Chords

Chord notation


通奏低音を音符の上か下に追加する

通奏低音を記述する際、BassFigureAlignmentPositioning.direction プロパティを定義することで (Staff コンテキストである必要があります)、数字を音符の上または下に配置することができます。セットできる選択肢は #UP (または #1), #CENTER (または #0), #DOWN (または #-1) です。

このプロパティはいつでも変更することができます。楽譜全体に変更を適用したくない場合は、\once \override を使用してください。

bass = {
  \clef bass
  g4 b, c d
  e d8 c d2
}

continuo = \figuremode {
  <_>4 <6>4 <5/>4
  \override Staff.BassFigureAlignmentPositioning.direction = #UP
  %\bassFigureStaffAlignmentUp
  < _+ >4 <6>
  \set Staff.useBassFigureExtenders = ##t
  \override Staff.BassFigureAlignmentPositioning.direction = #DOWN
  %\bassFigureStaffAlignmentDown
  <4>4. <4>8 <_+>4
}

\score {
  <<
    \new Staff = bassStaff \bass
    \context Staff = bassStaff \continuo
  >>
}

[image of music]


ChordNames コンテキストに小節線を追加する

ChordNames コンテキストに小節線を追加するには、Bar_engraver を追加します。

\new ChordNames \with {
  \override BarLine.bar-extent = #'(-2 . 2)
  \consists "Bar_engraver"
}

\chordmode {
  f1:maj7 f:7 bes:7
}

[image of music]


ギターのバレーコード (セーハ) の記譜法 (テキスト スパナを使用)

このスニペットでは、バレーコードやハーフ バレーコードを表示する方法を示しています (必要な方の行のコメントアウトを解除してください)。構文は以下の通りです: \bbarre #"fret_number" note(s)

%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%% %%%%%%%  Cut here ----- Start 'bbarred.ly'

%% C with slash -------------------------------
cWithSlash = \markup {
  \combine \roman C \translate #'(0.6 . -0.4) \draw-line #'(0 . 2.0)
}
%% Span -----------------------------------
%% Syntax: \bbarre #"text" { notes } - text = any number of box
bbarre =
#(define-music-function (barre location str music) (string? ly:music?)
   (let ((elts (extract-named-music music 'rhythmic-event)))
     (if (pair? elts)
         (let ((first-element (first elts))
               (last-element (last elts)))
           (set! (ly:music-property first-element 'articulations)
                 (cons (make-music 'TextSpanEvent 'span-direction -1)
                       (ly:music-property first-element 'articulations)))
           (set! (ly:music-property last-element 'articulations)
                 (cons (make-music 'TextSpanEvent 'span-direction 1)
                       (ly:music-property last-element 'articulations))))))
   #{
       \once \override TextSpanner.font-size = #-2
       \once \override TextSpanner.font-shape = #'upright
       \once \override TextSpanner.staff-padding = #3
       \once \override TextSpanner.style = #'line
       \once \override TextSpanner.to-barline = ##f
       \once \override TextSpanner.bound-details =
            #`((left
                (text . ,#{ \markup { \draw-line #'( 0 . -.5) } #})
                (Y . 0)
                (padding . 0.25)
                (attach-dir . -2))
               (right
                (text . ,#{ \markup { \cWithSlash #str } #})
                (Y . 0)
                (padding . 0.25)
                (attach-dir . 2)))
%% uncomment this line for make full barred
      % \once \override TextSpanner.bound-details.left.text = \markup{"B" #str}
      $music
   #})

%% %%%%%%%  Cut here ----- End 'bbarred.ly'
%% Copy and change the last line for full barred. Rename in 'fbarred.ly'
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

%% Syntaxe: \bbarre #"text" { notes } - text = any number of box
\relative c'{ \clef "G_8" \stemUp \bbarre #"III" { <f a'>16[  c' d c d8] } }

[image of music]


コード ネームの区切り記号を変更する

コード ネームの異なる部分を区切る記号は、任意のマークアップに設定することができます。

\chords {
  c:7sus4
  \set chordNameSeparator
    = \markup { \typewriter | }
  c:7sus4
}

[image of music]


コード ネームをドイツ名や準ドイツ名に変更する

コード ネームの英語名をドイツ名 (\germanChords は B, Bes をそれぞれ H, B に変更します) または準ドイツ名 (\semiGermanChords は B と Bes をそれぞれ H と Bb に変更します) に変更することができます。

scm = \chordmode {
  c1/c | cis/cis
  b1/b | bis/bis | bes/bes
}


\layout {
  ragged-right = ##t
  \context {
    \ChordNames
    \consists "Instrument_name_engraver"
  }
}

