Tweaks and overrides

Changing defaults

Tweaking output


Adding an ottava marking to a single voice

If you have more than one voice on the staff, setting octavation in one voice transposes the position of notes in all voices for the duration of the ottava bracket. If the octavation is only intended to apply to one voice, the Ottava_spanner_engraver should be moved to Voice context.

\layout {
  \context {
    \Staff
    \remove Ottava_spanner_engraver
  }
  \context {
    \Voice
    \consists Ottava_spanner_engraver
  }
}

{
  \clef bass
  << { <g d'>1~ q2 <c' e'> }
  \\
    {
      r2.
      \ottava -1
      <b,,, b,,>4 ~ |
      q2
      \ottava 0
      <c e>2
    }
  >>
}

[image of music]


Adding links to objects

To add a link to a grob stencil you can use add-link as defined here. It works both with \override and \tweak.

Drawback: point-and-click is disturbed for the linked grobs.

Limitation: Works for PDF only.

The linked objects are colored with a separate command. Note that the links are not displayed and are not clickable from inside the LSR.

#(define (add-link url-strg)
  (lambda (grob)
    (let* ((stil (ly:grob-property grob 'stencil)))
      (if (ly:stencil? stil)
          (let* ((x-ext (ly:stencil-extent stil X))
                 (y-ext (ly:stencil-extent stil Y))
                 (url-expr `(url-link ,url-strg ,x-ext ,y-ext))
                 (new-stil
                   (ly:stencil-add
                     (ly:make-stencil url-expr x-ext y-ext)
                     stil)))
          (ly:grob-set-property! grob 'stencil new-stil))))))

%%%% test

%% For easier maintenance of this snippet the URL is formatted to use the
%% actually used LilyPond version.
%% Of course a literal URL would work as well.

#(define major.minor-version
  (string-join (take (string-split (lilypond-version) #\.) 2) "."))

urlI =
#(format #f
  "http://lilypond.org/doc/v~a/Documentation/notation/writing-pitches"
  major.minor-version)

urlII =
#(format #f
  "http://lilypond.org/doc/v~a/Documentation/notation/rhythms"
  major.minor-version)

urlIII =
#(format #f
  "http://lilypond.org/doc/v~a/Documentation/notation/note-heads"
  major.minor-version)

urlIV =
#(format #f
  "http://lilypond.org/doc/v~a/Documentation/notation/beams"
  major.minor-version)

urlV =
#(format #f
  "http://lilypond.org/doc/v~a/Documentation/notation/note-head-styles"
  major.minor-version)

urlVI =
#(format #f
  "http://lilypond.org/doc/v~a/Documentation/notation/writing-pitches"
  major.minor-version)

\relative c' {
   \key cis \minor

   \once \override Staff.Clef.color = #green
   \once \override Staff.Clef.after-line-breaking =
     #(add-link urlI)

   \once \override Staff.TimeSignature.color = #green
   \once \override Staff.TimeSignature.after-line-breaking =
     #(add-link urlII)

   \once \override NoteHead.color = #green
   \once \override NoteHead.after-line-breaking =
     #(add-link urlIII)

   cis'1
   \once \override Beam.color = #green
   \once \override Beam.after-line-breaking =
     #(add-link urlIV)
   cis8 dis e fis gis2
   <gis,
    \tweak Accidental.color #green
    \tweak Accidental.after-line-breaking #(add-link urlVI)
    \tweak color #green
    \tweak after-line-breaking #(add-link urlV)
    \tweak style #'harmonic
    bis
    dis
    fis
   >1
   <cis, cis' e>
}

[image of music]


Adding markups in a tablature

By default markups does not show in a tablature.

To make them appear, simply use the command \revert TabStaff.TextScript.stencil

%% http://lsr.di.unimi.it/LSR/Item?id=919
% by P.P.Schneider on June 2014

high  = { r4 r8 <g c'> q r8 r4 }

low = { c4 r4 c8 r8 g,8 b, }

pulse = { s8^"1" s^"&" s^"2" s^"&" s^"3" s^"&" s^"4" s^"&" }

\score {
 \new TabStaff {
   \repeat unfold 2 << \high \\ \low \\ \pulse >>
  }
  \layout {
    \context {
      \TabStaff
      \clef moderntab
      \revert TextScript.stencil
      \override TextScript.font-series = #'bold
      \override TextScript.font-size = #-2
      \override TextScript.color = #red

    }
    \context {
      \Score
      proportionalNotationDuration = #(ly:make-moment 1/8)
    }
  }
}

[image of music]


Adding timing marks to long glissandi

Skipped beats in very long glissandi are sometimes indicated by timing marks, often consisting of stems without noteheads. Such stems can also be used to carry intermediate expression markings.

If the stems do not align well with the glissando, they may need to be repositioned slightly.

glissandoSkipOn = {
  \override NoteColumn.glissando-skip = ##t
  \hide NoteHead
  \override NoteHead.no-ledgers = ##t
}

glissandoSkipOff = {
  \revert NoteColumn.glissando-skip
  \undo \hide NoteHead
  \revert NoteHead.no-ledgers
}

\relative c'' {
  r8 f8\glissando
  \glissandoSkipOn
  f4 g a a8\noBeam
  \glissandoSkipOff
  a8

  r8 f8\glissando
  \glissandoSkipOn
  g4 a8
  \glissandoSkipOff
  a8 |

  r4 f\glissando \<
  \glissandoSkipOn
  a4\f \>
  \glissandoSkipOff
  b8\! r |
}

[image of music]


Adjusting grace note spacing

The space given to grace notes can be adjusted using the spacing-increment property of Score.GraceSpacing.

graceNotes = {
  \grace { c4 c8 c16 c32 }
  c8
}

\relative c'' {
  c8
  \graceNotes
  \override Score.GraceSpacing.spacing-increment = #2.0
  \graceNotes
  \revert Score.GraceSpacing.spacing-increment
  \graceNotes
}

[image of music]


Adjusting lyrics vertical spacing

This snippet shows how to bring the lyrics line closer to the staff.

% Default layout:
<<
  \new Staff \new Voice = melody \relative c' {
    c4 d e f
    g4 f e d
    c1
  }
  \new Lyrics \lyricsto melody { aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa }

  \new Staff {
    \new Voice = melody \relative c' {
      c4 d e f
      g4 f e d
      c1
    }
  }
  % Reducing the minimum space below the staff and above the lyrics:
  \new Lyrics \with {
    \override VerticalAxisGroup.nonstaff-relatedstaff-spacing =
      #'((basic-distance . 1))
  }
  \lyricsto melody { aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa }
>>

[image of music]


Altering the length of beamed stems

Stem lengths on beamed notes can be varied by overriding the beamed-lengths property of the details of the Stem. If a single value is used as an argument, the length applies to all stems. When multiple arguments are used, the first applies to eighth notes, the second to sixteenth notes and so on. The final argument also applies to all notes shorter than the note length of the final argument. Non-integer arguments may also be used.

\relative c'' {
  \override Stem.details.beamed-lengths = #'(2)
  a8[ a] a16[ a] a32[ a]
  \override Stem.details.beamed-lengths = #'(8 10 12)
  a8[ a] a16[ a] a32[ a] r8
  \override Stem.details.beamed-lengths = #'(8)
  a8[ a]
  \override Stem.details.beamed-lengths = #'(8.5)
  a8[ a]
  \revert Stem.details.beamed-lengths
  a8[ a] a16[ a] a32[ a] r16
}

[image of music]


Alternative Taktnummerierung

Zwei alternative Methoden können eingestellt werden, die die Taktnummerierung beeinflussen, insbesondere bei Wiederholungen.

\relative c'{
  \set Score.alternativeNumberingStyle = #'numbers
  \repeat volta 3 { c4 d e f | }
    \alternative {
      { c4 d e f | c2 d \break }
      { f4 g a b | f4 g a b | f2 a | \break }
      { c4 d e f | c2 d }
    }
  c1 \break
  \set Score.alternativeNumberingStyle = #'numbers-with-letters
  \repeat volta 3 { c,4 d e f | }
    \alternative {
      { c4 d e f | c2 d \break }
      { f4 g a b | f4 g a b | f2 a | \break }
      { c4 d e f | c2 d }
    }
  c1
}

[image of music]


Analysis brackets above the staff

Simple horizontal analysis brackets are added below the staff by default. The following example shows a way to place them above the staff instead.

\layout {
  \context {
    \Voice
    \consists "Horizontal_bracket_engraver"
  }
}

\relative c'' {
  \once \override HorizontalBracket.direction = #UP
  c2\startGroup
  d2\stopGroup
}

[image of music]


Analysis brackets with labels

Text markup may be added to analysis brackets through the text property of the HorizontalBracketText grob. Adding different texts to brackets beginning at the same time requires the \tweak command.

Bracket text will be parenthesized after a line break.

\paper { tagline = ##f }

\layout {
  \context {
    \Voice
    \consists "Horizontal_bracket_engraver"
    \override HorizontalBracket.direction = #UP
  }
}

{
  \once\override HorizontalBracketText.text = "a"
    c''\startGroup d''\stopGroup
    \once\override HorizontalBracketText.text = "a'"
    e''\startGroup d''\stopGroup |
  c''-\tweak HorizontalBracketText.text
        \markup \bold \huge "b" \startGroup
     -\tweak HorizontalBracketText.text "a" \startGroup
    d''\stopGroup
    e''-\tweak HorizontalBracketText.text "a'" \startGroup
    d''\stopGroup\stopGroup |
  c''-\tweak HorizontalBracketText.text foo \startGroup
    d'' e'' f'' | \break
  g'' a'' b'' c'''\stopGroup
}

[image of music]


Asymmetric slurs

Slurs can be made asymmetric to match an asymmetric pattern of notes better.

slurNotes = { d,8( a' d f a f' d, a) }

\relative c' {
  \stemDown
  \slurUp
  \slurNotes
  \once \override Slur.eccentricity = #3.0
  \slurNotes
}

[image of music]


Caesura ("railtracks") with fermata

A caesura is sometimes denoted by a double „railtracks“ breath mark with a fermata sign positioned above. This snippet shows an optically pleasing combination of railtracks and fermata.

\relative c'' {
  c2.
  % construct the symbol
  \override BreathingSign.text = \markup {
    \override #'(direction . 1)
    \override #'(baseline-skip . 1.8)
    \dir-column {
      \translate #'(0.155 . 0)
        \center-align \musicglyph "scripts.caesura.curved"
      \center-align \musicglyph "scripts.ufermata"
    }
  }
  \breathe c4
  % set the breathe mark back to normal
  \revert BreathingSign.text
  c2. \breathe c4
  \bar "|."
}

[image of music]


Changing a single note’s size in a chord

Individual note heads in a chord can be modified with the \tweak command inside a chord, by altering the font-size property.

Inside the chord (within the brackets < >), before the note to be altered, place the \tweak command, followed by font-size and define the proper size like #-2 (a tiny note head).

\relative c' {
  <\tweak font-size #+2 c e g c
   \tweak font-size #-2 e>1
   ^\markup { A tiny e }_\markup { A big c }
}

[image of music]


Changing beam thickness and spacing

To make beams thicker or thinner alter the Beam.beam-thickness property. To adjust the spacing between beams alter the Beam.length-fraction property.

\relative f' {
  \time 1/8
  \override Beam.beam-thickness = #0.4
  \override Beam.length-fraction = #0.8
  c32 c c c
  \revert Beam.beam-thickness  % 0.48 is default thickness
  \revert Beam.length-fraction  % 1.0 is default spacing
  c32 c c c
  \override Beam.beam-thickness = #0.6
  \override Beam.length-fraction = #1.3
  c32 c c c
}

[image of music]


Die Erscheinung von Pausentakten ändern

Wenn zehn oder weniger Pausentakte vorkommen, wird eine Reihe von Longa- und Brevispausen (auch Kirchenpausen genannt) gesetzt, bei mehr Takten wird eine Line mit der Taktanzahl ausgegeben. Der vorgegebene Wert von zehn kann geändert werden, indem man die expand-limit-Eigenschaft setzt:

\relative c'' {
  \compressMMRests {
    R1*2 | R1*5 | R1*9
    \override MultiMeasureRest.expand-limit = #3
    R1*2 | R1*5 | R1*9
  }
}

[image of music]


Changing properties for individual grobs

The \applyOutput command allows the tuning of any layout object, in any context. It requires a Scheme function with three arguments.

#(define (mc-squared grob grob-origin context)
   (let ((sp (ly:grob-property grob 'staff-position)))
     (ly:grob-set-property!
      grob 'stencil
      (grob-interpret-markup grob
			     #{ \markup \lower #0.5
				#(case sp
				   ((-5) "m")
				   ((-3) "c ")
				   ((-2) #{ \markup \teeny \bold 2 #})
				   (else "bla")) #}))))

\relative c' {
  <d f g b>2
  \applyOutput Voice.NoteHead #mc-squared
  <d f g b>2
}

[image of music]


Text und Strecker-Stile für Dynamik-Texte ändern

Der Text, der für Crescendo und Decrescendo gesetzt wird, kann geändert werden, indem man die Eigenschaften crescendoText und decrescendoText verändert. Der Stil des Streckers kann auch geändert werden, indem die 'style-Eigenschaft des DynamicTextSpanner beeinflusst wird. Der Standardwert ist 'hairpin, andere Möglichkeiten sind 'line, 'dashed-line und 'dotted-line.

\relative c'' {
  \set crescendoText = \markup { \italic { cresc. poco } }
  \set crescendoSpanner = #'text
  \override DynamicTextSpanner.style = #'dotted-line
  a2\< a
  a2 a
  a2 a
  a2 a\mf
}

[image of music]


Changing the default text font family

The default font families for text can be overridden with make-pango-font-tree.

