MIDI

Creating MIDI output


MIDI チャンネルをボイスごとに割り当てる

MIDI を出力する際、デフォルトの挙動では譜ごとに MIDI チャンネルが作られ、譜の中にある全てのボイスは統合されます。これは、トラックごとに 16 しか存在しない MIDI チャンネルが足りなくなる恐れを減らします。

しかしながら、次の例のように Staff_performerVoice コンテキストに移動することで、ボイスごとに独自の MIDI チャンネルを持つようになります: 同じ譜にあるにもかかわらず、2 つの MIDI チャンネルが作られ、異なる midiInstrument が割り当てられます。

\score {
  \new Staff <<
    \new Voice \relative c''' {
      \set midiInstrument = #"flute"
      \voiceOne
      \key g \major
      \time 2/2
      r2 g-"Flute" ~
      g fis ~
      fis4 g8 fis e2 ~
      e4 d8 cis d2
    }
    \new Voice \relative c'' {
      \set midiInstrument = #"clarinet"
      \voiceTwo
      b1-"Clarinet"
      a2. b8 a
      g2. fis8 e
      fis2 r
    }
  >>
  \layout { }
  \midi {
    \context {
      \Staff
      \remove "Staff_performer"
    }
    \context {
      \Voice
      \consists "Staff_performer"
    }
    \tempo 2 = 72
  }
}

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メトロノーム記号を表示せずにテンポを変更する

楽譜には何も出力せずに MIDI 出力のテンポのみを変更するには、メトロノーム記号を非表示にします。

\score {
  \new Staff \relative c' {
    \tempo 4 = 160
    c4 e g b
    c4 b d c
    \set Score.tempoHideNote = ##t
    \tempo 4 = 96
    d,4 fis a cis
    d4 cis e d
  }
  \layout { }
  \midi { }
}

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MIDI 出力でカスタム強弱記号を作成する

次の例は、デフォルトのリストには含まれていない強弱記号を作成し、MIDI 出力に反映されるように音量値を割り当てる方法を示しています。

強弱記号 \rfz0.9 の値が割り当てられています。

#(define (myDynamics dynamic)
    (if (equal? dynamic "rfz")
      0.9
      (default-dynamic-absolute-volume dynamic)))

\score {
  \new Staff {
    \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"cello"
    \set Score.dynamicAbsoluteVolumeFunction = #myDynamics
    \new Voice {
      \relative {
        a'4\pp b c-\rfz
      }
    }
  }
  \layout {}
  \midi {}
}

[image of music]


\layout と \midi で drumPitchNames, drumStyleTable, drumPitchTable をカスタマイズする

drum-pitch-names を独自の drum-style に合わせてカスタマイズし、それを \layout\midi で使用できるようにするには、下のコードで示した手順に従ってください。簡潔に説明すると以下の通りです:

* 名前を定義する * 見た目を定義する * \layout で使用できるようにする * ピッチを割り当てる * \midi で使用できるようにする

%% This snippet tries to amend
%% NR 2.5.1 Common notation for percussion - Custom percussion staves
%% http://lilypond.org/doc/v2.18/Documentation/notation/common-notation-for-percussion#custom-percussion-staves