<<
  \new ChordNames {
    \set instrumentName = #"default"
    \scm
  }
  \new ChordNames {
    \set instrumentName = #"german"
    \germanChords \scm
  }
  \new ChordNames {
    \set instrumentName = #"semi-german"
    \semiGermanChords \scm
  }
  \new ChordNames {
    \set instrumentName = #"italian"
    \italianChords \scm
  }
  \new ChordNames {
    \set instrumentName = #"french"
    \frenchChords \scm
  }
  \context Voice { \scm }
>>

[image of music]


通奏低音の変化記号の位置を変更する

数字付き低音の前後に表示される臨時記号やプラス記号は、その位置を figuredBassAlterationDirectionfiguredBassPlusDirection プロパティによって変更することができます。

\figures {
  <6\+> <5+> <6 4-> r
  \set figuredBassAlterationDirection = #RIGHT
  <6\+> <5+> <6 4-> r
  \set figuredBassPlusDirection = #RIGHT
  <6\+> <5+> <6 4-> r
  \set figuredBassAlterationDirection = #LEFT
  <6\+> <5+> <6 4-> r
}

[image of music]


コード ネームの例外

特殊なコードに対して専用の表記をするためのリストを保持するのが chordNameExceptions プロパティです。

% modify maj9 and 6(add9)
% Exception music is chords with markups
chExceptionMusic = {
  <c e g b d'>1-\markup { \super "maj9" }
  <c e g a d'>1-\markup { \super "6(add9)" }
}

% Convert music to list and prepend to existing exceptions.
chExceptions = #(append
  (sequential-music-to-chord-exceptions chExceptionMusic #t)
  ignatzekExceptions)

theMusic = \chordmode {
  g1:maj9 g1:6.9
  \set chordNameExceptions = #chExceptions
  g1:maj9 g1:6.9
}

\layout {
  ragged-right = ##t
}

<<
   \new ChordNames \theMusic
   \new Voice \theMusic
>>

[image of music]


メジャー セブンスのコード ネーム

メジャー セブンスのレイアウトは majorSevenSymbol で調整することができます。

\chords {
  c:7+
  \set majorSevenSymbol = \markup { j7 }
  c:7+
}

[image of music]


Chord names alternative

Chord names are generated from a list of pitches. The functions which construct these names can be customised.

Here are shown chords following Ignatzek (pp. 17-18, 1995), used by default since LilyPond 1.7.20, compared with an alternative Jazz chord notation and Harald Banter’s (1987) notation. A smaller font is used in the latter case, as these tend to be overly verbose.

This mirrors the mechanism originally used in early LilyPond versions (pre-1.7); not having been properly maintained, however, some features have been lost (mainly chord exception lists) and bugs have been introduced.

%%%% Legacy chord naming functions (formerly in scm/chord-generic-names.scm)
%%%% Copyright (C) 2003--2015 Jan Nieuwenhuizen <janneke@gnu.org>

#(set-global-staff-size 19.7)

#(define-public (banter-chordnames pitches bass inversion context)
  (old_chord->markup 'banter pitches bass inversion context))

#(define-public (jazz-chordnames pitches bass inversion context)
  (old_chord->markup 'jazz pitches bass inversion context))

#(define (define-translator-property symbol type? description)
  (if (not (and (symbol? symbol)
    (procedure? type?)
    (string? description)))
      (ly:error "error in call of define-translator-property"))
  (if (not (equal? (object-property symbol 'translation-doc) #f))
      (ly:error (G_ "symbol ~S redefined") symbol))

  (set-object-property! symbol 'translation-type? type?)
  (set-object-property! symbol 'translation-doc description)
  symbol)

#(for-each
  (lambda (x)
    (apply define-translator-property x))
  `((chordNameExceptionsFull ,list? "An alist of full chord
exceptions.  Contains @code{(@var{chord} . @var{markup})} entries.")
    (chordNameExceptionsPartial ,list? "An alist of partial chord
exceptions.  Contains @code{(@var{chord} . (@var{prefix-markup}
@var{suffix-markup}))} entries.")))