%{
You may have to install additional fonts.

Red Hat Fedora

  dejavu-fonts-all

Debian GNU/Linux, Ubuntu

  fonts-dejavu-core
  fonts-dejavu-extra
%}

\paper {
  % change for other default global staff size.
  myStaffSize = #20
  %{
     run
         lilypond -dshow-available-fonts
     to show all fonts available in the process log.
  %}

  #(define fonts
    (make-pango-font-tree "DejaVu Serif"
                          "DejaVu Sans"
                          "DejaVu Sans Mono"
     (/ myStaffSize 20)))
}

{
  g'''4^\markup {
    DejaVu Serif: \bold bold
                  \italic italic
                  \italic \bold { bold italic }
  }
  g4_\markup {
    \override #'(font-family . sans) {
      DejaVu Sans: \bold bold
                   \italic italic
                   \italic \bold { bold italic }
    }
  }
  g''2^\markup {
    \override #'(font-family . typewriter) {
      DejaVu Sans Mono: \bold bold
                        \italic italic
                        \italic \bold { bold italic }
    }
  }
}

[image of music]


Changing the staff size

Though the simplest way to resize staves is to use #(set-global-staff-size xx), an individual staff’s size can be changed by scaling the properties 'staff-space and fontSize.

<<
  \new Staff {
    \relative c'' {
      \dynamicDown
      c8\ff c c c c c c c
    }
  }
  \new Staff \with {
    fontSize = #-3
    \override StaffSymbol.staff-space = #(magstep -3)
  } {
    \clef bass
    c8 c c c c\f c c c
  }
>>

[image of music]


Das Tempo ohne Metronom-Angabe verändern

Um das Tempo für die MIDI-Ausgabe zu ändern, ohne eine Tempoangabe in den Noten auszugeben, kann die Metronombezeichnung unsichtbar gemacht werden:

\score {
  \new Staff \relative c' {
    \tempo 4 = 160
    c4 e g b
    c4 b d c
    \set Score.tempoHideNote = ##t
    \tempo 4 = 96
    d,4 fis a cis
    d4 cis e d
  }
  \layout { }
  \midi { }
}

[image of music]


Changing the text for sustain markings

Staff.pedalSustainStrings can be used to set the text used for pedal down and up. Note that the only valid strings are those found in the list of pedal glyphs - the values used this snippet constitute an exhaustive list.

sustainNotes = { c4\sustainOn d e\sustainOff\sustainOn f\sustainOff }

\relative c' {
  \sustainNotes
  \set Staff.pedalSustainStrings = #'("P" "P-" "-")
  \sustainNotes
  \set Staff.pedalSustainStrings = #'("d" "de" "e")
  \sustainNotes
  \set Staff.pedalSustainStrings = #'("M" "M-" "-")
  \sustainNotes
  \set Staff.pedalSustainStrings = #'("Ped" "*Ped" "*")
  \sustainNotes
}

[image of music]


Controlling spanner visibility after a line break

The visibility of spanners which end on the first note following a line break is controlled by the after-line-breaking callback ly:spanner::kill-zero-spanned-time.

For objects such as glissandos and hairpins, the default behaviour is to hide the spanner after a break; disabling the callback will allow the left-broken span to be shown.

Conversely, spanners which are usually visible, such as text spans, can be hidden by enabling the callback.

\paper { ragged-right = ##t }

\relative c'' {
  \override Hairpin.to-barline = ##f
  \override Glissando.breakable = ##t
  % show hairpin
  \override Hairpin.after-line-breaking = ##t
  % hide text span
  \override TextSpanner.after-line-breaking =
    #ly:spanner::kill-zero-spanned-time
  e2\<\startTextSpan
  % show glissando
  \override Glissando.after-line-breaking = ##t
  f2\glissando
  \break
  f,1\!\stopTextSpan
}

[image of music]


Die vertikale Anordnung von Beschriftungen kontrollieren

Die vertikale Anordnung von Beschriftungen wird mit der 'script-priority-Eigenschaft kontrolliert. Um so kleiner die Zahl, umso näher wird die Beschriftung in Bezug auf die Note gesetzt. In diesem Beispiel hat das TextScript-Objekt (das Kreuz) zuerst die niedrigste Priorität, wird also auch am niedrigsten in dem ersten Beispiel gesetzt. Im zweiten Fall hat der Praller (das Script) die niedrigste Priorität, darum wird er am nächsten zum System gesetzt. Wenn zwei Objekte die gleiche Priorität haben, wird ihre Reihenfolge anhand ihres Auftretens in der Quelldatei entschieden.

\relative c''' {
  \once \override TextScript.script-priority = #-100
  a2^\prall^\markup { \sharp }

  \once \override Script.script-priority = #-100
  a2^\prall^\markup { \sharp }
}

[image of music]


Controlling tuplet bracket visibility

The default behavior of tuplet-bracket visibility is to print a bracket unless there is a beam of the same length as the tuplet.

To control the visibility of tuplet brackets, set the property 'bracket-visibility to either #t (always print a bracket), 'if-no-beam (only print a bracket if there is no beam, which is the default behavior), or #f (never print a bracket). The latter is in fact equivalent to omitting the @code{TupletBracket} object altogether from the printed output.

music = \relative c'' {
  \tuplet 3/2 { c16[ d e } f8]
  \tuplet 3/2 { c8 d e }
  \tuplet 3/2 { c4 d e }
}

\new Voice {
  \relative c' {
    << \music s4^"default" >>
    \override TupletBracket.bracket-visibility = #'if-no-beam
    << \music s4^"'if-no-beam" >>
    \override TupletBracket.bracket-visibility = ##t
    << \music s4^"#t" >>
    \override TupletBracket.bracket-visibility = ##f
    << \music s4^"#f" >>
    \omit TupletBracket
    << \music s4^"omit" >>
  }
}

[image of music]


Einen Doppelschlag mit Vorhalt erstellen

Einen Doppelschlag mit Vorhalt zu erstellen, wobei die untere Note das Vorzeichen benutzt, erfordert einige Einstellungsänderungen. Die outside-staff-priority-Eigenschaft muss auf falsch (#f) gesetzt werden, weil sie sonst über die Eigenschaft avoid-slur property dominieren würde. Der Wert von halign wird benutzt, um den Doppelschlag horizontal zu positionieren.

\relative c'' {
  \after 2*2/3 \turn c2( d4) r |
  \after 4 \turn c4.( d8)
  \after 4
  {
    \once \set suggestAccidentals = ##t
    \once \override AccidentalSuggestion.outside-staff-priority = ##f
    \once \override AccidentalSuggestion.avoid-slur = #'inside
    \once \override AccidentalSuggestion.font-size = -3
    \once \override AccidentalSuggestion.script-priority = -1
    \once \hideNotes
    cis8\turn \noBeam
  }
  d4.( e8)
}

[image of music]


Creating custom key signatures

LilyPond supports custom key signatures. In this example, print for D minor with an extended range of printed flats.

\new Staff \with {
  \override StaffSymbol.line-count = #8
  \override KeySignature.flat-positions = #'((-7 . 6))
  \override KeyCancellation.flat-positions = #'((-7 . 6))
  % presumably sharps are also printed in both octaves
  \override KeySignature.sharp-positions = #'((-6 . 7))
  \override KeyCancellation.sharp-positions = #'((-6 . 7))

  \override Clef.stencil = #
  (lambda (grob)(grob-interpret-markup grob
  #{ \markup\combine
    \musicglyph "clefs.C"
    \translate #'(-3 . -2)
    \musicglyph "clefs.F"
   #}))
    clefPosition = #3
    middleCPosition = #3
    middleCClefPosition = #3
}

{
  \key d\minor
  f bes, f bes,
}

[image of music]


Creating double-digit fingerings

Creating fingerings larger than 5 is possible.

\relative c' {
  c1-10
  c1-50
  c1-36
  c1-29
}

[image of music]


Creating simultaneous rehearsal marks

Unlike text scripts, rehearsal marks cannot be stacked at a particular point in a score: only one RehearsalMark object is created. Using an invisible measure and bar line, an extra rehearsal mark can be added, giving the appearance of two marks in the same column.

This method may also prove useful for placing rehearsal marks at both the end of one system and the start of the following system.

{
  \key a \major
  \set Score.rehearsalMarkFormatter = #format-mark-box-letters
  \once \override Score.RehearsalMark.outside-staff-priority = #5000
  \once \override Score.RehearsalMark.self-alignment-X = #LEFT
  \once \override Score.RehearsalMark.break-align-symbols = #'(key-signature)
  \mark \markup { \bold { Senza denti } }

  % the hidden measure and bar line
  % \cadenzaOn turns off automatic calculation of bar numbers
  \cadenzaOn
  \once \override Score.TimeSignature.stencil = ##f
  \time 1/16
  s16 \bar ""
  \cadenzaOff

  \time 4/4
  \once \override Score.RehearsalMark.self-alignment-X = #LEFT
  \mark \markup { \box \bold Intro }
  d'1
  \mark \default
  d'1
}

[image of music]


Creating text spanners

The \startTextSpan and \stopTextSpan commands allow the creation of text spanners as easily as pedal indications or octavations. Override some properties of the TextSpanner object to modify its output.

\paper { ragged-right = ##f }

\relative c'' {
  \override TextSpanner.bound-details.left.text = #"bla"
  \override TextSpanner.bound-details.right.text = #"blu"
  a4 \startTextSpan
  b4 c
  a4 \stopTextSpan

  \override TextSpanner.style = #'line
  \once \override TextSpanner.bound-details.left.stencil-align-dir-y = #CENTER
  a4 \startTextSpan
  b4 c
  a4 \stopTextSpan

  \override TextSpanner.style = #'dashed-line
  \override TextSpanner.bound-details.left.text =
    \markup { \draw-line #'(0 . 1) }
  \override TextSpanner.bound-details.right.text =
    \markup { \draw-line #'(0 . -2) }
  \once \override TextSpanner.bound-details.right.padding = #-2

  a4 \startTextSpan
  b4 c
  a4 \stopTextSpan

  \set Staff.middleCPosition = #-13
  \override TextSpanner.dash-period = #10
  \override TextSpanner.dash-fraction = #0.5
  \override TextSpanner.thickness = #10
  a4 \startTextSpan
  b4 c
  a4 \stopTextSpan
}

[image of music]


Cross-staff chords - beaming problems workaround

Sometimes it is better to use stems from the upper staff for creating cross-staff chords, because no problems with automatic beam collision avoidance then arise. If the stems from the lower staff were used in the following example, it would be necessary to change the automatic beam collision avoidance settings so that it doesn’t detect collisions between staves using \override Staff.Beam.collision-voice-only = ##t

\new PianoStaff <<
  \new Staff = up
    \relative c' {
      <<
        { r4
          \override Stem.cross-staff = ##t
          \override Stem.length = #19 % this is in half-spaces,
              % so it makes stems 9.5 staffspaces long
          \override Stem.Y-offset = #-6 % stems are normally lengthened
              % upwards, so here we must lower the stem by the amount
              % equal to the lengthening - in this case (19 - 7) / 2
              % (7 is default stem length)
          e e e }
        { s4
          \change Staff = "bottom"
          \override NoteColumn.ignore-collision = ##t
          c, c c
        }
      >>
    }
  \new Staff = bottom
    \relative c' {
      \clef bass
      \voiceOne
      g8 a g a g a g a
    }
>>

[image of music]


Hälse über beide Systeme

Dieses Schnipsel zeigt den Einsatz von Span_stem_engraver und \crossStaff, um Hälse über Systeme hinweg automatisch zu verbinden. Die Länge des Halses muss definiert werden, da der variable Abstand zwischen Notenköpfen und Notensystemen automatisch errechnet wird.

\layout {
  \context {
    \PianoStaff
    \consists "Span_stem_engraver"
  }
}

{
  \new PianoStaff <<
    \new Staff {
      <b d'>4 r d'16\> e'8. g8 r\!
      e'8 f' g'4 e'2
    }
    \new Staff {
      \clef bass
      \voiceOne
      \autoBeamOff
      \crossStaff { <e g>4 e, g16 a8. c8} d
      \autoBeamOn
      g8 f g4 c2
    }
  >>
}

[image of music]


Custodes

Custodes may be engraved in various styles.

\layout { ragged-right = ##t }

\new Staff \with { \consists "Custos_engraver" } \relative c' {
  \override Staff.Custos.neutral-position = #4

  \override Staff.Custos.style = #'hufnagel
  c1^"hufnagel" \break
  <d a' f'>1

  \override Staff.Custos.style = #'medicaea
  c1^"medicaea" \break
  <d a' f'>1

  \override Staff.Custos.style = #'vaticana
  c1^"vaticana" \break
  <d a' f'>1

  \override Staff.Custos.style = #'mensural
  c1^"mensural" \break
  <d a' f'>1
}

[image of music]


Bunddiagramme anpassen

Eigenschaften von Bunddiagrammen können in 'fret-diagram-details verändert werden. Einstellungen mit dem \override-Befehl werden dem FretBoards.FretBoard-Objekt zugewiesen. Genauso wie Voice ist auch FretBoards ein Kontext der niedrigsten Ebene, weshalb der Kontext auch in dem Befehl weggelassen werden kann.

