source available: if you are curious about how LilyPond creates some notation, you can see exactly how it is done.
Extendible: you can add features, fix bugs, and change the
functionality. If you are not a programmer, you can hire somebody
to do those tasks.
This may not seem appealing to casual musicians, but the ability to extend software can be highly valuable to serious composers, companies, and academics.
- Future safety: if a commercial company goes bankrupt, what happens to any electronic music which depends on their products? This is not a concern with LilyPond; even if the entire development team quits (extremely unlikely), the program will still be legally available for copying, modifications, and distribution.
为什么 LilyPond 的开发者会无偿 “赠送” 他们的工作？
Most of us view LilyPond development as a hobby or volunteer work. So this question is really asking “why do people volunteer”?
- Fun: working towards a goal can be enjoyable, especially when you work as a team!
- Shared goals: we all want beautiful sheet music, but few people have the expertise (and nobody has the time!), to create a program which can handle all situations. By working together – one person improves the automatic beaming code, another person improves the shape of slurs, and a third person writes documentation explaining how to use these features – we can achieve our goal with only a fraction of the individual effort.
- “Gift culture”: the Free Software movement has created many great software projects, such as GNU/Linux, Mozilla Firefox, and Battle for Wesnoth. Having benefitted from these projects, some developers want to “give back” to the community.
- Work experience: contributing to free software projects is a great way to practice programming, documentation writing, documentation translation, or design. This experience has helped some developers gain job offers or scholarships.
We have an extensive essay describing computational aesthetics: the art of creating beauty with a computer.
If you just want a quick introduction to LilyPond, the essay might be too much material to read. If you would like to read it now, please progress to 文章.
LilyPond engravings have been used for performances around the world. Some highlights:
- Mussorgsky’s Pictures at an exhibition, re-orchestrated and conducted by Aurélien Bello with the Junge Philharmonie Brandenburg on Oct 10 2011 and again on Apr 15-16 2012.
- Kieren MacMillan, composer and musical director. His many, recent works include; Go Thy Way, performed by the Salt Lake Choral Artists in March 2012; The Just Out of Reach Suite performed by the Chrysalis Duo ; thrafsmata performed in July 2011 by the Pittsburgh New Music Ensemble.
- Anonymous Student Compliment or Complaint, by Mike Solomon, winner chosen from among 172 entries from 22 countries of the 2011 Left Coast Composition Contest. Other works include, Norman (age 1) for clarinet solo, performed at the University of Florida’s Electroacoustic Music Festival (FEMF), October 2010.
- A modern edition of the Serenata Erminia by Alessandro Scarlatti, edited by Thomas Griffin, Musicologist (意大利罗马). Performed on 22 October 2010 in the Galleria of the Palazzo Zevallos Stigliano, Naples, Italy. Alessandro Scarlatti 2010, in celebration of the composer’s 350th birthday.
- Mercury Baroque’s performance of Lully’s Armide, May 15-16, 2009, in Houston, Texas (engraving by Nicolas Sceaux).
- Instrumental excerpts from Rameau’s Hippolyte et Aricie at St. James’s Church in Manhattan, May 8, 2009, by Frederick Renz and his ensemble Early Music New York (engraving by Nicolas Sceaux).
- Affaire étrangère, an opera by Valentin Villenave to a French libretto by Lewis Trondheim, premiered February 1, 2009 at L’Opéra National de Montpellier, France.
- Mutopia Project, over 1500 pieces of classical sheet music for 免费下载, and the main showcase of LilyPond scores.
- Etude, “sheet music on steroids” is an iPhone app which displays piano music engraved with LilyPond, including many pieces from Mutopia. The app includes a virtual piano keyboard showing which keys to press to help beginners learn how to read sheet music.
- Adoro Music Publishing, high-quality scores of sacred music, available for immediate download or in traditional paper format.
- The Shady Lane Publishing, a “micro musical publishing house” whose goal is to promote a new form of musical economy closer to the musicians and music lovers.
Linux Magazine publishes an article titled Projects on the Move. It is an introductory article on MuseScore, LilyPond and Chordii. Author Carla Schroder states “LilyPond is driven from the command line, but don’t let the lack of a GUI scare you away; LilyPond is user-friendly and easy to learn”, and provides a hands-on example.
Peter Kirn, on the Create Digital Music website, publishes a LilyPond review. He takes a balanced view on usage, praises LilyPond’s high-quality notation and suggests to try it out.
德国的 LinuxUser 杂志写了一篇 关于 LilyPond 的文章。
Ann Drinan, on the Polyphonic.org website, presents comments by two orchestra librarians who talk about using software to maintain their libraries.
In an article published in the French National Conservatory Parent Association’s yearly magazine, French composer and LilyPond contributor Valentin Villenave explains how Free licenses, and specifically LilyPond-engraved scores, are instrumental in making written music accessible to all.
In articles on his personal site, Andrew Hawryluk compares Finale and LilyPond in general terms, and evaluates engraving capabilities of both pieces of software in detail. The second article is an instructive analysis of engraving issues in Rachmaninoff’s Piano Prelude No. 6, including comparisons with a hand-engraved reference edition.