#(define-public (old_chord->markup
                style pitches bass inversion context)
  "Entry point for @code{Chord_name_engraver}.
@var{pitches}, @var{bass}, and @var{inversion} are lily pitches."
  (define (default-note-namer pitch)
    (note-name->markup pitch #f))

  (define (markup-or-empty-markup markup)
    "Return MARKUP if markup, else empty-markup"
    (if (markup? markup) markup empty-markup))

  (define (accidental->markup alteration)
    "Return accidental markup for ALTERATION."
    (if (= alteration 0)
        (make-line-markup (list empty-markup))
        (conditional-kern-before
         (alteration->text-accidental-markup alteration)
         (= alteration FLAT) 0.094725)))

  (define (list-minus a b)
    "Return list of elements in A that are not in B."
    (lset-difference eq? a b))

  (define (markup-join markups sep)
    "Return line-markup of MARKUPS, joining them with markup SEP"
    (if (pair? markups)
        (make-line-markup (list-insert-separator markups sep))
        empty-markup))

  (define (conditional-kern-before markup bool amount)
    "Add AMOUNT of space before MARKUP if BOOL is true."
    (if bool
        (make-line-markup
         (list (make-hspace-markup amount)
           markup))
        markup))

  (define (step-nr pitch)
    (let* ((pitch-nr (+ (* 7 (ly:pitch-octave pitch))
                        (ly:pitch-notename pitch)))
           (root-nr (+ (* 7 (ly:pitch-octave (car pitches)))
                       (ly:pitch-notename (car pitches)))))
      (+ 1 (- pitch-nr root-nr))))

  (define (next-third pitch)
    (ly:pitch-transpose pitch
                        (ly:make-pitch 0 2 (if (or (= (step-nr pitch) 3)
                                                   (= (step-nr pitch) 5))
                                               FLAT 0))))

  (define (step-alteration pitch)
    (let* ((diff (ly:pitch-diff (ly:make-pitch 0 0 0) (car pitches)))
           (normalized-pitch (ly:pitch-transpose pitch diff))
           (alteration (ly:pitch-alteration normalized-pitch)))
      (if (= (step-nr pitch) 7) (+ alteration SEMI-TONE) alteration)))

  (define (pitch-unalter pitch)
    (let ((alteration (step-alteration pitch)))
      (if (= alteration 0)
          pitch
          (ly:make-pitch (ly:pitch-octave pitch) (ly:pitch-notename pitch)
                         (- (ly:pitch-alteration pitch) alteration)))))

  (define (step-even-or-altered? pitch)
    (let ((nr (step-nr pitch)))
      (if (!= (modulo nr 2) 0)
          (!= (step-alteration pitch) 0)
          #t)))

  (define (step->markup-plusminus pitch)
    (let ((alt (step-alteration pitch)))
      (make-line-markup
       (list
        (number->string (step-nr pitch))
        (cond
         ((= alt DOUBLE-FLAT) "--")
         ((= alt FLAT) "-")
         ((= alt NATURAL) "")
         ((= alt SHARP) "+")
         ((= alt DOUBLE-SHARP) "++"))))))

  (define (step->markup-accidental pitch)
    (make-line-markup
     (list (accidental->markup (step-alteration pitch))
           (make-simple-markup (number->string (step-nr pitch))))))

  (define (step->markup-ignatzek pitch)
    (make-line-markup
     (if (and (= (step-nr pitch) 7)
              (= (step-alteration pitch) 1))
         (list (ly:context-property context 'majorSevenSymbol))
         (list (accidental->markup (step-alteration pitch))
               (make-simple-markup (number->string (step-nr pitch)))))))

  ;; tja, kennok
  (define (make-sub->markup step->markup)
    (lambda (pitch)
      (make-line-markup (list (make-simple-markup "no")
                              (step->markup pitch)))))

  (define (step-based-sub->markup step->markup pitch)
    (make-line-markup (list (make-simple-markup "no") (step->markup pitch))))

  (define (get-full-list pitch)
    (if (<= (step-nr pitch) (step-nr (last pitches)))
        (cons pitch (get-full-list (next-third pitch)))
        '()))

  (define (get-consecutive nr pitches)
    (if (pair? pitches)
        (let* ((pitch-nr (step-nr (car pitches)))
               (next-nr (if (!= (modulo pitch-nr 2) 0) (+ pitch-nr 2) nr)))
          (if (<= pitch-nr nr)
              (cons (car pitches) (get-consecutive next-nr (cdr pitches)))
              '()))
        '()))

  ;;; FIXME -- exceptions no longer work. -vv

  (define (full-match exceptions)
    (if (pair? exceptions)
        (let* ((e (car exceptions))
               (e-pitches (car e)))
          (if (equal? e-pitches pitches)
              e
              (full-match (cdr exceptions))))
        #f))

  (define (partial-match exceptions)
    (if (pair? exceptions)
        (let* ((e (car exceptions))
               (e-pitches (car e)))
          (if (equal? e-pitches (take pitches (length e-pitches)))
              e
              (partial-match (cdr exceptions))))
        #f))