\include "predefined-guitar-fretboards.ly"
\storePredefinedDiagram #default-fret-table \chordmode { c' }
                        #guitar-tuning
                        #"x;1-1-(;3-2;3-3;3-4;1-1-);"

% shorthand
oo = #(define-music-function
       (grob-path value)
       (list? scheme?)
       #{ \once \override $grob-path = #value #})

<<
  \new ChordNames {
    \chordmode { c1 | c | c | d }
  }
  \new FretBoards {
    % Set global properties of fret diagram
    \override FretBoards.FretBoard.size = #'1.2
    \override FretBoard.fret-diagram-details.finger-code = #'in-dot
    \override FretBoard.fret-diagram-details.dot-color = #'white
    \chordmode {
      c
      \oo FretBoard.size #'1.0
      \oo FretBoard.fret-diagram-details.barre-type #'straight
      \oo FretBoard.fret-diagram-details.dot-color #'black
      \oo FretBoard.fret-diagram-details.finger-code #'below-string
      c'
      \oo FretBoard.fret-diagram-details.barre-type #'none
      \oo FretBoard.fret-diagram-details.number-type #'arabic
      \oo FretBoard.fret-diagram-details.orientation #'landscape
      \oo FretBoard.fret-diagram-details.mute-string #"M"
      \oo FretBoard.fret-diagram-details.label-dir #LEFT
      \oo FretBoard.fret-diagram-details.dot-color #'black
      c'
      \oo FretBoard.fret-diagram-details.finger-code #'below-string
      \oo FretBoard.fret-diagram-details.dot-radius #0.35
      \oo FretBoard.fret-diagram-details.dot-position #0.5
      \oo FretBoard.fret-diagram-details.fret-count #3
      d
    }
  }
  \new Voice {
    c'1 | c' | c' | d'
  }
>>

[image of music]


Anpassung von Beschriftungs-Bunddiagrammen

Bunddiagramme können mit der Eigenschaft 'fret-diagram-details angepasst werden. Bunddiagramme, die als Textbeschriftung eingefügt werden, können Veränderungen im Voice.TextScript-Objekt oder direkt in der Beschriftung vorgenommen werden.

<<
  \chords { c1 | c | c | d }

  \new Voice = "mel" {
    \textLengthOn
    % Set global properties of fret diagram
    \override TextScript.size = #'1.2
    \override TextScript.fret-diagram-details.finger-code = #'in-dot
    \override TextScript.fret-diagram-details.dot-color = #'white

    %% C major for guitar, no barre, using defaults
       % terse style
    c'1^\markup { \fret-diagram-terse "x;3-3;2-2;o;1-1;o;" }

    %% C major for guitar, barred on third fret
       % verbose style
       % size 1.0
       % roman fret label, finger labels below string, straight barre
    c'1^\markup {
      % standard size
      \override #'(size . 1.0) {
        \override #'(fret-diagram-details . (
                     (number-type . roman-lower)
                     (finger-code . in-dot)
                     (barre-type . straight))) {
          \fret-diagram-verbose #'((mute 6)
                                   (place-fret 5 3 1)
                                   (place-fret 4 5 2)
                                   (place-fret 3 5 3)
                                   (place-fret 2 5 4)
                                   (place-fret 1 3 1)
                                   (barre 5 1 3))
        }
      }
    }

    %% C major for guitar, barred on third fret
       % verbose style
       % landscape orientation, arabic numbers, M for mute string
       % no barre, fret label down or left, small mute label font
    c'1^\markup {
      \override #'(fret-diagram-details . (
                   (finger-code . below-string)
                   (number-type . arabic)
                   (label-dir . -1)
                   (mute-string . "M")
                   (orientation . landscape)
                   (barre-type . none)
                   (xo-font-magnification . 0.4)
                   (xo-padding . 0.3))) {
        \fret-diagram-verbose #'((mute 6)
                                 (place-fret 5 3 1)
                                 (place-fret 4 5 2)
                                 (place-fret 3 5 3)
                                 (place-fret 2 5 4)
                                 (place-fret 1 3 1)
                                 (barre 5 1 3))
      }
    }

    %% simple D chord
       % terse style
       % larger dots, centered dots, fewer frets
       % label below string
    d'1^\markup {
      \override #'(fret-diagram-details . (
                   (finger-code . below-string)
                   (dot-radius . 0.35)
                   (dot-position . 0.5)
                   (fret-count . 3))) {
        \fret-diagram-terse "x;x;o;2-1;3-2;2-3;"
      }
    }
  }
>>

[image of music]


Klammer anzeigen, wenn nur ein System gesetzt wird

Wenn nur ein System einer Systemgruppe vom Typ ChoirStaff oder StaffGroup angezeigt wird, wird die Klammer zu Beginn normalerweise nicht gesetzt. Das kann verändert werden, indem man die entsprechende Eigenschaft verändert.

Bei Systemen wie PianoStaff und GrandStaff, die mit einer geschweiften Klammer beginne, muss eine andere Eigenschaft verändert werden, wie das zweite Beispiel zeigt.

\score {
  \new StaffGroup <<
    % Must be lower than the actual number of staff lines
    \override StaffGroup.SystemStartBracket.collapse-height = #4
    \override Score.SystemStartBar.collapse-height = #4
    \new Staff {
      c'1
    }
  >>
}
\score {
  \new PianoStaff <<
    \override PianoStaff.SystemStartBrace.collapse-height = #4
    \override Score.SystemStartBar.collapse-height = #4
    \new Staff {
      c'1
    }
  >>
}

[image of music]


Displaying grob ancestry

When working with grob callbacks, it can be helpful to understand a grob’s ancestry. Most grobs have parents which influence the positioning of the grob. X- and Y-parents influence the horizontal and vertical positions for the grob, respectively. Additionally, each parent may have parents of its own.

Unfortunately, there are several aspects of a grob’s ancestry that can lead to confusion:

For example, the System grob can be both parent (on the Y-side) and grandparent (twice on the X-side) to a VerticalAlignment grob.

This macro prints (to the console) a textual representation of a grob’s ancestry.

When called this way:

{ \once \override NoteHead.before-line-breaking = #display-ancestry c }

The following output is generated:

NoteHead
X,Y: NoteColumn
     X: PaperColumn
        X,Y: System
     Y: VerticalAxisGroup
        X: NonMusicalPaperColumn
           X,Y: System
        Y: VerticalAlignment
           X: NonMusicalPaperColumn
              X,Y: System
           Y: System
%% http://lsr.di.unimi.it/LSR/Item?id=622
%% see also http://www.lilypond.org/doc/v2.18/Documentation/snippets/tweaks-and-overrides#tweaks-and-overrides-displaying-grob-ancestry

%% Remark:
%% grob::name is in the source since 2.19.x could be deleted during next LSR-upgrade
#(define (grob::name grob)
  (assq-ref (ly:grob-property grob 'meta) 'name))

#(define (get-ancestry grob)
  (if (not (null? (ly:grob-parent grob X)))
      (list (grob::name grob)
            (get-ancestry (ly:grob-parent grob X))
            (get-ancestry (ly:grob-parent grob Y)))
      (grob::name grob)))

#(define (format-ancestry lst padding)
   (string-append
    (symbol->string (car lst))
    "\n"
    (let ((X-ancestry
           (if (list? (cadr lst))
               (format-ancestry (cadr lst) (+ padding 3))
               (symbol->string (cadr lst))))
          (Y-ancestry
           (if (list? (caddr lst))
               (format-ancestry (caddr lst) (+ padding 3))
               (symbol->string (caddr lst)))))
      (if (equal? X-ancestry Y-ancestry)
          (string-append
           (format #f "~&")
           (make-string padding #\space)
           "X,Y: "
           (if (list? (cadr lst))
               (format-ancestry (cadr lst) (+ padding 5))
               (symbol->string (cadr lst))))
          (string-append
           (format #f "~&")
           (make-string padding #\space)
           "X: " X-ancestry
           "\n"
           (make-string padding #\space)
           "Y: " Y-ancestry
           (format #f "~&"))))
    (format #f "~&")))

#(define (display-ancestry grob)
   (format (current-error-port)
      "~3&~a~2%~a~&"
      (make-string 36 #\-)
      (if (ly:grob? grob)
          (format-ancestry (get-ancestry grob) 0)
          (format #f "~a is not a grob" grob))))

\relative c' {
  \once \override NoteHead.before-line-breaking = #display-ancestry
  f4
  \once \override Accidental.before-line-breaking = #display-ancestry
  \once \override Arpeggio.before-line-breaking = #display-ancestry
  <f as c>4\arpeggio
}

[image of music]


Dotted harmonics

Artificial harmonics using \harmonic do not show dots. To override this behavior, set the context property harmonicDots.

\relative c''' {
  \time 3/4
  \key f \major
  \set harmonicDots = ##t
  <bes f'\harmonic>2. ~
  <bes f'\harmonic>4. <a e'\harmonic>8( <gis dis'\harmonic> <g d'\harmonic>)
  <fis cis'\harmonic>2.
  <bes f'\harmonic>2.
}

[image of music]


Drawing boxes around grobs

The print-function can be overridden to draw a box around an arbitrary grob.

\relative c'' {
  \override TextScript.stencil =
    #(make-stencil-boxer 0.1 0.3 ly:text-interface::print)
  c'4^"foo"

  \override Stem.stencil =
    #(make-stencil-boxer 0.05 0.25 ly:stem::print)
  \override Score.RehearsalMark.stencil =
    #(make-stencil-boxer 0.15 0.3 ly:text-interface::print)
  b8

  \revert Stem.stencil
  \revert Flag.stencil
  c4. c4
  \mark "F"
  c1
}

[image of music]


Drawing circles around various objects

The \circle markup command draws circles around various objects, for example fingering indications. For other objects, specific tweaks may be required: this example demonstrates two strategies for rehearsal marks and measure numbers.

\relative c' {
  c1
  \set Score.rehearsalMarkFormatter =
    #(lambda (mark context)
             (make-circle-markup (format-mark-numbers mark context)))
  \mark \default

  c2 d^\markup {
    \override #'(thickness . 3) {
      \circle \finger 2
    }
  }
  \override Score.BarNumber.break-visibility = #all-visible
  \override Score.BarNumber.stencil =
    #(make-stencil-circler 0.1 0.25 ly:text-interface::print)
}

[image of music]


Eigene Dynamiktextspanner nachgestellt

Die Nachstellung funktioniert für eigene Crescendo-Textstrecker. Die Strecker sollten an der ersten Note eines Taktes beginnen. Man muss -\mycresc benutzen, sonst wird der Beginn des Streckers der nächsten Note zugewiesen.

% Two functions for (de)crescendo spanners where you can explicitly
% give the spanner text.
mycresc =
#(define-music-function (mymarkup) (markup?)
   (make-music 'CrescendoEvent
               'span-direction START
               'span-type 'text
               'span-text mymarkup))
mydecresc =
#(define-music-function (mymarkup) (markup?)
   (make-music 'DecrescendoEvent
               'span-direction START
               'span-type 'text
               'span-text mymarkup))

\relative c' {
  c4-\mycresc "custom cresc" c4 c4 c4 |
  c4 c4 c4 c4 |
  c4-\mydecresc "custom decresc" c4 c4 c4 |
  c4 c4\! c4 c4
}

[image of music]


Dynamiktextstrecker nachgestellt

Die \cresc, \dim und \decresc Strecker können umdefiniert werden, um nachgestellt zu funktionieren und einen Textstrecker zu produzieren. Eigene Strecker können auch einfach definiert werden. Klammer- und Textcrescendi können einfach vermischt werden. \< und \> erstellen normalerweise Klammern, \cresc usw. dagegen normalerweise Textspanner.

% Some sample text dynamic spanners, to be used as postfix operators
crpoco =
#(make-music 'CrescendoEvent
             'span-direction START
             'span-type 'text
             'span-text "cresc. poco a poco")

\relative c' {
  c4\cresc d4 e4 f4 |
  g4 a4\! b4\crpoco c4 |
  c4 d4 e4 f4 |
  g4 a4\! b4\< c4 |
  g4\dim a4 b4\decresc c4\!
}

[image of music]


Extending a TrillSpanner

For TrillSpanner, the minimum-length property becomes effective only if the set-spacing-rods procedure is called explicitly.

To do this, the springs-and-rods property should be set to ly:spanner::set-spacing-rods.

\relative c' {
\key c\minor
  \time 2/4
  c16( as') c,-. des-.
  \once\override TrillSpanner.minimum-length = #15
  \once\override TrillSpanner.springs-and-rods = #ly:spanner::set-spacing-rods
  \afterGrace es4
  \startTrillSpan { d16[( \stopTrillSpan es)] }
  c( c' g es c g' es d
  \hideNotes
  c8)
}

[image of music]


Extending glissandi across repeats

A glissando which extends into several \alternative blocks can be simulated by adding a hidden grace note with a glissando at the start of each \alternative block. The grace note should be at the same pitch as the note which starts the initial glissando. This is implemented here with a music function which takes the pitch of the grace note as its argument.

Note that in polyphonic music the grace note must be matched with corresponding grace notes in all other voices.

repeatGliss = #(define-music-function (grace)
  (ly:pitch?)
  #{
    % the next two lines ensure the glissando is long enough
    % to be visible
    \once \override Glissando.springs-and-rods
      = #ly:spanner::set-spacing-rods
    \once \override Glissando.minimum-length = #3.5
    \once \hideNotes
    \grace $grace \glissando
  #})

\score {
  \relative c'' {
    \repeat volta 3 { c4 d e f\glissando }
    \alternative {
      { g2 d }
      { \repeatGliss f g2 e }
      { \repeatGliss f e2 d }
    }
  }
}

music =  \relative c' {
  \voiceOne
  \repeat volta 2 {
    g a b c\glissando
  }
  \alternative {
    { d1 }
    { \repeatGliss c \once \omit StringNumber e1\2 }
  }
}

\score {
  \new StaffGroup <<
    \new Staff <<
      \new Voice { \clef "G_8" \music }
    >>
    \new TabStaff  <<
      \new TabVoice { \clef "moderntab" \music }
    >>
  >>
}

[image of music]


Fine-tuning pedal brackets

The appearance of pedal brackets may be altered in different ways.