DistroWatch awards LilyPond and writes “Ladies and Gentleman, we are pleased to announce that, based on readers’ requests, the DistroWatch May 2006 donation has been awarded to LilyPond (€190.00) and Lua (US$250.00).”
Linux Journal publishes an article titled Make Stunning Schenker Graphs with GNU LilyPond. It is an in-depth but hands-on feature article with crisp LilyPond graphics. Author Kris Shaffer remarks “GNU LilyPond generates beautiful graphics that make commercial alternatives seem second-rate.”
比利时报纸 De Standaard investigates what drives Free Software authors in an article titled Delen van KENNIS zonder WINSTBEJAG (Non-profit sharing of knowledge) in its ‘DS2 bijlage’. LilyPond is used as an example and the article is interspersed with quotes from an email interview with Jan Nieuwenhuizen. This marks LilyPond’s first appearance in mainstream printed press.
A French article on the LilyPond 2.6 release appeared on linuxfr.org.
The editors of Computer!Totaal, a Dutch computer magazine, describe LilyPond in the October 2004 issue as: “Wonderful free (open source) software [..] The sheet music produced by LilyPond is exceptionally pretty [..] a very powerful system that can do almost anything.”
- July, August 2004
Carter Brey，纽约爱乐乐团 (New York Philharmonic) 大提琴首席
“… I’ve written a couple of encore pieces for solo cello which I’ve printed with LilyPond and which I’m going to submit to Schirmer for publication. I’ll bet their engraved version wouldn’t look half as sharp as mine!”
Orm Finnendahl，弗莱堡音乐学院 (Musikhochschule Freiburg) 作曲教授
“Although I don’t know [LilyPond] very well yet, I’m *very impressed. I used the program to input a motet of Josquin Desprez in mensural notation and there’s no doubt that lilypond outscores all other notation programs easily concerning speed, ease of use and look!”
Darius Blasband，作曲家 (比利时布鲁塞尔)
“[..after the first orchestra rehearsal] I got numerous compliments about the quality of the scores. Even more importantly, while LilyPond provides numerous hacks to improve the way its scores look, what the orchestra got from me is basically the raw, untouched output.”
Kieren MacMillan, 作曲家 (加拿大多伦多)
“thanks and kudos to the development team for their incredible work. I’ve never seen anything approaching the output that I get from LilyPond – I’m totally confident that my music publishing needs will be fulfilled beyond my expectations using this great application. [..] basically untweaked LilyPond output [..] looks better than most recent ‘professional’ publications I’ve compared it to (q.v., just about any Warner Bros. score, and even many of the most recent by ‘the old houses’). [..]”
“Beat that, Finale/Sibelius/Igor/whatever!!!”
“LilyPond is obviously the zillion-ton gorilla [of great music typesetting].”
Chris Snyder, Adoro Music Publishing
“The way that music is entered for LilyPond causes me to think in a more musical way – there have been times when I’ve been stumped as to how to tell Lily to engrave something, only to realize that even if I did get it exactly as the composer wanted, the music would be confusing to read. LilyPond makes it much easier for me to work in my dual editor+engraver role.”
“I’ve been using LilyPond exclusively for my fledgling music publishing business. Virtually without exception, every composer has been blown away by the quality of the engraving when presented with the proofs of their music about to be published. I deserve some of the credit for this – I spend a lot of time tweaking output, especially ties (mainly in chords) – but LilyPond gives me an excellent starting point, a very intuitive interface, and the ability to modify absolutely anything if I want to take the time. I’m convinced that no commercial product can come close.”
David Bobroff, 冰岛交响乐团，低音长号手
“I think LilyPond is great [..] The more I learn about LilyPond the more I like it!”
Vaylor Trucks, Electric guitar player (Yes, related to)
“I am super impressed with LilyPond [..]”
“THIS IS THE BEST PROGRAM EVER!!!”
“Thank you all SO MUCH for your hard work and dedication!”
Nicolas Sceaux, Mutopia 贡献者
“I had a kind of hate-passion relationship with it. Passion because the first score I saw was so amazing! The description of LilyPond lies about its beautifulness, it is too modest! [..] as LilyPond is getting always better, and as I look closer how things are done in scheme, I have less and less frustrations. Anyway, what I mean is: thank you for providing LilyPond, it is really good.”
Werner Lemberg, Conductor at the Theatre in Koblenz, Germany and distinguished GNU Hacker
“Anyway, LilyPond does an amazingly good job!”
Paul Davis，JACK 和
“I think [LilyPond is] an incredible program, and it produces wonderful, wonderful output. when i read an interview about it last year, i was raving to several friends of mine about its potential.”
Dr. Mika Kuuskankare, researcher at the Sibelius Academy Finland, composer and author of Expressive Notation Package (ENP)
“I have the deepest respect towards LilyPond and towards its creators and maintainers as I know from personal experience how difficult this kind of software can be.”