  ;; FIXME: exceptions don’t work anyway.
  (if #f (begin
           (write-me "pitches: " pitches)))
  (let* ((full-exceptions
          (ly:context-property context 'chordNameExceptionsFull))
         (full-exception (full-match full-exceptions))
         (full-markup (if full-exception (cadr full-exception) '()))
         (partial-exceptions
          (ly:context-property context 'chordNameExceptionsPartial))
         (partial-exception (partial-match partial-exceptions))
         (partial-pitches (if partial-exception (car partial-exception) '()))
         (partial-markup-prefix
          (if partial-exception (markup-or-empty-markup
                                 (cadr partial-exception)) empty-markup))
         (partial-markup-suffix
          (if (and partial-exception (pair? (cddr partial-exception)))
              (markup-or-empty-markup (caddr partial-exception)) empty-markup))
         (root (car pitches))
         (full (get-full-list root))
         ;; kludge alert: replace partial matched lower part of all with
         ;; 'normal' pitches from full
         ;; (all pitches)
         (all (append (take full (length partial-pitches))
                      (drop pitches (length partial-pitches))))

         (highest (last all))
         (missing (list-minus full (map pitch-unalter all)))
         (consecutive (get-consecutive 1 all))
         (rest (list-minus all consecutive))
         (altered (filter step-even-or-altered? all))
         (cons-alt (filter step-even-or-altered? consecutive))
         (base (list-minus consecutive altered)))


    (if #f (begin
             (write-me "full:" full)
             ;; (write-me "partial-pitches:" partial-pitches)
             (write-me "full-markup:" full-markup)
             (write-me "partial-markup-perfix:" partial-markup-prefix)
             (write-me "partial-markup-suffix:" partial-markup-suffix)
             (write-me "all:" all)
             (write-me "altered:" altered)
             (write-me "missing:" missing)
             (write-me "consecutive:" consecutive)
             (write-me "rest:" rest)
             (write-me "base:" base)))

    (case style
      ((banter)
       ;;    root
       ;;    + steps:altered + (highest all -- if not altered)
       ;;    + subs:missing

       (let* ((root->markup default-note-namer)
              (step->markup step->markup-plusminus)
              (sub->markup (lambda (x)
                              (step-based-sub->markup step->markup x)))
              (sep (make-simple-markup "/")))

         (if
          (pair? full-markup)
          (make-line-markup (list (root->markup root) full-markup))

          (make-line-markup
           (list
            (root->markup root)
            partial-markup-prefix
            (make-super-markup
             (markup-join
              (append
               (map step->markup
                    (append altered
                            (if (and (> (step-nr highest) 5)
                                     (not
                                      (step-even-or-altered? highest)))
                                (list highest) '())))
               (list partial-markup-suffix)
               (map sub->markup missing))
              sep)))))))


      ((jazz)
       ;;    root
       ;;    + steps:(highest base) + cons-alt
       ;;    + 'add'
       ;;    + steps:rest
       (let* ((root->markup default-note-namer)
              (step->markup step->markup-ignatzek)
              (sep (make-simple-markup " "))
              (add-prefix (make-simple-markup " add")))

         (if
          (pair? full-markup)
          (make-line-markup (list (root->markup root) full-markup))

          (make-line-markup
           (list
            (root->markup root)
            partial-markup-prefix
            (make-super-markup
             (make-line-markup
              (list

               ;; kludge alert: omit <= 5
               ;;(markup-join (map step->markup
               ;;                        (cons (last base) cons-alt)) sep)

               ;; This fixes:
               ;;  c     C5       -> C
               ;;  c:2   C5 2     -> C2
               ;;  c:3-  Cm5      -> Cm
               ;;  c:6.9 C5 6add9 -> C6 add 9 (add?)
               ;;  ch = \chords { c c:2 c:3- c:6.9^7 }
               (markup-join (map step->markup
                                 (let ((tb (last base)))
                                   (if (> (step-nr tb) 5)
                                       (cons tb cons-alt)
                                       cons-alt))) sep)

               (if (pair? rest)
                   add-prefix
                   empty-markup)
               (markup-join (map step->markup rest) sep)
               partial-markup-suffix))))))))

      (else empty-markup))))