\paper { ragged-right = ##f }
\relative c'' {
  c2\sostenutoOn c
  c2\sostenutoOff c
  \once \override Staff.PianoPedalBracket.shorten-pair = #'(-7 . -2)
  c2\sostenutoOn c
  c2\sostenutoOff c
  \once \override Staff.PianoPedalBracket.edge-height = #'(0 . 3)
  c2\sostenutoOn c
  c2\sostenutoOff c
}

[image of music]


Flat Ties

The function takes the default Tie.stencil as an argument, calculating the result relying on the extents of this default.

Further tweaking is possible by overriding Tie.details.height-limit or with \shape. It’s also possible to change the custom-definition on the fly.

%% http://lsr.di.unimi.it/LSR/Item?id=1031

#(define ((flared-tie coords) grob)

  (define (pair-to-list pair)
     (list (car pair) (cdr pair)))

  (define (normalize-coords goods x y dir)
    (map
      (lambda (coord)
        ;(coord-scale coord (cons x (* y dir)))
        (cons (* x (car coord)) (* y dir (cdr coord))))
      goods))

  (define (my-c-p-s points thick)
    (make-connected-path-stencil
      points
      thick
      1.0
      1.0
      #f
      #f))

  ;; outer let to trigger suicide
  (let ((sten (ly:tie::print grob)))
    (if (grob::is-live? grob)
        (let* ((layout (ly:grob-layout grob))
               (line-thickness (ly:output-def-lookup layout 'line-thickness))
               (thickness (ly:grob-property grob 'thickness 0.1))
               (used-thick (* line-thickness thickness))
               (dir (ly:grob-property grob 'direction))
               (xex (ly:stencil-extent sten X))
               (yex (ly:stencil-extent sten Y))
               (lenx (interval-length xex))
               (leny (interval-length yex))
               (xtrans (car xex))
               (ytrans (if (> dir 0)(car yex) (cdr yex)))
               (uplist
                 (map pair-to-list
                      (normalize-coords coords lenx (* leny 2) dir))))

   (ly:stencil-translate
       (my-c-p-s uplist used-thick)
     (cons xtrans ytrans)))
   '())))

#(define flare-tie
  (flared-tie '((0 . 0)(0.1 . 0.2) (0.9 . 0.2) (1.0 . 0.0))))

\layout {
  \context {
    \Voice
    \override Tie.stencil = #flare-tie
  }
}

\paper { ragged-right = ##f }

\relative c' {
  a4~a
  \override Tie.height-limit = 4
  a'4~a
  a'4~a
  <a,, c e a c e a c e>~ q

  \break

  a'4~a
  \once \override Tie.details.height-limit = 14
  a4~a

  \break

  a4~a
  \once \override Tie.details.height-limit = 0.5
  a4~a

  \break

  a4~a
  \shape #'((0 . 0) (0 . 0.4) (0 . 0.4) (0 . 0)) Tie
  a4~a

  \break

  a4~a
  \once \override Tie.stencil =
    #(flared-tie '((0 . 0)(0.1 . 0.4) (0.9 . 0.4) (1.0 . 0.0)))
  a4~a

  a4~a
  \once \override Tie.stencil =
    #(flared-tie '((0 . 0)(0.06 . 0.1) (0.94 . 0.1) (1.0 . 0.0)))
  a4~a
}

[image of music]


Force a cancellation natural before accidentals

The following example shows how to force a natural sign before an accidental.

\relative c' {
  \key es \major
  bes c des
  \tweak Accidental.restore-first ##t
  eis
}

[image of music]


Horizontale Verschiebung von Noten erzwingen

Wenn es zu Zusammenstößen kommt, kann mit folgender Lösung eine andere Position manuell eingestellt werden. Die Einheiten hier sind Notenlinienzwischenräume.

\relative c' <<
  {
    <d g>2 <d g>
  }
  \\
  {
    <b f'>2
    \once \override NoteColumn.force-hshift = #1.7
    <b f'>2
  }
>>

[image of music]


Fret diagrams explained and developed

This snippet shows many possibilities for obtaining and tweaking fret diagrams.

<<
  \chords {
    a2 a
    \repeat unfold 3 {
      c c c d d
    }
  }

  \new Voice = "mel" {
    \textLengthOn
    % Set global properties of fret diagram
    \override TextScript.size = #1.2
    \override TextScript.fret-diagram-details.finger-code = #'below-string
    \override TextScript.fret-diagram-details.dot-color = #'black

    %% A chord for ukulele
    a'2^\markup {
      \override #'(fret-diagram-details . (
                   (string-count . 4)
                   (dot-color . white)
                   (finger-code . in-dot))) {
        \fret-diagram "4-2-2;3-1-1;2-o;1-o;"
      }
    }

    %% A chord for ukulele, with formatting defined in definition string
    %  1.2 * size, 4 strings, 4 frets, fingerings below string
    %  dot radius .35 of fret spacing, dot position 0.55 of fret spacing
    a'2^\markup {
      \override #'(fret-diagram-details . (
                   (dot-color . white)
                   (open-string . "o"))) {
        \fret-diagram "s:1.2;w:4;h:3;f:2;d:0.35;p:0.55;4-2-2;3-1-1;2-o;1-o;"
      }
    }

      %% These chords will be in normal orientation

    %% C major for guitar, barred on third fret
    %  verbose style
    %  roman fret label, finger labels below string, straight barre
    c'2^\markup {
      % 110% of default size
      \override #'(size . 1.1) {
        \override #'(fret-diagram-details . (
                     (number-type . roman-lower)
                     (finger-code . below-string)
                     (barre-type . straight))) {
          \fret-diagram-verbose #'((mute 6)
                                   (place-fret 5 3 1)
                                   (place-fret 4 5 2)
                                   (place-fret 3 5 3)
                                   (place-fret 2 5 4)
                                   (place-fret 1 3 1)
                                   (barre 5 1 3))
        }
      }
    }

    %% C major for guitar, barred on third fret
    %% Double barre used to test barre function
    %  verbose style
    c'2^\markup {
      % 110% of default size
      \override #'(size . 1.1) {
        \override #'(fret-diagram-details . (
                     (number-type . arabic)
                     (dot-label-font-mag . 0.9)
                     (finger-code . in-dot)
                     (fret-label-font-mag . 0.6)
                     (fret-label-vertical-offset . 0)
                     (label-dir . -1)
                     (mute-string . "M")
                     (xo-font-magnification . 0.4)
                     (xo-padding . 0.3))) {
          \fret-diagram-verbose #'((mute 6)
                                   (place-fret 5 3 1)
                                   (place-fret 4 5 2)
                                   (place-fret 3 5 3)
                                   (place-fret 2 5 4)
                                   (place-fret 1 3 1)
                                   (barre 4 2 5)
                                   (barre 5 1 3))
        }
      }
    }

    %% C major for guitar, with capo on third fret
    %  verbose style
    c'2^\markup {
      % 110% of default size
      \override #'(size . 1.1) {
        \override #'(fret-diagram-details . (
                     (number-type . roman-upper)
                     (dot-label-font-mag . 0.9)
                     (finger-code . none)
                     (fret-label-vertical-offset . 0.5)
                     (xo-font-magnification . 0.4)
                     (xo-padding . 0.3))) {
          \fret-diagram-verbose #'((mute 6)
                                   (capo 3)
                                   (open 5)
                                   (place-fret 4 5 1)
                                   (place-fret 3 5 2)
                                   (place-fret 2 5 3)
                                   (open 1))
        }
      }
    }

    %% simple D chord
    d'2^\markup {
      \override #'(fret-diagram-details . (
                   (finger-code . below-string)
                   (dot-radius . 0.35)
                   (string-thickness-factor . 0.3)
                   (dot-position . 0.5)
                   (fret-count . 3))) {
        \fret-diagram-terse "x;x;o;2-1;3-2;2-3;"
      }
    }

    %% simple D chord, large top fret thickness
    d'2^\markup  {
      \override #'(fret-diagram-details . (
                   (finger-code . below-string)
                   (dot-radius . 0.35)
                   (dot-position . 0.5)
                   (top-fret-thickness . 7)
                   (fret-count . 3))) {
        \fret-diagram-terse "x;x;o;2-1;3-2;2-3;"
      }
    }

      % These chords will be in landscape orientation
    \override TextScript.fret-diagram-details.orientation = #'landscape

    %% C major for guitar, barred on third fret
    %  verbose style
    %  roman fret label, finger labels below string, straight barre
    c'2^\markup {
      % 110% of default size
      \override #'(size . 1.1) {
        \override #'(fret-diagram-details . (
                     (number-type . roman-lower)
                     (finger-code . below-string)
                     (barre-type . straight))) {
          \fret-diagram-verbose #'((mute 6)
                                   (place-fret 5 3 1)
                                   (place-fret 4 5 2)
                                   (place-fret 3 5 3)
                                   (place-fret 2 5 4)
                                   (place-fret 1 3 1)
                                   (barre 5 1 3))
        }
      }
    }

    %% C major for guitar, barred on third fret
    %% Double barre used to test barre function
    %  verbose style
    c'2^\markup {
      % 110% of default size
      \override #'(size . 1.1) {
        \override #'(fret-diagram-details . (
                     (number-type . arabic)
                     (dot-label-font-mag . 0.9)
                     (finger-code . in-dot)
                     (fret-label-font-mag . 0.6)
                     (fret-label-vertical-offset . 0)
                     (label-dir . -1)
                     (mute-string . "M")
                     (xo-font-magnification . 0.4)
                     (xo-padding . 0.3))) {
          \fret-diagram-verbose #'((mute 6)
                                   (place-fret 5 3 1)
                                   (place-fret 4 5 2)
                                   (place-fret 3 5 3)
                                   (place-fret 2 5 4)
                                   (place-fret 1 3 1)
                                   (barre 4 2 5)
                                   (barre 5 1 3))
        }
      }
    }

    %% C major for guitar, with capo on third fret
    %  verbose style
    c'2^\markup {
      % 110% of default size
      \override #'(size . 1.1) {
        \override #'(fret-diagram-details . (
                     (number-type . roman-upper)
                     (dot-label-font-mag . 0.9)
                     (finger-code . none)
                     (fret-label-vertical-offset . 0.5)
                     (xo-font-magnification . 0.4)
                     (xo-padding . 0.3))) {
          \fret-diagram-verbose #'((mute 6)
                                   (capo 3)
                                   (open 5)
                                   (place-fret 4 5 1)
                                   (place-fret 3 5 2)
                                   (place-fret 2 5 3)
                                   (open 1))
        }
      }
    }

    %% simple D chord
    d'2^\markup {
      \override #'(fret-diagram-details . (
                   (finger-code . below-string)
                   (dot-radius . 0.35)
                   (dot-position . 0.5)
                   (fret-count . 3))) {
        \fret-diagram-terse "x;x;o;2-1;3-2;2-3;"
      }
    }

    %% simple D chord, large top fret thickness
    d'2^\markup {
      \override #'(fret-diagram-details . (
                   (finger-code . below-string)
                   (dot-radius . 0.35)
                   (dot-position . 0.5)
                   (top-fret-thickness . 7)
                   (fret-count . 3))) {
        \fret-diagram-terse "x;x;o;2-1;3-2;2-3;"
      }
    }

      % These chords will be in opposing-landscape orientation
    \override TextScript.fret-diagram-details.orientation = #'opposing-landscape

    %% C major for guitar, barred on third fret
    %  verbose style
    %  roman fret label, finger labels below string, straight barre
    c'2^\markup {
      % 110% of default size
      \override #'(size . 1.1) {
        \override #'(fret-diagram-details . (
                     (number-type . roman-lower)
                     (finger-code . below-string)
                     (barre-type . straight))) {
          \fret-diagram-verbose #'((mute 6)
                                   (place-fret 5 3 1)
                                   (place-fret 4 5 2)
                                   (place-fret 3 5 3)
                                   (place-fret 2 5 4)
                                   (place-fret 1 3 1)
                                   (barre 5 1 3))
        }
      }
    }

    %% C major for guitar, barred on third fret
    %% Double barre used to test barre function
    %  verbose style
    c'2^\markup {
      % 110% of default size
      \override #'(size . 1.1) {
        \override #'(fret-diagram-details . (
                     (number-type . arabic)
                     (dot-label-font-mag . 0.9)
                     (finger-code . in-dot)
                     (fret-label-font-mag . 0.6)
                     (fret-label-vertical-offset . 0)
                     (label-dir . -1)
                     (mute-string . "M")
                     (xo-font-magnification . 0.4)
                     (xo-padding . 0.3))) {
          \fret-diagram-verbose #'((mute 6)
                                   (place-fret 5 3 1)
                                   (place-fret 4 5 2)
                                   (place-fret 3 5 3)
                                   (place-fret 2 5 4)
                                   (place-fret 1 3 1)
                                   (barre 4 2 5)
                                   (barre 5 1 3))
        }
      }
    }

    %% C major for guitar, with capo on third fret
    %  verbose style
    c'2^\markup {
      % 110% of default size
      \override #'(size . 1.1) {
        \override #'(fret-diagram-details . (
                     (number-type . roman-upper)
                     (dot-label-font-mag . 0.9)
                     (finger-code . none)
                     (fret-label-vertical-offset . 0.5)
                     (xo-font-magnification . 0.4)
                     (xo-padding . 0.3))) {
          \fret-diagram-verbose #'((mute 6)
                                   (capo 3)
                                   (open 5)
                                   (place-fret 4 5 1)
                                   (place-fret 3 5 2)
                                   (place-fret 2 5 3)
                                   (open 1))
        }
      }
    }

    %% simple D chord
    d'2^\markup {
      \override #'(fret-diagram-details . (
                   (finger-code . below-string)
                   (dot-radius . 0.35)
                   (dot-position . 0.5)
                   (fret-count . 3))) {
        \fret-diagram-terse "x;x;o;2-1;3-2;2-3;"
      }
    }

    %% simple D chord, large top fret thickness
    d'2^\markup {
      \override #'(fret-diagram-details . (
                   (finger-code . below-string)
                   (dot-radius . 0.35)
                   (dot-position . 0.5)
                   (top-fret-thickness . 7)
                   (fret-count . 3))) {
        \fret-diagram-terse "x;x;o;2-1;3-2;2-3;"
      }
    }
  }
>>

[image of music]


Generating custom flags

The stencil property of the Flag grob can be set to a custom scheme function to generate the glyph for the flag.

