MIDI

Creating MIDI output


Impostare l’output MIDI su un canale per voce

Nella creazione del file di output MIDI, il comportamento predefinito prevede che ogni rigo sia assegnato a un canale MIDI, con tutte le voci del rigo amalgamate in un canale. Ciò diminuisce il rischio di esaurire i canali MIDI disponibili, dato che ce ne sono solo 16 per traccia.

Tuttavia, spostando Staff_performer nel contesto Voice, ogni voce in un rigo può avere il proprio canale MIDI, come è illustrato nell’esempio seguente: sebbene le voci siano sullo stesso rigo, vengono creati due canali MIDI, ciascuno con un diverso strumento MIDI (midiInstrument).

\score {
  \new Staff <<
    \new Voice \relative c''' {
      \set midiInstrument = #"flute"
      \voiceOne
      \key g \major
      \time 2/2
      r2 g-"Flute" ~
      g fis ~
      fis4 g8 fis e2 ~
      e4 d8 cis d2
    }
    \new Voice \relative c'' {
      \set midiInstrument = #"clarinet"
      \voiceTwo
      b1-"Clarinet"
      a2. b8 a
      g2. fis8 e
      fis2 r
    }
  >>
  \layout { }
  \midi {
    \context {
      \Staff
      \remove "Staff_performer"
    }
    \context {
      \Voice
      \consists "Staff_performer"
    }
    \tempo 2 = 72
  }
}

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Modificare il tempo senza mostrare l’indicazione metronomica

Per cambiare il tempo del file MIDI senza che appaia l’indicazione metronomica, basta renderla invisibile.

\score {
  \new Staff \relative c' {
    \tempo 4 = 160
    c4 e g b
    c4 b d c
    \set Score.tempoHideNote = ##t
    \tempo 4 = 96
    d,4 fis a cis
    d4 cis e d
  }
  \layout { }
  \midi { }
}

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Creare dinamiche personalizzate nell’output MIDI

L’esempio seguente mostra come creare un segno di dinamica, non incluso nell’elenco predefinito, e assegnargli un valore specifico così che possa essere usato per cambiare l’output MIDI.

Al segno di dinamica \rfz viene assegnato il valore 0.9.

#(define (myDynamics dynamic)
    (if (equal? dynamic "rfz")
      0.9
      (default-dynamic-absolute-volume dynamic)))

\score {
  \new Staff {
    \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"cello"
    \set Score.dynamicAbsoluteVolumeFunction = #myDynamics
    \new Voice {
      \relative {
        a'4\pp b c-\rfz
      }
    }
  }
  \layout {}
  \midi {}
}

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Customized drum notation in printed and MIDI output

Customized drum “pitch” names (suitable for a custom drum style, for example) may be used both in printed and MIDI output by defining such variables as drumPitchNames, drumStyleTable and midiDrumPitches, as demonstrated here. In short, this snippet:

%% This snippet tries to amend
%% NR 2.5.1 Common notation for percussion - Custom percussion staves
%% http://lilypond.org/doc/v2.18/Documentation/notation/common-notation-for-percussion#custom-percussion-staves