%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%%%%
%%%% Here begins the actual snippet:

chs = \transpose c' c' {
  <c e g>1
  <c es g>  % m = minor triad
  <c e gis>
  <c es ges> \break
  <c e g bes>
  <c es g bes>
  <c e g b>  % triangle = maj
  <c es ges beses>
  <c es ges b> \break
  <c e gis bes>
  <c es g b>
  <c e gis b>
  <c es ges bes> \break
  <c e g a>  % 6 = major triad with added sixth
  <c es g a>  % m6 = minor triad with added sixth
  <c e g bes d'>
  <c es g bes d'> \break
  <c es g bes d' f' a' >
  <c es g bes d' f' >
  <c es ges bes d' >
  <c e g bes des' > \break
  <c e g bes dis'>
  <c e g bes d' f'>
  <c e g bes d' fis'>
  <c e g bes d' f' a'> \break
  <c e g bes d' fis' as'>
  <c e gis bes dis'>
  <c e g bes dis' fis'>
  <c e g bes d' f' as'> \break
  <c e g bes des' f' as'>
  <c e g bes d' fis'>
  <c e g b d'>
  <c e g bes d' f' as'> \break
  <c e g bes des' f' as'>
  <c e g bes des' f' a'>
  <c e g b d'>
  <c e g b d' f' a'> \break
  <c e g b d' fis'>
  <c e g bes des' f ' a'>
  <c f g>
  <c f g bes> \break
  <c f g bes d'>
  <c e g d'>  % add9
  <c es g f'>
  <c e g b fis'>  % Lydian
  <c e g bes des' ees' fis' aes'>  % altered chord
}


%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
% alternate Jazz notation

efullmusicJazzAlt = {
  <c e gis>1-\markup { "+" }
  <c e g b>-\markup {
    \normal-size-super
    % \override #'(font-family . math) "N"
    \override #'(font-family . math) "M"
  }
  %%c:3.5.7 = \markup { \override #'(font-family . math) "M" }
  %%c:3.5.7 = \markup { \normal-size-super "maj7" }

  <c es ges>-\markup { \super "o" }  % should be $\circ$ ?
  <c es ges bes>-\markup { \super \combine "o" "/" }
  <c es ges beses>-\markup { \super  "o7" }
}

efullJazzAlt = #(sequential-music-to-chord-exceptions efullmusicJazzAlt #f)

epartialmusicJazzAlt = {
  <c d>1-\markup { \normal-size-super "2" }
  <c es>-\markup { "m" }
  <c f>-\markup { \normal-size-super "sus4" }
  <c g>-\markup { \normal-size-super "5" }
  %% TODO, partial exceptions
  <c es f>-\markup { "m" }-\markup { \normal-size-super "sus4" }
  <c d es>-\markup { "m" }-\markup { \normal-size-super "sus2" }
}

epartialJazzAlt = #(sequential-music-to-chord-exceptions epartialmusicJazzAlt #f)

%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

\score {
  <<
    \new ChordNames {
      %% Already set by default:
      %\set chordNameFunction = #ignatzek-chord-names
      \set instrumentName = "Ignatzek"
      \set shortInstrumentName = "Def"
      \chs
    }

    \new ChordNames {
      \set chordNameFunction = #jazz-chordnames
      \set majorSevenSymbol = \whiteTriangleMarkup
      \set chordNameSeparator = "/"
      \set chordNameExceptionsFull = \efullJazzAlt
      \set chordNameExceptionsPartial = \epartialJazzAlt
      \set instrumentName = "Alternative"
      \set shortInstrumentName = "Alt"
      \chs
    }

    %% This is the Banter (1987) style.  It gives exceedingly
    %% verbose (wide) names, making the output file take up to 4 pages.

    \new ChordNames {
      \set chordNameFunction = #banter-chordnames
      \override ChordName.font-size = #-3
      \set instrumentName = "Banter"
      \set shortInstrumentName = "Ban"
      \chs
    }

  \new Staff \transpose c c' { \chs }
  >>
  \layout {
    #(layout-set-staff-size 16)
    system-system-spacing.basic-distance = #0
    \context {
      \ChordNames
      \consists "Instrument_name_engraver"
    }
    \context {
      \Score
      \remove "Bar_number_engraver"
    }
  }
}

[image of music]


Chords with stretched fingering for FretBoards and TabVoice

Sometimes chords with a stretched fingering are required. If not otherwise specified the context-property maximumFretStretch is set to 4, though. Resulting in a warning about "No string for pitch ..." and the note is omitted. You may set maximumFretStretch to an approppriate value or explecitely assign string-numbers to all notes of a chord.