#(define-public (weight-flag grob)
   (let* ((stem-grob (ly:grob-parent grob X))
          (log (- (ly:grob-property stem-grob 'duration-log) 2))
          (is-up? (eqv? (ly:grob-property stem-grob 'direction) UP))
          (yext (if is-up? (cons (* log -0.8) 0) (cons 0 (* log 0.8))))
          (flag-stencil (make-filled-box-stencil '(-0.4 . 0.4) yext))
          (stroke-style (ly:grob-property grob 'stroke-style))
          (stroke-stencil (if (equal? stroke-style "grace")
                              (make-line-stencil 0.2 -0.9 -0.4 0.9 -0.4)
                              empty-stencil)))
     (ly:stencil-add flag-stencil stroke-stencil)))


% Create a flag stencil by looking up the glyph from the font
#(define (inverted-flag grob)
   (let* ((stem-grob (ly:grob-parent grob X))
          (dir (if (eqv? (ly:grob-property stem-grob 'direction) UP) "d" "u"))
          (flag (retrieve-glyph-flag "" dir "" grob))
          (line-thickness (ly:staff-symbol-line-thickness grob))
          (stem-thickness (ly:grob-property stem-grob 'thickness))
          (stem-width (* line-thickness stem-thickness))
          (stroke-style (ly:grob-property grob 'stroke-style))
          (stencil (if (null? stroke-style)
                       flag
                       (add-stroke-glyph flag stem-grob dir stroke-style "")))
          (rotated-flag (ly:stencil-rotate-absolute stencil 180 0 0)))
     (ly:stencil-translate rotated-flag (cons (- (/ stem-width 2)) 0))))

snippetexamplenotes =
{
  \autoBeamOff c'8 d'16 c'32 d'64 \acciaccatura {c'8} d'64
}

{
  \override Score.RehearsalMark.self-alignment-X = #LEFT
  \time 1/4
  \mark "Normal flags"
  \snippetexamplenotes

  \mark "Custom flag: inverted"
  \override Flag.stencil = #inverted-flag
  \snippetexamplenotes

  \mark "Custom flag: weight"
  \override Flag.stencil = #weight-flag
  \snippetexamplenotes

  \mark "Revert to normal"
  \revert Flag.stencil
  \snippetexamplenotes
}

[image of music]


Glissando kann Grobs überspringen

NoteColumn-Grobs können bei Glissandos übersprungen werden.

\relative c' {
  a2 \glissando
  \once \override NoteColumn.glissando-skip = ##t
  f''4 d,
}

[image of music]


Hairpins with different line styles

Hairpins can take any style from line-interface - dashed-line, dotted-line, line, trill or zigzag.

\relative c' {
  c2\< c\!
  \override Hairpin.style = #'dashed-line
  c2\< c\!
  \override Hairpin.style = #'dotted-line
  c2\< c\!
  \override Hairpin.style = #'line
  c2\< c\!
  \override Hairpin.style = #'trill
  c2\< c\!
  \override Hairpin.style = #'zigzag
  c2\< c\!
  \revert Hairpin.style
  c2\< c\!
}

[image of music]


Horizontally aligning custom dynamics (e.g. "sempre pp", "piu f", "subito p")

Some dynamic expressions involve additional text, like „sempre pp“. Since dynamics are usually centered under the note, the \pp would be displayed way after the note it applies to.

To correctly align the „sempre pp“ horizontally so that it is aligned as if it were only the \pp, there are several approaches:

\paper {
  ragged-right = ##f
  indent = 2.5\cm
}

% Solution 1: Using a simple markup with a particular halign value
% Drawback: It's a markup, not a dynamic command, so \dynamicDown
%           etc. will have no effect
semppMarkup = \markup { \halign #1.4 \italic "sempre" \dynamic "pp" }

% Solution 2: Using a dynamic script & shifting with
%             \once \override ...X-offset = ..
% Drawback: \once \override needed for every invocation
semppK =
#(make-dynamic-script
  (markup #:line
          (#:normal-text
           #:italic "sempre"
           #:dynamic "pp")))

% Solution 3: Padding the dynamic script so the center-alignment
%             puts it at the correct position
% Drawback: the padding really reserves the space, nothing else can be there
semppT =
#(make-dynamic-script
  (markup #:line
          (#:normal-text
           #:italic "sempre"
           #:dynamic "pp"
           #:hspace 7.1)))

% Solution 4: Dynamic, setting the dimensions of the additional text to 0
% Drawback: To lilypond "sempre" has no extent, so it might put
%           other stuff there => collisions
% Drawback: Also, there seems to be some spacing, so it's not exactly the
%           same alignment as without the additional text
semppM =
#(make-dynamic-script
  (markup #:line
          (#:with-dimensions '(0 . 0) '(0 . 0)
                             #:right-align
                             #:normal-text
                             #:italic "sempre"
                             #:dynamic "pp")))

% Solution 5: Dynamic with explicit shifting inside the scheme function
semppG =
#(make-dynamic-script
  (markup #:hspace 0
          #:translate '(-18.85 . 0)
          #:line (#:normal-text
                  #:italic "sempre"
                  #:dynamic "pp")))

% Solution 6: Dynamic with explicit alignment. This has only effect
%             if one sets X-offset!
% Drawback: One needs to set DynamicText.X-offset!
% Drawback: Aligned at the right edge of the additional text,
%           not at the center of pp
semppMII =
#(make-dynamic-script
  (markup #:line (#:right-align
                  #:normal-text
                  #:italic "sempre"
                  #:dynamic "pp")))

\new StaffGroup <<
  \new Staff = "s" \with { instrumentName = \markup \column { Normal } }
  <<
    \relative c'' {
      \key es \major
      c4\pp c\p c c | c\ff c c\pp c
    }
  >>
  \new Staff = "sMarkup" \with {
    instrumentName = \markup \column { Normal markup }
  }
  <<
    \relative c'' {
      \key es \major
      c4-\semppMarkup c\p c c | c\ff c c-\semppMarkup c
    }
  >>
  \new Staff = "sK" \with {
    instrumentName = \markup \column { Explicit shifting }
  }
  <<
    \relative c'' {
      \key es \major
      \once \override DynamicText.X-offset = #-9.2
      c4\semppK c\p c c
      c4\ff c
      \once \override DynamicText.X-offset = #-9.2
      c4\semppK c
    }
  >>
  \new Staff = "sT" \with {
    instrumentName = \markup \column { Right padding }
  }
  <<
    \relative c'' {
      \key es \major
      c4\semppT c\p c c | c\ff c c\semppT c
    }
  >>
  \new Staff = "sM" \with {
    instrumentName = \markup \column { Set dimension "to zero" }
  }
  <<
    \relative c'' {
      \key es \major
      c4\semppM c\p c c | c\ff c c\semppM c
    }
  >>
  \new Staff = "sG" \with {
    instrumentName = \markup \column { Shift inside dynamics}
  }
  <<
    \relative c'' {
      \key es \major
      c4\semppG c\p c c | c\ff c c\semppG c
    }
  >>
  \new Staff = "sMII" \with {
    instrumentName = \markup \column { Alignment inside dynamics }
  }
  <<
    \relative c'' {
      \key es \major
      % Setting to ##f (false) gives the same result
      \override DynamicText.X-offset = #0
      c4\semppMII c\p c c | c\ff c c\semppMII c
    }
  >>
>>

\layout { \override Staff.InstrumentName.self-alignment-X = #LEFT }

[image of music]


How to change fret diagram position

If you want to move the position of a fret diagram, for example, to avoid collision, or to place it between two notes, you have various possibilities:

1) modify #’padding or #’extra-offset values (as shown in the first snippet)

2) you can add an invisible voice and attach the fret diagrams to the invisible notes in that voice (as shown in the second example).

If you need to move the fret according with a rythmic position inside the bar (in the example, the third beat of the measure) the second example is better, because the fret is aligned with the third beat itself.

harmonies = \chordmode
{
  a8:13
% THE FOLLOWING IS THE COMMAND TO MOVE THE CHORD NAME
  \once \override ChordNames.ChordName.extra-offset = #'(10 . 0)
  b8:13 s2.
% THIS LINE IS THE SECOND METHOD
    s4 s4  b4:13
}

\score
{
  <<
    \new ChordNames \harmonies
    \new Staff
    {a8^\markup { \fret-diagram  "6-x;5-0;4-2;3-0;2-0;1-2;"  }
% THE FOLLOWING IS THE COMMAND TO MOVE THE FRET DIAGRAM
     \once \override TextScript.extra-offset = #'(10 . 0)
     b4.~^\markup { \fret-diagram  "6-x;5-2;4-4;3-2;2-2;1-4;"  } b4. a8\break
% HERE IS THE SECOND METHOD
     <<
       { a8 b4.~ b4. a8}
       { s4 s4 s4^\markup { \fret-diagram  "6-x;5-2;4-4;3-2;2-2;1-4;"  }
       }
     >>
   }
  >>
}

[image of music]


How to print two rehearsal marks above and below the same barline (method 1)

This method prints two ’rehearsal marks’, one on top of the other. It shifts the lower rehearsal mark below the staff and then adds padding above it in order to place the upper rehearsal mark above the staff.

By adjusting the extra-offset and baseline-skip values you can increase or decrease the overall space between the rehearsal mark and the staff.

Because nearly every type of glyph or string can be made to behave like a rehearsal mark it is possible to centre those above and below a bar line.

Adding the appropriate ’break visibility’ as shown in snippet 1 will allow you to position two marks at the end of a line as well.

Note: Method 1 is less complex than Method 2 but does not really allow for fine tuning of placement of one of the rehearsal marks without affecting the other. It may also give some problems with vertical spacing, since using extra-offset does not change the bounding box of the mark from its original value.

\relative c'{
  c d e f |
  \once \override Score.RehearsalMark.extra-offset = #'(0 . -8.5)
  \once \override Score.RehearsalMark.baseline-skip = #9
  \mark \markup \center-column { \circle 1 \box A }
  g f e d |
  \once \override Score.RehearsalMark.extra-offset = #'(0 . -8.5)
  \once \override Score.RehearsalMark.baseline-skip = #9
  \mark \markup \center-column { \flat { \bold \small \italic Fine. } }
  g f e d |
  \once \override Score.RehearsalMark.extra-offset = #'(0 . -8.5)
  \once \override Score.RehearsalMark.baseline-skip = #9
  \override Score.RehearsalMark.break-visibility = #begin-of-line-invisible
  \mark \markup \center-column { \fermata \box z }
}

[image of music]


How to print two rehearsal marks above and below the same barline (method 2)

This method prints two ’rehearsal marks’ - one above the stave and one below, by creating two voices, adding the Rehearsal Mark engraver to each voice - without this no rehearsal mark is printed - and then placing each rehearsal mark UP and DOWN in each voice respectively.

This method (as opposed to method 1) is more complex, but allows for more flexibility, should it be needed to tweak each rehearsal mark independently of the other.

\score {
  \relative c'
  <<
    \new Staff {
      <<
        \new Voice \with {
          \consists Mark_engraver
          \consists "Staff_collecting_engraver"
        }
        { c4 d e f
          \mark \markup { \box A }
          c4 d e f
        }
        \new Voice \with {
          \consists Mark_engraver
          \consists "Staff_collecting_engraver"
          \override RehearsalMark.direction = #DOWN
        }
        { s4 s s s
          \mark \markup { \circle 1 }
          s4 s s s
        }
      >>
    }
  >>
  \layout {
    \context {
      \Score
      \remove "Mark_engraver"
      \remove "Staff_collecting_engraver"
    }
  }
}

[image of music]


Eine Zäsur einfügen

Zäsurzeichen können erstellt werden, indem die 'text-Eigenschaft des BreathingSign-Objektes verändert wird. Ein gekrümmtes Zäsurzeichen ist auch möglich.

\relative c'' {
  \override BreathingSign.text = \markup {
    \musicglyph "scripts.caesura.straight"
  }
  c8 e4. \breathe g8. e16 c4

  \override BreathingSign.text = \markup {
    \musicglyph "scripts.caesura.curved"
  }
  g8 e'4. \breathe g8. e16 c4
}

[image of music]


Keep change clefs full sized

When a clef is changed, the clef sign displayed is smaller than the initial clef. This can be overridden with full-size-change.

\relative c' {
  \clef "treble"
  c1
  \clef "bass"
  c1
  \clef "treble"
  c1
  \override Staff.Clef.full-size-change = ##t
  \clef "bass"
  c1
  \clef "treble"
  c1
  \revert Staff.Clef.full-size-change
  \clef "bass"
  c1
  \clef "treble"
  c1
}

[image of music]


Line arrows

Arrows can be applied to text-spanners and line-spanners (such as the Glissando).

