### 1.4.2 Short repeats

This section discusses how to input short repeats. Short repeats can take two forms: slashes or percent signs to represent repeats of a single note, a single measure or two measures, and tremolos otherwise.

#### Percent repeats

Repeated short patterns are printed once, and the repeated pattern is replaced with a special sign.

The syntax is

\repeat percent number musicexpr


where musicexpr is a music expression.

Patterns that are shorter than one measure are replaced by slashes.

\relative c'' {
\repeat percent 4 { c128 d e f }
\repeat percent 4 { c64 d e f }
\repeat percent 5 { c32 d e f }
\repeat percent 4 { c16 d e f }
\repeat percent 4 { c8 d }
\repeat percent 4 { c4 }
\repeat percent 2 { c2 }
}


Patterns of one or two measures are replaced by percent-like symbols.

\relative c'' {
\repeat percent 2 { c4 d e f }
\repeat percent 2 { c2 d }
\repeat percent 2 { c1 }
}


\relative {
\repeat percent 3 { c''4 d e f | c2 g' }
}


Note that the correct time offset to access the DoublePercentRepeat grob is the beginning of the repeat’s second bar, which can be easily achieved with \after.

\new Voice \with { \consists Balloon_engraver }
{ \after 1*3
\balloonGrobText DoublePercentRepeat #'(-1 . 2) "repeat"
\repeat percent 2 { g'1 | a'1 } }


Patterns that are shorter than one measure but contain mixed durations use a double-percent symbol.

\relative {
\repeat percent 4 { c''8. <d f>16 }
\repeat percent 2 { \tuplet 3/2 { r8 c d } e4 }
}


#### Percent repeat counter

Measure repeats of more than two repeats can get a counter when the convenient property is switched, as shown in this example:

\relative c'' {
\set countPercentRepeats = ##t
\repeat percent 4 { c1 }
}


#### Percent repeat count visibility

Percent repeat counters can be shown at regular intervals by setting the context property repeatCountVisibility.

\relative c'' {
\set countPercentRepeats = ##t
\set repeatCountVisibility = #(every-nth-repeat-count-visible 5)
\repeat percent 10 { c1 } \break
\set repeatCountVisibility = #(every-nth-repeat-count-visible 2)
\repeat percent 6 { c1 d1 }
}


#### Isolated percent repeats

Isolated percents can also be printed.

makePercent =
#(define-music-function (note) (ly:music?)
"Make a percent repeat the same length as NOTE."
(make-music 'PercentEvent
'length (ly:music-length note)))

\relative c'' {
\makePercent s1
}


Music Glossary: percent repeat, simile.

Snippets: Repeats.

#### Known issues and warnings

Percent repeats will not contain anything else apart from the percent sign itself; in particular, timing changes will not be repeated.

\repeat percent 3 { \time 5/4 c2. 2 \time 4/4 2 2 }


Any meter changes or \partial commands need to occur in parallel passages outside of any percent repeat, e.g in a separate timing track.

<<
\repeat percent 3 { c2. 2 2 2 }
\repeat unfold 3 { \time 5/4 s4*5 \time 4/4 s1 }
>>


#### Tremolo repeats

Tremolos can take two forms: alternation between two chords or two notes, and rapid repetition of a single note or chord. Tremolos consisting of an alternation are indicated by adding beams between the notes or chords being alternated, while tremolos consisting of the rapid repetition of a single note are indicated by adding beams or slashes to a single note.

To place tremolo marks between notes, use \repeat with tremolo style:

\relative c'' {
\repeat tremolo 8 { c16 d }
\repeat tremolo 6 { c16 d }
\repeat tremolo 2 { c16 d }
}


The \repeat tremolo syntax expects exactly two notes within the braces, and the number of repetitions must correspond to a note value that can be expressed with plain or dotted notes. Thus, \repeat tremolo 7 is valid and produces a double dotted note, but \repeat tremolo 9 is not.

The duration of the tremolo equals the duration of the braced expression multiplied by the number of repeats: \repeat tremolo 8 { c16 d16 } gives a whole note tremolo, notated as two whole notes joined by tremolo beams.

There are two ways to put tremolo marks on a single note. The \repeat tremolo syntax is also used here, in which case the note should not be surrounded by braces:

\repeat tremolo 4 c'16


The same output can be obtained by adding :N after the note, where N indicates the duration of the subdivision (it must be at least 8). If N is 8, one beam is added to the note’s stem. If N is omitted, the last value is used:

\relative {
c''2:8 c:32
c: c:
}


#### Cross-staff tremolos

Since \repeat tremolo expects exactly two musical arguments for chord tremolos, the note or chord which changes staff within a cross-staff tremolo should be placed inside curly braces together with its \change Staff command.

\new PianoStaff <<
\new Staff = "up" \relative c'' {
\key a \major
\time 3/8
s4.
}
\new Staff = "down" \relative c'' {
\key a \major
\time 3/8
\voiceOne
\repeat tremolo 6 {
<a e'>32
{
\change Staff = "up"
\voiceTwo
<cis a' dis>32
}
}
}
>>