%% The code below will print two warnings, which may be omitted by uncommenting:
%#(for-each (lambda (x) (ly:expect-warning "No string for pitch")) (iota 2))

mus = {
  <c' bes'>
  <c'\2 bes'>
  \set maximumFretStretch = 5
  <c' bes'>
  <c'\2 bes'\1>
}

<<
  \new FretBoards \mus
  \new TabVoice \mus
>>

[image of music]


クラスタ

クラスタは、範囲内の音符が同時に演奏されることを示す手段です。

fragment = \relative c' {
  c4 f <e d'>4
  <g a>8 <e a> a4 c2 <d b>4
  e2 c
}

<<
  \new Staff \fragment
  \new Staff \makeClusters \fragment
>>

[image of music]


和音内の運指記号の位置をコントロールする

運指番号の位置を精密にコントロールすることができます。位置の設定が適用されるためには、単一の音符であっても和音構造 <> を用いる必要があります。

\relative c' {
  \set fingeringOrientations = #'(left)
  <c-1 e-3 a-5>4
  \set fingeringOrientations = #'(down)
  <c-1 e-3 a-5>4
  \set fingeringOrientations = #'(down right up)
  <c-1 e-3 a-5>4
  \set fingeringOrientations = #'(up)
  <c-1 e-3 a-5>4
  \set fingeringOrientations = #'(left)
  <c-1>2
  \set fingeringOrientations = #'(down)
  <e-3>2
  \set stringNumberOrientations = #'(up left down)
  <f\3 a\2 c\1>1
  \set strokeFingerOrientations = #'(down right up)
  <c\rightHandFinger #1 e\rightHandFinger #2 c'\rightHandFinger #4 >
}

[image of music]


譜をまたがる和音 – 連桁との問題を解決する

譜をまたがる和音を作成する際に、連桁の衝突に関する問題が起きないように上の譜の符幹を下向きに伸ばした方が良い場合があります。次の例で下の譜の符幹を伸ばそうとした場合、\override Staff.Beam.collision-voice-only = ##t を用いて、譜を越えた衝突を検出しないように、連桁の自動衝突解決の設定を変更する必要があります。

\new PianoStaff <<
  \new Staff = up
    \relative c' {
      <<
        { r4
          \override Stem.cross-staff = ##t
          \override Stem.length = #19 % this is in half-spaces,
              % so it makes stems 9.5 staffspaces long
          \override Stem.Y-offset = #-6 % stems are normally lengthened
              % upwards, so here we must lower the stem by the amount
              % equal to the lengthening - in this case (19 - 7) / 2
              % (7 is default stem length)
          e e e }
        { s4
          \change Staff = "bottom"
          \override NoteColumn.ignore-collision = ##t
          c, c c
        }
      >>
    }
  \new Staff = bottom
    \relative c' {
      \clef bass
      \voiceOne
      g8 a g a g a g a
    }
>>

[image of music]


Customing the chord grid style

Custom divisions of chord squares can be defined through the measure-division-lines-alist and measure-division-chord-placement-alist properties of ChordSquare. These are both alists. Their keys are measure divisions, namely lists which give the fraction of the measure that each chord (or rest, or skip) represents. More precisely, a measure division alist is made of positive, exact numbers adding up to 1, for example: '(1/2 1/4 1/4). The exactness requirement means that, e.g., 1/2 is valid but not 0.5.

The values in measure-division-lines-alist are lists of lines, which are represented as (x1 y1 x2 y2). The line starts at the point (x1 . y1) and ends at (x2 . y2). Coordinates are expressed in the [-1, 1] scale relative to the extent of the square.

The values in measure-division-chord-placement-alist are lists of (x . y) pairs giving the placement of the respective chords.

This example defines a peculiar chord grid style that has a rule for measures divided in three equal parts.

\paper {
  line-width = 10\cm
  ragged-right = ##f
}

\new ChordGrid \with {
  \override ChordSquare.measure-division-lines-alist =
    #'(((1) . ())
       ((1/3 1/3 1/3) . ((-1 -0.4 0 1) (0 -1 1 0.4))))
  \override ChordSquare.measure-division-chord-placement-alist =
    #'(((1) . ((0 . 0)))
       ((1/3 1/3 1/3) . ((-0.7 . 0.5) (0 . 0) (0.7 . -0.5))))
}
\chordmode {
  \time 3/4
  c2.
  c4 c4 c4
}

[image of music]


Customizing the no-chord symbol

By default, rests in a ChordNames context cause the “N.C.” symbol to be printed. This markup can be customized.