%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%%
%% To use custom drum pitch names for your score and midi you need to follow
%% this route:
%%
%%%%%%%%%%%%
%% LAYOUT:
%%%%%%%%%%%%
%%
%% (1) Define a name and put it in `drumPitchNames'
%%     This can be done at toplevel with
%%         drumPitchNames.my-name  = #'my-name
%%     It's possible to add an alias as well.
%% (2) Define how it should be printed
%%     Therefore put them into a top-level list, where each entry should
%%     be of the form:
%%         (my-name
%%           note-head-style-or-default
%%             articulation-type-or-#f
%%               staff-position)
%%     Example:
%%         #(define my-style
%%           '(
%%             (my-name default tenuto -1)
%%             ; ...
%%             ))
%% (3) Tell LilyPond to use these custom definitions, with
%%         drumStyleTable = #(alist->hash-table my-style)
%%     in a \layout or \with block
%%
%%     Now we're done for layout. Here is a short but complete example:
%%         \new DrumStaff
%%           \with { drumStyleTable = #(alist->hash-table my-style) }
%%           \drummode { my-name }
%%
%%%%%%%%%%%%
%% MIDI:
%%%%%%%%%%%%
%%
%% (1) Again at top-level, assign a pitch to your custom note name
%%         midiDrumPitches.my-name = ges
%%     Note that you have to use the name, which is in drumPitchNames, no alias
%% (2) Tell LilyPond to use this pitch(es), with
%%         drumPitchTable = #(alist->hash-table midiDrumPitches)
%%
%%     Example:
%%         \score {
%%            \new DrumStaff
%%             \with {
%%               drumStyleTable = #(alist->hash-table my-style)
%%               drumPitchTable = #(alist->hash-table midiDrumPitches)
%%             }
%%             \drummode { my-name4 }
%%           \layout {}
%%           \midi {}
%%         }
%%
%%%%%%%%%%%%
%% TESTING
%%%%%%%%%%%%
%%
%% To test whether all is fine, run the following sequence in terminal:
%%         lilypond my-file.ly
%%         midi2ly my-file.midi
%%         gedit my-file-midi.ly
%%
%% This will do the following:
%% 1. create pdf and midi
%% 2. transform the midi back to a .ly-file
%%    (note: midi2ly is not always good in correctly identifying enharmonic pitches)
%% 3. open this file in gedit (or use another editor)
%% Now watch what you've got.
%%
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%% FULL EXAMPLE
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

drumPitchNames.dbass      = #'dbass
drumPitchNames.dba        = #'dbass  % 'db is in use already
drumPitchNames.dbassmute  = #'dbassmute
drumPitchNames.dbm        = #'dbassmute
drumPitchNames.do         = #'dopen
drumPitchNames.dopenmute  = #'dopenmute
drumPitchNames.dom        = #'dopenmute
drumPitchNames.dslap      = #'dslap
drumPitchNames.ds         = #'dslap
drumPitchNames.dslapmute  = #'dslapmute
drumPitchNames.dsm        = #'dslapmute

#(define djembe
  '((dbass      default  #f         -2)
    (dbassmute  default  stopped    -2)
    (dopen      default  #f          0)
    (dopenmute  default  stopped     0)
    (dslap      default  #f          2)
    (dslapmute  default  stopped     2)))

midiDrumPitches.dbass = g
midiDrumPitches.dbassmute = fis
midiDrumPitches.dopen =  a
midiDrumPitches.dopenmute = gis
midiDrumPitches.dslap =  b
midiDrumPitches.dslapmute = ais

one = \drummode { r4 dba4 do ds r dbm dom dsm }

\score {
   \new DrumStaff
    \with {
      \override StaffSymbol.line-count =  #3
      instrumentName = #"Djembe "
      drumStyleTable = #(alist->hash-table djembe)
      drumPitchTable = #(alist->hash-table midiDrumPitches)
    }
    \one
  \layout {}
  \midi {}
}

[image of music]


midiInstrument のデモ

問題: どの midiInstrument を使えば良いでしょうか? 答え: LilyPond のデモファイルがあります。

\header {
  title = "Demo of all midi sounds"
  arranger = "Myself "
}

baseMelody = \relative c' {
  c4.\mf g c16 b' c d
  e16 d e f g4 g'4 r
  R1
}
melody = {
  \tempo 4 = 150
  \baseMelody
}