%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%%
%% To use custom drum pitch names for your score and midi you need to follow
%% this route:
%%
%%%%%%%%%%%%
%% LAYOUT:
%%%%%%%%%%%%
%%
%% (1) Define a name and put it in `drumPitchNames'
%%     This can be done at toplevel with
%%         drumPitchNames.my-name  = #'my-name
%%     It's possible to add an alias as well.
%% (2) Define how it should be printed
%%     Therefore put them into a top-level list, where each entry should
%%     be of the form:
%%         (my-name
%%           note-head-style-or-default
%%             articulation-type-or-#f
%%               staff-position)
%%     Example:
%%         #(define my-style
%%           '(
%%             (my-name default tenuto -1)
%%             ; ...
%%             ))
%% (3) Tell LilyPond to use these custom definitions, with
%%         drumStyleTable = #(alist->hash-table my-style)
%%     in a \layout or \with block
%%
%%     Now we're done for layout. Here is a short but complete example:
%%         \new DrumStaff
%%           \with { drumStyleTable = #(alist->hash-table my-style) }
%%           \drummode { my-name }
%%
%%%%%%%%%%%%
%% MIDI:
%%%%%%%%%%%%
%%
%% (1) Again at top-level, assign a pitch to your custom note name
%%         midiDrumPitches.my-name = ges
%%     Note that you have to use the name, which is in drumPitchNames, no alias
%% (2) Tell LilyPond to use this pitch(es), with
%%         drumPitchTable = #(alist->hash-table midiDrumPitches)
%%
%%     Example:
%%         \score {
%%            \new DrumStaff
%%             \with {
%%               drumStyleTable = #(alist->hash-table my-style)
%%               drumPitchTable = #(alist->hash-table midiDrumPitches)
%%             }
%%             \drummode { my-name4 }
%%           \layout {}
%%           \midi {}
%%         }
%%
%%%%%%%%%%%%
%% TESTING
%%%%%%%%%%%%
%%
%% To test whether all is fine, run the following sequence in terminal:
%%         lilypond my-file.ly
%%         midi2ly my-file.midi
%%         gedit my-file-midi.ly
%%
%% This will do the following:
%% 1. create pdf and midi
%% 2. transform the midi back to a .ly-file
%%    (note: midi2ly is not always good in correctly identifying enharmonic pitches)
%% 3. open this file in gedit (or use another editor)
%% Now watch what you've got.
%%
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%% FULL EXAMPLE
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

drumPitchNames.dbass      = #'dbass
drumPitchNames.dba        = #'dbass  % 'db is in use already
drumPitchNames.dbassmute  = #'dbassmute
drumPitchNames.dbm        = #'dbassmute
drumPitchNames.do         = #'dopen
drumPitchNames.dopenmute  = #'dopenmute
drumPitchNames.dom        = #'dopenmute
drumPitchNames.dslap      = #'dslap
drumPitchNames.ds         = #'dslap
drumPitchNames.dslapmute  = #'dslapmute
drumPitchNames.dsm        = #'dslapmute

#(define djembe
  '((dbass      default  #f         -2)
    (dbassmute  default  stopped    -2)
    (dopen      default  #f          0)
    (dopenmute  default  stopped     0)
    (dslap      default  #f          2)
    (dslapmute  default  stopped     2)))

midiDrumPitches.dbass = g
midiDrumPitches.dbassmute = fis
midiDrumPitches.dopen =  a
midiDrumPitches.dopenmute = gis
midiDrumPitches.dslap =  b
midiDrumPitches.dslapmute = ais

one = \drummode { r4 dba4 do ds r dbm dom dsm }

\score {
   \new DrumStaff
    \with {
      \override StaffSymbol.line-count =  #3
      instrumentName = #"Djembe "
      drumStyleTable = #(alist->hash-table djembe)
      drumPitchTable = #(alist->hash-table midiDrumPitches)
    }
    \one
  \layout {}
  \midi {}
}

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Demo MidiInstruments

Problem: How to know which midiInstrument would be best for your composition?

Solution: A LilyPond demo file.

\header {
  title = "Demo of all midi sounds"
  arranger = "Myself "
}

baseMelody = \relative c' {
  c4.\mf g c16 b' c d
  e16 d e f g4 g'4 r
  R1
}
melody = {
  \tempo 4 = 150
  \baseMelody
}