<<
  \chords {
    R1
    \set noChordSymbol = "—"
    R1
    \set noChordSymbol = \markup \italic "Ssh!"
    R1
  }
  {
    R1*3
  }
>>

[image of music]


複雑な和音を表示する

同じ位置にあり臨時記号が異なる音符を含む和音を表示する方法です。

fixA = {
  \once \override Stem.length = #11
}

fixB = {
  \once \override NoteHead.X-offset = #1.7
  \once \override Stem.length = #7
  \once \override Stem.rotation = #'(45 0 0)
  \once \override Stem.extra-offset = #'(-0.1 . -0.2)
  \once \override Flag.style = #'no-flag
  \once \override Accidental.extra-offset = #'(4 . -.1)
}


\relative c' {
  << { \fixA <b d!>8 } \\ { \voiceThree \fixB dis } >> s
}

[image of music]


通奏低音の延長線を一部だけ途切れさせる

通奏低音では、音の持続を表すために延長線を用いることがあります。しかしながら、これを有効にすると、LilyPond では延長線が使用できる場合には必ず使用するようになります。延長線の区切れを明示するには、新たに始めたい数字の前にある数字に \! を付加します。

bassfigures = \figuremode {
  \set useBassFigureExtenders = ##t
  <6 4>4 <6 4\!> <6 4\!> <6 4\!> |  <6\! 4\!>  <6 4> <6 4\!> <6 4>
}

<<
  \new Staff \relative c'' { c1 c1 }
  \new FiguredBass \bassfigures
>>

[image of music]


Print ChordNames with same root and different bass as slash and bass-note

To print subsequent ChordNames only differing in its bass note as slash and bass note use the here defined engraver. The behaviour may be controlled in detail by the chordChanges context property.

#(define Bass_changes_equal_root_engraver
  (lambda (ctx)
  "For sequential @code{ChordNames} with same root, but different bass, the root
markup is dropped: D D/C D/B  -> D /C /B
The behaviour may be controlled by setting the @code{chordChanges}
context-property."
    (let ((chord-pitches '())
          (last-chord-pitches '())
          (bass-pitch #f))
      (make-engraver
        ((initialize this-engraver)
          (let ((chord-note-namer (ly:context-property ctx 'chordNoteNamer)))
            ;; Set 'chordNoteNamer, respect user setting if already done
            (ly:context-set-property! ctx 'chordNoteNamer
              (if (procedure? chord-note-namer)
                  chord-note-namer
                  note-name->markup))))
        (listeners
          ((note-event this-engraver event)
            (let* ((pitch (ly:event-property event 'pitch))
                   (pitch-name (ly:pitch-notename pitch))
                   (pitch-alt (ly:pitch-alteration pitch))
                   (bass (ly:event-property event 'bass #f))
                   (inversion (ly:event-property event 'inversion #f)))
            ;; Collect notes of the chord
            ;;  - to compare inversed chords we need to collect the bass note
            ;;    as usual member of the chord, whereas an added bass must be
            ;;    treated separate from the usual chord-notes
            ;;  - notes are stored as pairs containing their
            ;;    pitch-name (an integer), i.e. disregarding their octave and
            ;;    their alteration
            (cond (bass (set! bass-pitch pitch))
                  (inversion
                    (set! bass-pitch pitch)
                    (set! chord-pitches
                          (cons (cons pitch-name pitch-alt) chord-pitches)))
                  (else
                    (set! chord-pitches
                          (cons (cons pitch-name pitch-alt) chord-pitches)))))))
        (acknowledgers
          ((chord-name-interface this-engraver grob source-engraver)
            (let ((chord-changes (ly:context-property ctx 'chordChanges #f)))
              ;; If subsequent chords are equal apart from their bass,
              ;; reset the 'text-property.
              ;; Equality is done by comparing the sorted lists of this chord's
              ;; elements and the previous chord. Sorting is needed because
              ;; inverted chords may have a different order of pitches.
              ;; `chord-changes' needs to be true
              (if (and bass-pitch
                       chord-changes
                       (equal?
                         (sort chord-pitches car<)
                         (sort last-chord-pitches car<)))
                  (ly:grob-set-property! grob 'text
                    (make-line-markup
                      (list
                        (ly:context-property ctx 'slashChordSeparator)
                        ((ly:context-property ctx 'chordNoteNamer)
                         bass-pitch
                         (ly:context-property ctx 'chordNameLowercaseMinor))))))
              (set! last-chord-pitches chord-pitches)
              (set! chord-pitches '())
              (set! bass-pitch #f))))
        ((finalize this-engraver)
          (set! last-chord-pitches '()))))))

myChords = \chordmode {
  %\germanChords

  \set chordChanges = ##t
  d2:m d:m/cis

  d:m/c
  \set chordChanges = ##f
  d:m/b

  e1:7
  \set chordChanges = ##t
  e
  \break
  \once \set chordChanges = ##f
  e1/f
  e2/gis e/+gis e e:m/f d:m d:m/cis d:m/c
  \set chordChanges = ##f
  d:m/b
}

<<
  \new ChordNames
    \with { \consists #Bass_changes_equal_root_engraver }
    \myChords
  \new Staff \myChords
>>

[image of music]