\relative c'' {
  \override TextSpanner.bound-padding = #1.0
  \override TextSpanner.style = #'line
  \override TextSpanner.bound-details.right.arrow = ##t
  \override TextSpanner.bound-details.left.text = #"fof"
  \override TextSpanner.bound-details.right.text = #"gag"
  \override TextSpanner.bound-details.right.padding = #0.6

  \override TextSpanner.bound-details.right.stencil-align-dir-y = #CENTER
  \override TextSpanner.bound-details.left.stencil-align-dir-y = #CENTER

  \override Glissando.bound-details.right.arrow = ##t
  \override Glissando.arrow-length = #0.5
  \override Glissando.arrow-width = #0.25

  a8\startTextSpan gis a4 b\glissando b,
  g'4 c\stopTextSpan c2
}

[image of music]


Making an object invisible with the ’transparent property

Setting the transparent property will cause an object to be printed in „invisible ink“: the object is not printed, but all its other behavior is retained. The object still takes up space, it takes part in collisions, and slurs, ties and beams can be attached to it.

This snippet demonstrates how to connect different voices using ties. Normally, ties only connect two notes in the same voice. By introducing a tie in a different voice, and blanking the first up-stem in that voice, the tie appears to cross voices.

\relative {
  \time 2/4
  <<
    {
      \once \hide Stem
      \once \override Stem.length = #8
      b'8 ~ 8\noBeam
      \once \hide Stem
      \once \override Stem.length = #8
      g8 ~ 8\noBeam
    }
    \\
    {
      b8 g g e
    }
  >>
}

[image of music]


Making glissandi breakable

Setting the breakable property to #t in combination with after-line-breaking allows a glissando to break if it occurs at a line break:

glissandoSkipOn = {
  \override NoteColumn.glissando-skip = ##t
  \hide NoteHead
  \override NoteHead.no-ledgers = ##t
}

\relative c'' {
  \override Glissando.breakable = ##t
  \override Glissando.after-line-breaking = ##t
  f1\glissando |
  \break
  a4 r2. |
  f1\glissando
  \once \glissandoSkipOn
  \break
  a2 a4 r4 |
}

[image of music]


Manually controlling beam positions

Beam positions may be controlled manually, by overriding the positions setting of the Beam grob.

\relative c' {
  \time 2/4
  % from upper staff-line (position 2) to center (position 0)
  \override Beam.positions = #'(2 . 0)
  c8 c
  % from center to one above center (position 1)
  \override Beam.positions = #'(0 . 1)
  c8 c
}

[image of music]


Measure-centered bar numbers

For film scores, a common convention is to center bar numbers within their measure. This is achieved through setting the centerBarNumbers context property to true. When this is used, the type of the bar number grobs is CenteredBarNumber rather than BarNumber.

This example demonstrates a number of settings: the centered bar numbers are boxed and placed below the staves.

\layout {
  \context {
    \Score
    centerBarNumbers = ##t
    barNumberVisibility = #all-bar-numbers-visible
    \override CenteredBarNumber.stencil
      = #(make-stencil-boxer 0.1 0.25 ly:text-interface::print)
    \override CenteredBarNumberLineSpanner.direction = #DOWN
  }
}

\new StaffGroup <<
  \new Staff \relative c' {
    d4-. f8( e d4) bes'-> |
    d,-. f8( e d4) cis'-> |
    g-. f8( d e4) g-> |
    a,1-> |
  }
  \new Staff \relative c {
    \clef bass
    d4 f8 e d2~ |
    4 f8 e d2~ |
    4 4 2 |
    a1 |
  }
>>

[image of music]


Mensurstriche-Layout (Taktstriche zwischen den Systemen

Das Mensurstiche-Layout, in welchem die Taktlinien nicht auf den Systemen, sondern zwischen den Systemen gesetzt werden, kann mit einer StaffGroup anstelle von ChoirStaff erreicht werden. Die Taktlinien auf den Systemen werden mit der transparent-Eigenschaft ausgelöscht.

global = {
  \hide Staff.BarLine
  s1 s
  % the final bar line is not interrupted
  \undo \hide Staff.BarLine
  \bar "|."
}

\new StaffGroup \relative c'' {
  <<
    \new Staff { << \global { c1 c } >> }
    \new Staff { << \global { c c } >> }
  >>
}

[image of music]


Modifying the Ottava spanner slope

It is possible to change the slope of the Ottava spanner.

\relative c'' {
  \override Staff.OttavaBracket.stencil = #ly:line-spanner::print
  \override Staff.OttavaBracket.bound-details =
    #`((left . ((Y . 0)
                (attach-dir . ,LEFT)
                (padding . 0)
                (stencil-align-dir-y . ,CENTER)))
       (right . ((Y . 5.0) ; Change the number here
                 (padding . 0)
                 (attach-dir . ,RIGHT)
                 (text . ,(make-draw-dashed-line-markup
                           (cons 0 -1.2))))))
  \override Staff.OttavaBracket.left-bound-info =
     #ly:horizontal-line-spanner::calc-left-bound-info-and-text
  \override Staff.OttavaBracket.right-bound-info =
     #ly:horizontal-line-spanner::calc-right-bound-info
  \ottava #1
  c1
  c'''1
}

[image of music]


Moving dotted notes in polyphony

When a dotted note in the upper voice is moved to avoid a collision with a note in another voice, the default is to move the upper note to the right. This behaviour can be over-ridden by using the prefer-dotted-right property of NoteCollision.

\new Staff \relative c' <<
  {
    f2. f4
    \override Staff.NoteCollision.prefer-dotted-right = ##f
    f2. f4
    \override Staff.NoteCollision.prefer-dotted-right = ##t
    f2. f4
  }
  \\
  { e4 e e e e e e e e e e e }
>>

[image of music]


Moving slur positions vertically

The vertical position of a slur can be adjusted using the positions property of Slur. The property has 2 parameters, the first referring to the left end of the slur and the second to the right. The values of the parameters are not used by LilyPond to make an exact movement of the slur - instead it selects what placement of the slur looks best, taking into account the parameter values. Positive values move the slur up, and are appropriate for notes with stems down. Negative values move downward slurs further down.

\relative c' {
  \stemDown
  e4( a)
  \override Slur.positions = #'(1 . 1)
  e4( a)
  \override Slur.positions = #'(2 . 2)
  e4( a)
  \override Slur.positions = #'(3 . 3)
  e4( a)
  \override Slur.positions = #'(4 . 4)
  e4( a)
  \override Slur.positions = #'(5 . 5)
  e4( a)
  \override Slur.positions = #'(0 . 5)
  e4( a)
  \override Slur.positions = #'(5 . 0)
  e4( a)
  \stemUp
  \override Slur.positions = #'(-5 . -5)
  e4( a)
  \stemDown
  \revert Slur.positions
  e4( a)
}

[image of music]


Systeme schachteln

Die Eigenschaft systemStartDelimiterHierarchy kann eingesetzt werden, um komplizierte geschachtelte Systemklammern zu erstellen. Der Befehl \set StaffGroup.systemStartDelimiterHierarchy nimmt eine Liste mit der Anzahl der Systeme, die ausgegeben werden, auf. Vor jedem System kann eine Systemanfangsklammer angegeben werden. Sie muss in Klammern eingefügt werden und umfasst so viele Systeme, wie die Klammer einschließt. Elemente in der Liste können ausgelassen werden, aber die erste Klammer umfasst immer die gesamte Gruppe. Die Möglichkeiten der Anfangsklammer sind: SystemStartBar, SystemStartBracket, SystemStartBrace und SystemStartSquare.

\new StaffGroup
\relative c'' <<
  \override StaffGroup.SystemStartSquare.collapse-height = #4
  \set StaffGroup.systemStartDelimiterHierarchy
    = #'(SystemStartSquare (SystemStartBrace (SystemStartBracket a
                             (SystemStartSquare b)  ) c ) d)
  \new Staff { c1 }
  \new Staff { c1 }
  \new Staff { c1 }
  \new Staff { c1 }
  \new Staff { c1 }
>>

[image of music]


Overriding articulations by type

Sometimes you may want to affect a single articulation-type. Although it is always possible to use \tweak, it might become tedious to do so for every single sign of a whole score. The following shows how to tweak articulations with a list of custom settings. One use-case might be to create a style sheet.

With 2.16.2 and above it is possible to put the proposed function, \customScripts, into a \layout-block.

% Code by David Nalesnik and Thomas Morley

#(define (custom-script-tweaks ls)
  (lambda (grob)
    (let* ((type (ly:event-property
                    (ly:grob-property grob 'cause)
                    'articulation-type))
           (tweaks (assoc-ref ls type)))
      (if tweaks
          (for-each
            (lambda (x) (ly:grob-set-property! grob (car x) (cdr x)))
            tweaks)))))

customScripts =
#(define-music-function (settings) (list?)
#{
  \override Script.before-line-breaking =
    #(custom-script-tweaks settings)
#})

revertCustomScripts = \revert Script.before-line-breaking

%%%%%%%%%%%%%
% Example:
%%%%%%%%%%%%%

% Predefine a list of desired tweaks.
#(define my-settings-1
  '(
    (staccato . ((color . (1 0 0))
                 (padding . 0.5)))
    (accent . ((font-size . 0)
               (color . (1 0 0))))
    (tenuto . ((rotation . (45 0 0))
               (padding . 2)
               (font-size . 10)))
    (staccatissimo . ((padding . 1)
                      (color . (1 0 0))))
    (segno . ((font-size . 0)
              (color . (1 0 0))))
    ))

#(define my-settings-2
  '(
    (staccato . ((color . (0 1 0))))
    (accent . ((font-size . 4)
               (color . (0 1 0))
               (padding . 1.5)))
    (tenuto . ((font-size . 10)))
    (staccatissimo . ((padding . 2)
                      (color . (0 1 0))))
    (coda . ((color . (0 1 0))
             (padding . 1)))
    ))

one =
\relative c'' {
  f1--
  \customScripts #my-settings-1
  f-. f-! f-> f-- f-!\segno
  \revertCustomScripts
  f-> f-.
}

two =
\relative c' {
  f1--
  \customScripts #my-settings-2
  f-. f-! f-> f---> f-!
  f-> f-.\coda
}

\new Staff <<
   \new Voice { \voiceOne \one }
   \new Voice { \voiceTwo \two }
   >>

[image of music]


Overriding articulations of distinct type

Sometimes you may want to affect a single articulation type. Although it is always possible to use \tweak, it might become tedious to do so for every single sign of a whole score. The following shows how to tweak articulations with a list of custom settings. One use case might be to create a style sheet.

With 2.16.2 it is possible to put the proposed function, \customScripts, into a \layout block.

% Code by David Nalesnik and Thomas Morley

#(define (custom-script-tweaks ls)
  (lambda (grob)
    (let* ((type (ly:prob-property
                    (ly:grob-property grob 'cause)
                    'articulation-type))
           (tweaks (assoc-ref ls type)))
      (if tweaks
          (for-each
            (lambda (x) (ly:grob-set-property! grob (car x) (cdr x)))
            tweaks)))))

customScripts =
#(define-music-function (settings)(list?)
#{
  \override Script.before-line-breaking =
    #(custom-script-tweaks settings)
#})

revertCustomScripts = { \revert Script.before-line-breaking }

%%%%%%%%%%%%%
% Example:
%%%%%%%%%%%%%

% Predefine a list of desired tweaks.
#(define my-settings-1
  '(
    ("staccato" . ((color . (1 0 0))(padding . 0.5)))
    ("accent" . ((font-size . 0)(color . (1 0 0))))
    ("tenuto" . ((rotation . (45 0 0)) (padding . 2)(font-size . 10)))
    ("staccatissimo" . ((padding . 1) (color . (1 0 0))))
    ("segno" . ((font-size . 0)(color . (1 0 0))))
    ))

#(define my-settings-2
  '(
    ("staccato" . ((color . (0 1 0))))
    ("accent" . ((font-size . 4)(color . (0 1 0))(padding . 1.5)))
    ("tenuto" . ((font-size . 10)))
    ("staccatissimo" . ((padding . 2) (color . (0 1 0))))
    ("coda" . ((color . (0 1 0)) (padding . 1)))
    ))

one =
\relative c'' {
  f1--
  \customScripts #my-settings-1
  f-. f-! f-> f-- f-!\segno
  \revertCustomScripts
  f-> f-.
}

two =
\relative c' {
  f1--
  \customScripts #my-settings-2
  f-. f-! f-> f---> f-!
  f-> f-.\coda
}

\new Staff <<
   \new Voice { \voiceOne \one }
   \new Voice { \voiceTwo \two }
   >>

[image of music]


Sichtbarkeit von Prozent-Wiederholungen

Prozentwiederholungszähler können in regelmäßigen Intervallen angezeigt werden, indem man die Eigenschaft repeatCountVisibility beeinflusst.

\relative c'' {
  \set countPercentRepeats = ##t
  \set repeatCountVisibility = #(every-nth-repeat-count-visible 5)
  \repeat percent 10 { c1 } \break
  \set repeatCountVisibility = #(every-nth-repeat-count-visible 2)
  \repeat percent 6 { c1 d1 }
}

[image of music]


Positioning arpeggios

If you need to extend or shorten an arpeggio, you can modify the upper and lower start positions independently.