\score {
  \new Staff <<
    \new Voice \melody
  >>
  \layout { }
}

\score {
  \new Staff <<
    \new Voice {
      r\mf
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"acoustic grand" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"bright acoustic" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"electric grand" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"honky-tonk" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"electric piano 1" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"electric piano 2" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"harpsichord" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"clav" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"celesta" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"glockenspiel" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"music box" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"vibraphone" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"marimba" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"xylophone" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"tubular bells" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"dulcimer" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"drawbar organ" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"percussive organ" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"rock organ" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"church organ" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"reed organ" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"accordion" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"harmonica" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"concertina" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"acoustic guitar (nylon)" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"acoustic guitar (steel)" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"electric guitar (jazz)" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"electric guitar (clean)" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"electric guitar (muted)" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"overdriven guitar" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"distorted guitar" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"acoustic bass" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"electric bass (finger)" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"electric bass (pick)" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"fretless bass" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"slap bass 1" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"slap bass 2" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"synth bass 1" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"synth bass 2" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"violin" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"viola" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"cello" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"contrabass" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"tremolo strings" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"pizzicato strings" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"orchestral harp" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"timpani" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"string ensemble 1" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"string ensemble 2" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"synthstrings 1" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"synthstrings 2" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"choir aahs" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"voice oohs" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"synth voice" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"orchestra hit" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"trumpet" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"trombone" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"tuba" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"muted trumpet" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"french horn" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"brass section" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"synthbrass 1" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"synthbrass 2" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"soprano sax" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"alto sax" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"tenor sax" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"baritone sax" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"oboe" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"english horn" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"bassoon" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"clarinet" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"piccolo" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"flute" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"recorder" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"pan flute" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"blown bottle" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"shakuhachi" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"whistle" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"ocarina" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"lead 1 (square)" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"lead 2 (sawtooth)" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"lead 3 (calliope)" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"lead 4 (chiff)" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"lead 5 (charang)" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"lead 6 (voice)" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"lead 7 (fifths)" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"lead 8 (bass+lead)" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"pad 1 (new age)" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"pad 2 (warm)" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"pad 3 (polysynth)" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"pad 4 (choir)" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"pad 5 (bowed)" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"pad 6 (metallic)" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"pad 7 (halo)" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"pad 8 (sweep)" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"fx 1 (rain)" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"fx 2 (soundtrack)" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"fx 3 (crystal)" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"fx 4 (atmosphere)" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"fx 5 (brightness)" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"fx 6 (goblins)" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"fx 7 (echoes)" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"fx 8 (sci-fi)" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"sitar" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"banjo" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"shamisen" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"koto" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"kalimba" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"bagpipe" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"fiddle" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"shanai" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"tinkle bell" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"agogo" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"steel drums" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"woodblock" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"taiko drum" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"melodic tom" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"synth drum" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"reverse cymbal" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"guitar fret noise" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"breath noise" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"seashore" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"bird tweet" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"telephone ring" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"helicopter" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"applause" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"gunshot" \melody
    }
  >>
  \midi { }
}

[image of music]


デフォルトの MIDI 楽器の音量を置き換える

デフォルトの MIDI 楽器の音量は Score コンテキストの instrumentEqualizer プロパティをセットすることで置き換えることができます。セットするのは Scheme 関数で、音色名を引数で与えられた際にその音色に対応する最小音量と最大音量 (音量は割合で指定) のペアを返すものです。

次の例は、それぞれフルートとクラリネットに対して最小音量を最大音量をセットしています。

#(define my-instrument-equalizer-alist '())

#(set! my-instrument-equalizer-alist
  (append
    '(
      ("flute" . (0.7 . 0.9))
      ("clarinet" . (0.3 . 0.6)))
    my-instrument-equalizer-alist))

#(define (my-instrument-equalizer s)
  (let ((entry (assoc s my-instrument-equalizer-alist)))
    (if entry
      (cdr entry))))

\score {
  <<
    \new Staff {
      \key g \major
      \time 2/2
      \set Score.instrumentEqualizer = #my-instrument-equalizer
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = "flute"
      \new Voice \relative {
        r2 g''\mp g fis~
        4 g8 fis e2~
        4 d8 cis d2
      }
    }
    \new Staff {
      \key g \major
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = "clarinet"
      \new Voice \relative {
        b'1\p a2. b8 a
        g2. fis8 e
        fis2 r
      }
    }
  >>
  \layout { }
  \midi {  }
}

[image of music]


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