コード ネームを変更時のみ表示する

デフォルトでは、入力されたすべてのコードが出力されます。この動作を変更して、コード ネームが行頭とコード変更時にのみ表示されるようにすることができます。

harmonies = \chordmode {
  c1:m c:m \break c:m c:m d
}

<<
  \new ChordNames {
    \set chordChanges = ##t
    \harmonies
  }
  \new Staff {
    \relative c' { \harmonies }
  }
>>

[image of music]


シンプル リード シート

コード ネーム、メロディ、歌詞をまとめるとリード シートとなります:

<<
  \chords { c2 g:sus4 f e }
  \new Staff \relative c'' {
    a4 e c8 e r4
    b2 c4( d)
  }
  \addlyrics { One day this shall be free __ }
>>

[image of music]


音符、歌詞、コードを持つ単一譜のテンプレート

これは旋律、歌詞、コードを持つ歌曲の楽譜のためのテンプレートです。

melody = \relative c' {
  \clef treble
  \key c \major
  \time 4/4

  a4 b c d
}

text = \lyricmode {
  Aaa Bee Cee Dee
}

harmonies = \chordmode {
  a2 c
}

\score {
  <<
    \new ChordNames {
      \set chordChanges = ##t
      \harmonies
    }
    \new Voice = "one" { \autoBeamOff \melody }
    \new Lyrics \lyricsto "one" \text
  >>
  \layout { }
  \midi { }
}

[image of music]


音符、歌詞、コード ネーム、フレット図からなる単一譜のテンプレート

メロディ、歌詞、コード ネーム、フレット図からなるシンプルなリード シートのテンプレートです。

verseI = \lyricmode {
  \set stanza = #"1."
  This is the first verse
}

verseII = \lyricmode {
  \set stanza = #"2."
  This is the second verse.
}

theChords = \chordmode {
  % insert chords for chordnames and fretboards here
  c2 g4 c
}

staffMelody = \relative c' {
   \key c \major
   \clef treble
   % Type notes for melody here
   c4 d8 e f4 g
   \bar "|."
}

\score {
  <<
    \context ChordNames { \theChords }
    \context FretBoards { \theChords }
    \new Staff {
      \context Voice = "voiceMelody" { \staffMelody }
    }
    \new Lyrics = "lyricsI" {
      \lyricsto "voiceMelody" \verseI
    }
    \new Lyrics = "lyricsII" {
      \lyricsto "voiceMelody" \verseII
    }
  >>
  \layout { }
  \midi { }
}

[image of music]


音符とコードを持つ単一譜のテンプレート

旋律とコードを持つリード譜を欲しくはありませんか?他を見る必要はありません!

melody = \relative c' {
  \clef treble
  \key c \major
  \time 4/4

  f4 e8[ c] d4 g
  a2 ~ a
}

harmonies = \chordmode {
  c4:m f:min7 g:maj c:aug
  d2:dim b4:5 e:sus
}

\score {
  <<
    \new ChordNames {
      \set chordChanges = ##t
      \harmonies
    }
    \new Staff \melody
  >>
  \layout{ }
  \midi { }
}

[image of music]


共通な通奏低音の延長線を縦方向に中央揃えする

通奏低音の延長線は useBassFigureExtenders#t にセットされている場合に使用されます。figuredBassCenterContinuations#t にセットされている場合、同一な延長線がまとめられ、縦方向に中央揃えされます。

<<
  \relative c' {
    c8 c b b a a c16 c b b
    c8 c b b a a c16 c b b
    c8 c b b a a c c b b
  }
  \figures {
    \set useBassFigureExtenders = ##t
    <6+ 4 3>4 <6 4 3>8 r
    <6+ 4 3>4 <6 4 3>8 <4 3+>16 r
    \set figuredBassCenterContinuations = ##t
    <6+ 4 3>4 <6 4 3>8 r
    <6+ 4 3>4 <6 4 3>8 <4 3+>16 r
    \set figuredBassCenterContinuations = ##f
    <6+ 4 3>4 <6 4 3>8 r
    <6+ 4 3>4 <6 4 3>8 <4 3+>8
  }
>>

[image of music]


繰り返し括弧をコード ネームの下に表示する

Volta_engraver を対応する譜に付け加えることで、繰り返し括弧をコード ネームの下に表示できます。

\score {
  <<
    \chords {
      c1
      c1
    }
    \new Staff \with {
      \consists "Volta_engraver"
    }
    {
      \repeat volta 2 { c'1 }
      \alternative { c' }
    }
  >>
  \layout {
    \context {
      \Score
      \remove "Volta_engraver"
    }
  }
}

[image of music]


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