\relative c' {
  <c e g b>1\arpeggio
  \once \override Arpeggio.positions = #'(-5 . 0)
  <c e g b>1\arpeggio
  \once \override Arpeggio.positions = #'(0 . 5)
  <c e g b>1\arpeggio
  \once \override Arpeggio.positions = #'(-5 . 5)
  <c e g b>1\arpeggio
}

[image of music]


Positionierung von Ganztaktpausen

Anders als bei normalen Pausen gibt es keinen direkten Befehl, um die vertikale Position von Ganztaktpausen zu beeinflussen, indem man sie an eine Tonhöhe anhängt. In polyphoner Notation wird aber dennoch die Position der Pausen von geraden und ungeraden Stimmen voneinander unterschieden. Die Position von Ganztaktpausen kann wie folgt verändert werden:

\relative c'' {
  % Multi-measure rests by default are set under the fourth line
  R1
  % They can be moved using an override
  \override MultiMeasureRest.staff-position = #-2
  R1
  \override MultiMeasureRest.staff-position = #0
  R1
  \override MultiMeasureRest.staff-position = #2
  R1
  \override MultiMeasureRest.staff-position = #3
  R1
  \override MultiMeasureRest.staff-position = #6
  R1
  \revert MultiMeasureRest.staff-position
  \break

  % In two Voices, odd-numbered voices are under the top line
  << { R1 } \\ { a1 } >>
  % Even-numbered voices are under the bottom line
  << { a1 } \\ { R1 } >>
  % Multi-measure rests in both voices remain separate
  << { R1 } \\ { R1 } >>

  % Separating multi-measure rests in more than two voices
  % requires an override
  << { R1 } \\ { R1 } \\
     \once \override MultiMeasureRest.staff-position = #0
     { R1 }
  >>

  % Using compressed bars in multiple voices requires another override
  % in all voices to avoid multiple instances being printed
  \compressMMRests
  <<
   \revert MultiMeasureRest.direction
    { R1*3 }
    \\
   \revert MultiMeasureRest.direction
    { R1*3 }
  >>
}

[image of music]


Textbeschriftung innerhalb von Bögen positionieren

Textbeschriftung kann innerhalb von Bögen gesetzt werden, wenn die outside-staff-priority-Eigenschaft auf falsch gesetzt wird.

\relative c'' {
  \override TextScript.avoid-slur = #'inside
  \override TextScript.outside-staff-priority = ##f
  c2(^\markup { \halign #-10 \natural } d4.) c8
}

[image of music]


Setzen von Taktnummern in Kästen oder Kreisen

Taktnummern können auch in Boxen oder Kreisen gesetzt werden.

\relative c' {
  % Prevent bar numbers at the end of a line and permit them elsewhere
  \override Score.BarNumber.break-visibility = #end-of-line-invisible
  \set Score.barNumberVisibility = #(every-nth-bar-number-visible 4)

  % Increase the size of the bar number by 2
  \override Score.BarNumber.font-size = #2

  % Draw a box round the following bar number(s)
  \override Score.BarNumber.stencil
    = #(make-stencil-boxer 0.1 0.25 ly:text-interface::print)
  \repeat unfold 5 { c1 }

  % Draw a circle round the following bar number(s)
  \override Score.BarNumber.stencil
    = #(make-stencil-circler 0.1 0.25 ly:text-interface::print)
  \repeat unfold 4 { c1 } \bar "|."
}

[image of music]


Metronom- und Übungszeichen unter das System setzen

Normalerweise werden Metronom- und Übungszeichen über dem Notensystem ausgegeben. Um sie unter das System zu setzen, muss die direction-Eigenschaft von MetronomeMark oder RehearsalMark entsprechend verändert werden.

\layout {
  indent = 0
  ragged-right = ##f
}

{
  % Metronome marks below the staff
  \override Score.MetronomeMark.direction = #DOWN
  \tempo 8. = 120
  c''1

  % Rehearsal marks below the staff
  \override Score.RehearsalMark.direction = #DOWN
  \mark \default
  c''1
}

[image of music]


Printing note names with and without an octave marker

The NoteNames context can be used to print the text value of notes. The printOctaveNames property turns on or off the representation of the octave of the note.

scale = \relative c' {
  a4 b c d
  e4 f g a
}

\new Staff {
  <<
    \scale
    \context NoteNames {
      \set printOctaveNames = ##f
      \scale
    }
  >>
  R1
  <<
    \scale
    \context NoteNames {
      \set printOctaveNames = ##t
      \scale
    }
  >>
}

[image of music]


Proportional strict notespacing

If strict-note-spacing is set spacing of notes is not influenced by bars or clefs within a system. Rather, they are placed just before the note that occurs at the same time. This may cause collisions.

\relative c'' <<
  \override Score.SpacingSpanner.strict-note-spacing = ##t
  \set Score.proportionalNotationDuration = #(ly:make-moment 1/16)
  \new Staff {
    c8[ c \clef alto c c \grace { d16 } c8 c] c4
    c2 \grace { c16[ c16] } c2
  }
  \new Staff {
    c2 \tuplet 3/2 { c8 \clef bass cis,, c } c4
    c1
  }
>>

[image of music]


Removing brace on first line of piano score

This snippet removes the first brace from a PianoStaff or a GrandStaff.

It may be useful when cutting and pasting the engraved image into existing music.

It uses \alterBroken.

someMusic =  {
  \once \override Staff.Clef.stencil = ##f
  \once \override Staff.TimeSignature.stencil = ##f
  \repeat unfold 3 c1 \break
  \repeat unfold 5 c1 \break
  \repeat unfold 5 c1
}

\score {
  \new PianoStaff
  <<
    \new Staff = "right" \relative c'' \someMusic
    \new Staff = "left" \relative c' { \clef F \someMusic }
  >>
  \layout {
    indent=75
    \context {
      \PianoStaff
      \alterBroken transparent #'(#t) SystemStartBrace
    }
  }
}

[image of music]


Removing connecting bar lines on StaffGroup, PianoStaff, or GrandStaff

By default, bar lines in StaffGroup, PianoStaff, or GrandStaff groups are connected between the staves, i.e. a SpanBar is printed. This behaviour can be overridden on a staff-by-staff basis.

\relative c' {
  \new StaffGroup <<
    \new Staff {
      e1 | e
      \once \override Staff.BarLine.allow-span-bar = ##f
      e1 | e | e
    }
    \new Staff {
      c1 | c | c
      \once \override Staff.BarLine.allow-span-bar = ##f
      c1 | c
    }
    \new Staff {
      a1 | a | a | a | a
    }
  >>
}

[image of music]


Die erste leere Notenzeile auch entfernen

Ein leeres Notensystem kann auch aus der ersten Zeile einer Partitur entfernt werden, indem die Eigenschaft remove-first der VerticalAxisGroup-Eigenschaft eingesetzt wird. Das kann man global in einer \layout-Umgebung oder lokal in dem bestimmten Notensystem machen, das entfernt werden soll. In letzterem Fall muss man den Kontext angeben.

Das untere Notensystem der zweiten Systemgruppe wird nicht entfernt, weil in die Einstellungen in dem Schnipsel nur für das eine Notensystem gültig sind.

\layout {
  \context {
    \Staff \RemoveEmptyStaves
    % To use the setting globally, uncomment the following line:
    % \override VerticalAxisGroup.remove-first = ##t
  }
}
\new StaffGroup <<
  \new Staff \relative c' {
    e4 f g a \break
    c1
  }
  \new Staff {
    % To use the setting globally, comment this line,
    % uncomment the line in the \layout block above
    \override Staff.VerticalAxisGroup.remove-first = ##t
    R1 \break
    R
  }
>>
\new StaffGroup <<
  \new Staff \relative c' {
    e4 f g a \break
    c1
  }
  \new Staff {
    R1 \break
    R
  }
>>

[image of music]


Pausenstile

Pausen können in verschiedenen Stilen dargestellt werden.

\new Staff \relative c {
  \omit Score.TimeSignature
  \cadenzaOn

  \override Staff.Rest.style = #'mensural
  r\maxima^\markup \typewriter { mensural }
  r\longa r\breve r1 r2 r4 r8 r16 s32 s64 s128 s128
  \bar ""
  \break

  \override Staff.Rest.style = #'neomensural
  r\maxima^\markup \typewriter { neomensural }
  r\longa r\breve r1 r2 r4 r8 r16 s32 s64 s128 s128
  \bar ""
  \break

  \override Staff.Rest.style = #'classical
  r\maxima^\markup \typewriter { classical }
  r\longa r\breve r1 r2 r4 r8 r16 r32 r64 r128 s128
  \bar ""
  \break

  \override Staff.Rest.style = #'z
  r\maxima^\markup \typewriter { z-style }
  r\longa r\breve r1 r2 r4 r8 r16 r32 r64 r128 s128
  \bar ""
  \break

  \override Staff.Rest.style = #'default
  r\maxima^\markup \typewriter { default }
  r\longa r\breve r1 r2 r4 r8 r16 r32 r64 r128 s128
}

[image of music]


Rhythmic slashes

In „simple“ lead-sheets, sometimes no actual notes are written, instead only „rhythmic patterns“ and chords above the measures are notated giving the structure of a song. Such a feature is for example useful while creating/transcribing the structure of a song and also when sharing lead sheets with guitarists or jazz musicians.

The standard support for this using \repeat percent is unsuitable here since the first beat has to be an ordinary note or rest.

This example shows two solutions to this problem, by redefining ordinary rests to be printed as slashes. (If the duration of each beat is not a quarter note, replace the r4 in the definitions with a rest of the appropriate duration).

% Macro to print single slash
rs = {
  \once \override Rest.stencil = #ly:percent-repeat-interface::beat-slash
  \once \override Rest.thickness = #0.48
  \once \override Rest.slope = #1.7
  r4
}

% Function to print a specified number of slashes
comp = #(define-music-function (count) (integer?)
  #{
    \override Rest.stencil = #ly:percent-repeat-interface::beat-slash
    \override Rest.thickness = #0.48
    \override Rest.slope = #1.7
    \repeat unfold $count { r4 }
    \revert Rest.stencil
  #}
)

\score {
  \relative c' {
    c4 d e f |
    \rs \rs \rs \rs |
    \comp #4 |
  }
}

[image of music]


Separating key cancellations from key signature changes

By default, the accidentals used for key cancellations are placed adjacent to those for key signature changes. This behavior can be changed by overriding the 'break-align-orders property of the BreakAlignment grob.

The value of 'break-align-orders is a vector of length 3, with quoted lists of breakable items as elements. This example only modifies the second list, moving key-cancellation before staff-bar; by modifying the second list, break alignment behavior only changes in the middle of a system, not at the beginning or the end.

\new Staff {
  \override Score.BreakAlignment.break-align-orders =
    ##((left-edge ambitus breathing-sign clef staff-bar
                   key-cancellation key-signature time-signature custos)

        (left-edge ambitus breathing-sign clef key-cancellation
                   staff-bar key-signature time-signature custos)

        (left-edge ambitus breathing-sign clef key-cancellation
                   key-signature staff-bar time-signature custos))

  \key des \major
  c'1
  \bar "||"
  \key bes \major
  c'1
}

[image of music]


Das Verhalten von Crescendo-Klammern an Taktlinien beeinflussen

Wenn die Note, an welcher eine Crescendo-Klammer endet, die erste Note eines Taktes ist, wird die Klammer an der vorhergehenden Taktlinie beendet. Dieses Verhalten kann auch mit der Eigenschaft 'to-barline geändert werden:

\relative c'' {
  e4\< e2.
  e1\!
  \override Hairpin.to-barline = ##f
  e4\< e2.
  e1\!
}

[image of music]


Setting system separators

System separators can be inserted between systems. Any markup can be used, but \slashSeparator has been provided as a sensible default.

\paper {
  system-separator-markup = \slashSeparator
  line-width = 120
}

notes = \relative c' {
  c1 | c \break
  c1 | c \break
  c1 | c
}

\book {
  \score {
    \new GrandStaff <<
      \new Staff \notes
      \new Staff \notes
    >>
  }
}

[image of music]


Showing the same articulation above and below a note or chord

By default, LilyPond does not allow the same articulation (e.g., an accent, a fermata, a flageolet, etc.) to be displayed above and below a note. For example, c4_\fermata^\fermata only shows a fermata below. The fermata above gets simply ignored.

However, one can stick scripts (just like fingerings) inside a chord, which means it is possible to have as many articulations as desired. This approach has the advantage that it ignores the stem and positions the articulation relative to the note head. This can be seen in the case of the flageolets in the snippet. To mimic the behaviour of scripts outside a chord, 'add-stem-support would be required.

The solution is thus to write the note as a chord and add the articulations inside of <...>, using the direction modifiers ^ and _ as appropriate.

% The same as \flageolet, just a little smaller
smallFlageolet = \tweak font-size #-2 \flageolet

\relative c' {
  <>^"Wrong"
  c2_\fermata^\fermata % The second fermata is ignored!
  <e d'>2^\smallFlageolet_\smallFlageolet

  \stopStaff s1 \startStaff

  <>^"Works if written inside a chord"
  <e_\smallFlageolet d'^\smallFlageolet>2
  <e_\flageolet d'^\flageolet>2
  <e_\smallFlageolet^\smallFlageolet>2
  <e_\fermata^\fermata>2
}

[image of music]


String number extender lines

Make an extender line for string number indications, showing that a series of notes is supposed to be played all on the same string.

stringNumberSpanner =
  #(define-music-function (StringNumber) (string?)
    #{
      \override TextSpanner.style = #'solid
      \override TextSpanner.font-size = #-5
      \override TextSpanner.bound-details.left.stencil-align-dir-y = #CENTER
      \override TextSpanner.bound-details.left.text =
        \markup { \circle \number $StringNumber }
    #})


\relative c {
  \clef "treble_8"
  \stringNumberSpanner "5"
  \textSpannerDown
  a8\startTextSpan
  b c d e f\stopTextSpan
  \stringNumberSpanner "4"
  g\startTextSpan a
  bes4 a g2\stopTextSpan
}

[image of music]


Suppressing warnings for clashing note columns

If notes from two voices with stems in the same direction are placed at the same position, and both voices have no shift or the same shift specified, the error message ‘warning: ignoring too many clashing note columns’ will appear when compiling the LilyPond file. This message can be suppressed by setting the 'ignore-collision property of the NoteColumn object to #t. Please note that this does not just suppress warnings but stops LilyPond trying to resolve collisions at all and so may have unintended results unless used with care.

ignore = \override NoteColumn.ignore-collision = ##t

\relative c' {
  \new Staff <<
    \new Voice { \ignore \stemDown f2 g }
    \new Voice { c2 \stemDown c, }
  >>
}

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Time signature in parentheses - method 3

Another way to put the time signature in parenthesis

\relative c'' {
  \override Staff.TimeSignature.stencil = #(lambda (grob)
    (parenthesize-stencil (ly:time-signature::print grob) 0.1 0.4 0.4 0.1 ))
  \time 2/4
  a4 b8 c
}

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Time signature in parentheses

The time signature can be enclosed within parentheses.