David Cameron，音乐家、专业音乐制谱员，和 SCORE 打谱软件的长期用户
“My heartfelt thanks to everyone who contributes to this project. I was a power SCORE user for big typesetting houses way back in the ’90s, but I feel LilyPond finally makes it possible for me to get exactly what I want on the page, especially when it isn’t "standard" practice.”
LilyPond is a compiled system: it is run on a text file describing the music. The resulting output is viewed on-screen or printed. In some ways, LilyPond is more similar to a programming language than graphical score editing software.
You do not write music by dragging notes from a graphical toolbar and placing them on a dynamically refreshing score; you write music by typing text. This text is interpreted (or “compiled”) by LilyPond, which produces beautifully engraved sheet music.
People accustomed to graphical user interfaces might need to learn a new way of working, but the results are definitely worth it!
注意：We present a quick overview of our text input – it’s not as complicated as it sounds! Don’t worry about understanding every detail in these examples; our beginner documentation covers everything at a much more gradual pace.
就像 A B C 一样简单
Notes are encoded with letters and numbers. Special commands are entered with backslashes.
Alterations are made with different names: add
-es for flat (these are Dutch note names, other
languages are available). LilyPond figures out where to put
Put chords and lyrics together to get a lead sheet:
The input file contains the notes of piece of music. Score and parts can be made from a single input file, so that changing a note always affects the score and parts. To be able to include the same music in multiple places, the music is assigned to a “variable” (a name).
This variable is then used in a single part (here transposed, with condensed rests spanning several measures):
The same variable is used in the full score (here in concert pitch):
We realize that many users find this way of entering music a bit odd. For this reason, we have written extensive documentation to help new users, beginning with 学习. The Learning Manual is the best place to start, as many questions are answered before they come up!
Please read the Learning Manual before complaining about bugs! New users occasionally believe that LilyPond is not working correctly, when in fact it is working precisely as designed.
More in-depth information is available in 手册.
LilyPond is primarily concerned with producing top-quality engraved sheet music; creating a Graphical User Interface (GUI) would distract us from this goal. However, there are other projects aimed at making it easier to create LilyPond input files.
Some editing environments include syntax highlighting, automatic command completion, and pre-made templates. Other programs actually provide a GUI which allows direct manipulation of a graphical score. For more information, see 编辑更简单.
Created as a plugin for the jEdit text editor, LilyPondTool is one of the most feature-rich text-based tools for editing LilyPond scores. Its features include a Document Wizard with lyrics support to set up documents easier, and embedded PDF viewer with advanced point-and-click support.
Frescobaldi is lightweight, yet powerful LilyPond music and text editor with a built-in PDF viewer. It is easy to use and will run on all major operating systems (Linux, Mac OS X and Windows).
Denemo is a graphical editor which generates LilyPond source code, and also allows audio playback. It allows users to view the LilyPond source code in parallel to the graphical view. Extra LilyPond tweaks can be attached to notes, chords etc. and are stored with the Denemo file, so that users can continue to edit graphically.
Moving the cursor in the LilyPond text moves the cursor in the graphical view, and any syntax errors in your LilyPond tweaks are highlighted in the text view when printed from there.
Emacs is a text editor with language-sensitive capabilities for many different computer languages. Emacs is a highly extensible editor and can be used as an Integrated Development Environment. There is a ‘lilypond mode’ which supplies the language definitions for working with LilyPond source files. As well, one of our developers has written lyqi, an Emacs major mode.
Vim is a minimal text editor and is an extension of the older Unix
vi editor. It is also extensible and configurable.
As a general rule, if you are not already familiar with Emacs or Vim, then you would probably prefer to use a different editor for writing LilyPond input files.
More information on setting up Emacs and Vim can be found in Text editor support.
The TexShop editor for Mac OS X can be extended to run LilyPond,
convert-ly from within the editor,
using the extensions available at:
There is a LilyPond bundle for TextMate, a commercial editor for MacOS. It may be installed by running:
mkdir -p /Library/Application\ Support/TextMate/Bundles cd /Library/Application\ Support/TextMate/Bundles git clone http://github.com/textmate/lilypond.tmbundle.git
可以导出 LilyPond 代码的程序
Score, tab and MIDI editors (音符，谱号和 MIDI 编辑器：
- Canorus, a score editor, can also export to LilyPond, but is still beta-software. Testers are welcome, though.
- NtEd, a score editor based on the Cairo library, has experimental support for exporting to LilyPond.
- MuseScore, a score editor, has incomplete LilyPond export but is being actively developed.
- NW2LY is a C# program which converts a NoteWorthy song into LilyPond.
- Ripple is a program that helps create scores and parts, including a mode for mixing different musical works together in a single score or part.
- Rosegarden, an audio and MIDI sequencer, which also has a score editor for single-staff editing.
- Rumor, a realtime monophonic MIDI to LilyPond converter.
- TuxGuitar, a multitrack tablature editor and player, includes a score viewer and can export to LilyPond.
- Abjad, a Python API for Formalized Score Control designed to help composers build up complex pieces of LilyPond notation in an iterative and incremental way.
- FOMUS, a LISP library to generate music notation from computer music software environments.
- Strasheela, an environment built on top of the Mozart/Oz constraint programming language.