\score {
  \new Staff <<
    \new Voice \melody
  >>
  \layout { }
}

\score {
  \new Staff <<
    \new Voice {
      r\mf
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"acoustic grand" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"bright acoustic" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"electric grand" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"honky-tonk" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"electric piano 1" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"electric piano 2" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"harpsichord" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"clav" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"celesta" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"glockenspiel" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"music box" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"vibraphone" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"marimba" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"xylophone" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"tubular bells" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"dulcimer" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"drawbar organ" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"percussive organ" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"rock organ" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"church organ" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"reed organ" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"accordion" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"harmonica" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"concertina" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"acoustic guitar (nylon)" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"acoustic guitar (steel)" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"electric guitar (jazz)" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"electric guitar (clean)" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"electric guitar (muted)" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"overdriven guitar" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"distorted guitar" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"acoustic bass" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"electric bass (finger)" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"electric bass (pick)" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"fretless bass" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"slap bass 1" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"slap bass 2" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"synth bass 1" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"synth bass 2" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"violin" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"viola" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"cello" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"contrabass" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"tremolo strings" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"pizzicato strings" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"orchestral harp" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"timpani" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"string ensemble 1" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"string ensemble 2" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"synthstrings 1" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"synthstrings 2" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"choir aahs" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"voice oohs" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"synth voice" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"orchestra hit" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"trumpet" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"trombone" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"tuba" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"muted trumpet" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"french horn" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"brass section" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"synthbrass 1" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"synthbrass 2" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"soprano sax" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"alto sax" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"tenor sax" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"baritone sax" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"oboe" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"english horn" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"bassoon" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"clarinet" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"piccolo" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"flute" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"recorder" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"pan flute" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"blown bottle" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"shakuhachi" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"whistle" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"ocarina" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"lead 1 (square)" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"lead 2 (sawtooth)" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"lead 3 (calliope)" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"lead 4 (chiff)" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"lead 5 (charang)" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"lead 6 (voice)" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"lead 7 (fifths)" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"lead 8 (bass+lead)" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"pad 1 (new age)" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"pad 2 (warm)" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"pad 3 (polysynth)" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"pad 4 (choir)" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"pad 5 (bowed)" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"pad 6 (metallic)" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"pad 7 (halo)" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"pad 8 (sweep)" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"fx 1 (rain)" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"fx 2 (soundtrack)" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"fx 3 (crystal)" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"fx 4 (atmosphere)" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"fx 5 (brightness)" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"fx 6 (goblins)" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"fx 7 (echoes)" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"fx 8 (sci-fi)" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"sitar" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"banjo" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"shamisen" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"koto" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"kalimba" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"bagpipe" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"fiddle" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"shanai" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"tinkle bell" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"agogo" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"steel drums" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"woodblock" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"taiko drum" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"melodic tom" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"synth drum" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"reverse cymbal" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"guitar fret noise" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"breath noise" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"seashore" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"bird tweet" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"telephone ring" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"helicopter" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"applause" \melody
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"gunshot" \melody
    }
  >>
  \midi { }
}

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Modificare l’equalizzazione predefinita degli strumenti MIDI

L’equalizzatore predefinito degli strumenti MIDI può essere modificato impostando la proprietà instrumentEqualizer nel contesto Score come una procedura Scheme definita dall’utente che usi il nome dello strumento MIDI come argomento insieme a una coppia di frazioni indicanti i volumi minimi e massimi da applicare a quello specifico strumento.

L’esempio seguente imposta i volumi massimo e minimo per il flauto e per il clarintetto.

#(define my-instrument-equalizer-alist '())

#(set! my-instrument-equalizer-alist
  (append
    '(
      ("flute" . (0.7 . 0.9))
      ("clarinet" . (0.3 . 0.6)))
    my-instrument-equalizer-alist))

#(define (my-instrument-equalizer s)
  (let ((entry (assoc s my-instrument-equalizer-alist)))
    (if entry
      (cdr entry))))

\score {
  <<
    \new Staff {
      \key g \major
      \time 2/2
      \set Score.instrumentEqualizer = #my-instrument-equalizer
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = "flute"
      \new Voice \relative {
        r2 g''\mp g fis~
        4 g8 fis e2~
        4 d8 cis d2
      }
    }
    \new Staff {
      \key g \major
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = "clarinet"
      \new Voice \relative {
        b'1\p a2. b8 a
        g2. fis8 e
        fis2 r
      }
    }
  >>
  \layout { }
  \midi {  }
}

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