\relative c'' {
  \override Staff.TimeSignature.stencil = #(lambda (grob)
    (bracketify-stencil (ly:time-signature::print grob) Y 0.1 0.2 0.1))
  \time 2/4
  a4 b8 c
}

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Time signature printing only the numerator as a number (instead of the fraction)

Sometimes, a time signature should not print the whole fraction (for example, 7/4), but only the numerator (digit 7 in this case). This can be easily done by using \override Staff.TimeSignature.style = #'single-digit to change the style permanently. By using \revert Staff.TimeSignature.style, this setting can be reversed. To apply the single-digit style to only one time signature, use the \override command and prefix it with a \once.

\relative c'' {
  \time 3/4
  c4 c c
  % Change the style permanently
  \override Staff.TimeSignature.style = #'single-digit
  \time 2/4
  c4 c
  \time 3/4
  c4 c c
  % Revert to default style:
  \revert Staff.TimeSignature.style
  \time 2/4
  c4 c
  % single-digit style only for the next time signature
  \once \override Staff.TimeSignature.style = #'single-digit
  \time 5/4
  c4 c c c c
  \time 2/4
  c4 c
}

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Tuplet bracket and change staff

This snippet shows how to set a tuplet starting in a lower staff and finishing in the upper one.

aigues = \relative c' {
  \time 6/8
  s4.
  \stemDown
  c16[ bes' e]
  \stemUp
  g c e
  \stemDown
  g8
}

basses = \relative c {
  \time 3/4
  \clef F
  \tweak positions #'(4.5 . 9.5)
  \tweak edge-height #'(1 . -1)
  \tuplet 7/6 {
    c16[ bes' e]
    \change Staff = md
    \stemUp
    g[ c e g]
  }
  s4.s8
}

\new PianoStaff
\with { \omit TimeSignature }
<<
  \new Staff = md \aigues
  \new Staff = mg \basses
>>

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Eigenschaften des Schlüssels optimieren

Der Befehl \clef "treble_8" ist gleichbedeutend mit einem expliziten Setzen der Eigenschaften von clefGlyph, clefPosition (welche die vertikale Position des Schlüssels bestimmt), middleCPosition und clefTransposition. Ein Schlüssel wird ausgegeben, wenn eine der Eigenschaften außer middleCPosition sich ändert.

Eine Änderung des Schriftzeichens (Glyph), der Schlüsselposition oder der Oktavierung selber ändert noch nicht die Position der darauf folgenden Noten auf dem System: das geschieht nur, wenn auch die Position des eingestrichenen C (middleCPosition) angegeben wird. Die Positionsparameter sind relativ zur Mittellinie des Systems, dabei versetzen positive Zahlen die Position nach oben, jeweils eine Zahl für jede Linie plus Zwischenraum. Der clefTransposition-Wert ist normalerweise auf 7, -7, 15 oder -15 gesetzt, aber auch andere Werte sind gültig.

Wenn ein Schlüsselwechsel an einem Zeilenwechsel geschieht, wird das neue Symbol sowohl am Ende der alten Zeilen als auch am Anfang der neuen Zeile ausgegeben. Wenn der Warnungs-Schlüssel am Ende der alten Zeile nicht erforderlich ist, kann er unterdrückt werden, indem die explicitClefVisibility-Eigenschaft des Staff-Kontextes auf den Wert end-of-line-invisible gesetzt wird. Das Standardverhalten kann mit \unset Staff.explicitClefVisibility wieder hergestellt werden.

Die folgenden Beispiele zeigen die Möglichkeiten, wenn man diese Eigenschaften manuell setzt. Auf der ersten Zeile erhalten die manuellen Änderungen die ursprüngliche relative Positionierung von Schlüssel und Noten, auf der zweiten Zeile nicht.

{
  % The default treble clef
  \key f \major
  c'1
  % The standard bass clef
  \set Staff.clefGlyph = #"clefs.F"
  \set Staff.clefPosition = #2
  \set Staff.middleCPosition = #6
  \set Staff.middleCClefPosition = #6
  \key g \major
  c'1
  % The baritone clef
  \set Staff.clefGlyph = #"clefs.C"
  \set Staff.clefPosition = #4
  \set Staff.middleCPosition = #4
  \set Staff.middleCClefPosition = #4
  \key f \major
  c'1
  % The standard choral tenor clef
  \set Staff.clefGlyph = #"clefs.G"
  \set Staff.clefPosition = #-2
  \set Staff.clefTransposition = #-7
  \set Staff.middleCPosition = #1
  \set Staff.middleCClefPosition = #1
  \key f \major
  c'1
  % A non-standard clef
  \set Staff.clefPosition = #0
  \set Staff.clefTransposition = #0
  \set Staff.middleCPosition = #-4
  \set Staff.middleCClefPosition = #-4
  \key g \major
  c'1 \break

  % The following clef changes do not preserve
  % the normal relationship between notes, key signatures
  % and clefs:

  \set Staff.clefGlyph = #"clefs.F"
  \set Staff.clefPosition = #2
  c'1
  \set Staff.clefGlyph = #"clefs.G"
  c'1
  \set Staff.clefGlyph = #"clefs.C"
  c'1
  \set Staff.clefTransposition = #7
  c'1
  \set Staff.clefTransposition = #0
  \set Staff.clefPosition = #0
  c'1

  % Return to the normal clef:

  \set Staff.middleCPosition = #0
  c'1
}

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Veränderung des Layouts von Verzierungen innerhalb der Noten

Das Layout von Verzierungsausdrücken kann in der Musik verändert werden mit den Funktionen add-grace-property und remove-grace-property. Das folgende Beispiel definiert die Richtung von Hälsen (Stem) für diese Verzierung, sodass die Hälse nicht immer nach unten zeigen, und ändert den Standardnotenkopf in ein Kreuz.

\relative c'' {
  \new Staff {
    $(remove-grace-property 'Voice 'Stem 'direction)
    $(add-grace-property 'Voice 'NoteHead 'style 'cross)
    \new Voice {
       \acciaccatura { f16 } g4
       \grace { d16 e } f4
       \appoggiatura { f,32 g a } e2
    }
  }
}

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Using alternative flag styles

Alternative styles of flag on eighth and shorter notes can be displayed by overriding the stencil property of Flag. Valid values are modern-straight-flag, old-straight-flag and flat-flag.

testnotes = {
  \autoBeamOff
  c8 d16 c32 d64 \acciaccatura { c8 } d64 r4
}

\score {
  \relative c' {
    \time 2/4
    \testnotes

    \override Flag.stencil = #modern-straight-flag
    \testnotes

    \override Flag.stencil = #old-straight-flag
    \testnotes

    \override Flag.stencil = #flat-flag
    \testnotes

    \revert Flag.stencil
    \testnotes
  }
  \layout {
    indent = 0
    \context {
      \Score
      \override NonMusicalPaperColumn.line-break-permission = ##f
    }
  }
}

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Using ly:grob-object to access grobs with \tweak

Some grobs can be accessed “laterally” from within another grob’s callback. These are usually listed as “layout objects” in the “Internal properties” section of a grob-interface. The function ly:grob-object is used to access these grobs.

Demonstrated below are some ways of accessing grobs from within a NoteHead callback, but the technique is not limited to NoteHeads. However, the NoteHead callback is particularly important, since it is the implicit callback used by the \tweak command.

The example function defined below ("display-grobs") is probably not that useful, but it demonstrates that the grobs are indeed being accessed.

Example console output:

#Grob Accidental () #Grob Stem

#(define (notehead-get-accidental notehead)
   ;; notehead is grob
   (ly:grob-object notehead 'accidental-grob))

#(define (notehead-get-arpeggio notehead)
   ;; notehead is grob
   (let ((notecolumn (notehead-get-notecolumn notehead)))
     (ly:grob-object notecolumn 'arpeggio)))

#(define (notehead-get-notecolumn notehead)
   ;; notehead is grob
   (ly:grob-parent notehead X))

#(define (notehead-get-stem notehead)
   ;; notehead is grob
   (let ((notecolumn (notehead-get-notecolumn notehead)))
     (ly:grob-object notecolumn 'stem)))

#(define (display-grobs notehead)
   ;; notehead is grob
   (let ((accidental (notehead-get-accidental notehead))
         (arpeggio (notehead-get-arpeggio notehead))
         (stem (notehead-get-stem notehead)))
     (format (current-error-port) "~2&~a\n" (make-string 20 #\-))
     (for-each
      (lambda (x) (format (current-error-port) "~a\n" x))
      (list accidental arpeggio stem))))

\relative c' {
  %% display grobs for each note head:
  %\override NoteHead.before-line-breaking = #display-grobs
  <c
  %% or just for one:
  \tweak before-line-breaking #display-grobs
  es
  g>1\arpeggio
}

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Using PostScript to generate special note head shapes

When a note head with a special shape cannot easily be generated with graphic markup, PostScript code can be used to generate the shape. This example shows how a parallelogram-shaped note head is generated.

parallelogram =
  #(ly:make-stencil (list 'embedded-ps
    "gsave
      currentpoint translate
      newpath
      0 0.25 moveto
      1.3125 0.75 lineto
      1.3125 -0.25 lineto
      0 -0.75 lineto
      closepath
      fill
      grestore" )
    (cons 0 1.3125)
    (cons -.75 .75))

myNoteHeads = \override NoteHead.stencil = \parallelogram
normalNoteHeads = \revert NoteHead.stencil

\relative c'' {
  \myNoteHeads
  g4 d'
  \normalNoteHeads
  <f, \tweak stencil \parallelogram b e>4 d
}

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Using the \tweak command to tweak individual grobs

With the \tweak command, every grob can be tuned directly. Here are some examples of available tweaks.

\relative c' {
  \time 2/4
  \set fingeringOrientations = #'(right)
  <
    \tweak font-size #3 c
    \tweak color #red d-\tweak font-size #8 -4
    \tweak style #'cross g
    \tweak duration-log #2 a
  >2
}

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Vertikale Ausrichtung von Dynamik und Textbeschriftung beeinflussen

Indem man die 'Y-extent-Eigenschaft auf einen passenden Wert setzt, können alle DynamicLineSpanner-Objekte (Crescendo-Klammern und Dynamik-Texte) (hairpins and dynamic texts) unabhängig von ihrer wirklichen Ausdehnung an einem gemeinsamen Referenzpunkt ausgerichtet werden. Auf diese Weise ist jedes Element vertikal ausgerichtet und der Notensatz sieht ansprechender aus.

Die gleiche Idee wird benutzt, um Textbeschriftungen an ihrer Grundlinie auszurichten.

music = \relative c' {
  a'2\p b\f
  e4\p f\f\> g, b\p
  c2^\markup { \huge gorgeous } c^\markup { \huge fantastic }
}

{
  \music
  \break
  \override DynamicLineSpanner.staff-padding = #3
  \textLengthOn
  \override TextScript.staff-padding = #1
  \music
}

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Gesangstext und Ossia vertikal ausrichten

Dieser Schnipsel zeigt, wie man die Kontexteigenschaften alignBelowContext und alignAboveContext benutzen kann, um die Positionierung von Gesangstext und Ossia-Abschnitten zu kontrollieren.

\paper {
  ragged-right = ##t
}

\relative c' <<
  \new Staff = "1" { c4 c s2 }
  \new Staff = "2" { c4 c s2 }
  \new Staff = "3" { c4 c s2 }
  { \skip 2
    <<
      \lyrics {
        \set alignBelowContext = #"1"
        lyrics4 below
      }
      \new Staff \with {
        alignAboveContext = #"3"
        fontSize = #-2
        \override StaffSymbol.staff-space = #(magstep -2)
        \remove "Time_signature_engraver"
      } {
        \tuplet 6/4 {
          \override TextScript.padding = #3
          c8[^"ossia above" d e d e f]
        }
      }
    >>
  }
>>

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Vertically centering paired figured bass extenders

Where figured bass extender lines are being used by setting useBassFigureExtenders to true, pairs of congruent figured bass extender lines are vertically centered if figuredBassCenterContinuations is set to true.

<<
  \relative c' {
    c8 c b b a a c16 c b b
    c8 c b b a a c16 c b b
    c8 c b b a a c c b b
  }
  \figures {
    \set useBassFigureExtenders = ##t
    <6+ 4 3>4 <6 4 3>8 r
    <6+ 4 3>4 <6 4 3>8 <4 3+>16 r
    \set figuredBassCenterContinuations = ##t
    <6+ 4 3>4 <6 4 3>8 r
    <6+ 4 3>4 <6 4 3>8 <4 3+>16 r
    \set figuredBassCenterContinuations = ##f
    <6+ 4 3>4 <6 4 3>8 r
    <6+ 4 3>4 <6 4 3>8 <4 3+>8
  }
>>

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LilyPond – Snippets v2.23.10 (Entwicklungszweig).