Text

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Adding markups in a tablature

By default markups does not show in a tablature.

To make them appear, simply use the command \revert TabStaff.TextScript.stencil

%% http://lsr.di.unimi.it/LSR/Item?id=919
% by P.P.Schneider on June 2014

high  = { r4 r8 <g c'> q r8 r4 }

low = { c4 r4 c8 r8 g,8 b, }

pulse = { s8^"1" s^"&" s^"2" s^"&" s^"3" s^"&" s^"4" s^"&" }

\score {
 \new TabStaff {
   \repeat unfold 2 << \high \\ \low \\ \pulse >>
  }
  \layout {
    \context {
      \TabStaff
      \clef moderntab
      \revert TextScript.stencil
      \override TextScript.font-series = #'bold
      \override TextScript.font-size = #-2
      \override TextScript.color = #red

    }
    \context {
      \Score
      proportionalNotationDuration = #(ly:make-moment 1/8)
    }
  }
}

[image of music]


Adding the current date to a score

With a little Scheme code, the current date can easily be added to a score.

% first, define a variable to hold the formatted date:
date = #(strftime "%d-%m-%Y" (localtime (current-time)))

% use it in the title block:
\header {
  title = "Including the date!"
  subtitle = \date
}

\score {
  \relative c'' {
    c4 c c c
  }
}
% and use it in a \markup block:
\markup {
  \date
}

[image of music]


Adjusting lyrics vertical spacing

This snippet shows how to bring the lyrics line closer to the staff.

% Default layout:
<<
  \new Staff \new Voice = melody \relative c' {
    c4 d e f
    g4 f e d
    c1
  }
  \new Lyrics \lyricsto melody { aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa }

  \new Staff {
    \new Voice = melody \relative c' {
      c4 d e f
      g4 f e d
      c1
    }
  }
  % Reducing the minimum space below the staff and above the lyrics:
  \new Lyrics \with {
    \override VerticalAxisGroup.nonstaff-relatedstaff-spacing =
      #'((basic-distance . 1))
  }
  \lyricsto melody { aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa }
>>

[image of music]


Aligning and centering instrument names

The horizontal alignment of instrument names is tweaked by changing the Staff.InstrumentName #'self-alignment-X property. The \layout variables indent and short-indent define the space in which the instrument names are aligned before the first and the following systems, respectively.

\paper { left-margin = 3\cm }

\score {
  \new StaffGroup <<

    \new Staff \with {
      \override InstrumentName.self-alignment-X = #LEFT
      instrumentName = \markup \left-column {
        "Left aligned"
        "instrument name"
        }
        shortInstrumentName = "Left"
      }

      {  c''1 \break c''1 }

    \new Staff \with {
      \override InstrumentName.self-alignment-X = #CENTER
      instrumentName = \markup \center-column {
        Centered
        "instrument name"
        }
      shortInstrumentName = "Centered"
    }

    { g'1 g'1}

    \new Staff \with {
      \override InstrumentName.self-alignment-X = #RIGHT
      instrumentName = \markup \right-column {
        "Right aligned"
        "instrument name"
      }
      shortInstrumentName = "Right"
    }

    { e'1 e'1 }

  >>

  \layout {
    ragged-right = ##t
    indent = 4\cm
    short-indent = 2\cm
  }
}

[image of music]


Aligning objects created with the \mark command

By default the \mark command centers objects over a bar line. This behavior can be modified to align at right or left.

\relative c' {
  c1 \mark "(Center)"
  c1
  \once \override Score.RehearsalMark.self-alignment-X = #LEFT
  \mark "(Left)"
  c4 c c c
  c4 c c c
  \once \override Score.RehearsalMark.self-alignment-X = #RIGHT
  \mark "(Right)"
  c1
}

[image of music]


Aligning syllables with melisma

By default, lyrics syllables that start a melisma are left aligned on their note. The alignment can be altered using the lyricMelismaAlignment property.

\score {
  <<
    \new Staff {
      \relative c''
      \new Voice = "vocal" {
        c d~^\markup default  d e
        c d~^\markup "right aligned" d e
        c d~^\markup "center aligned" d e
        c d~^\markup "reset to default" d e
      }
    }
    \new Lyrics \lyricsto "vocal" {
      word word word
      \set lyricMelismaAlignment = #RIGHT
      word word word
      \set lyricMelismaAlignment = #CENTER
      word word word
      \unset lyricMelismaAlignment
      word word word
    }
  >>
}

[image of music]


Blanking staff lines using the \whiteout command

The \whiteout command underlays a markup with a white box. Since staff lines are in a lower layer than most other grobs, this white box will not overlap any other grob.

\layout {
  ragged-right = ##f
}

\relative c' {
  \override TextScript.extra-offset = #'(2 . 4)
  c2-\markup { \whiteout \pad-markup #0.5 "middle C" } c
}

[image of music]


Center text below hairpin dynamics

This example provides a function to typeset a hairpin (de)crescendo with some additional text below it, such as „molto“ or „poco“. The added text will change the direction according to the direction of the hairpin. The Hairpin is aligned to DynamicText.

The example also illustrates how to modify the way an object is normally printed, using some Scheme code.

hairpinWithCenteredText =
#(define-music-function (text) (markup?)
  #{
    \once \override Voice.Hairpin.after-line-breaking =
      #(lambda (grob)
        (let* ((stencil (ly:hairpin::print grob))
               (par-y (ly:grob-parent grob Y))
               (dir (ly:grob-property par-y 'direction))
               (new-stencil (ly:stencil-aligned-to
                 (ly:stencil-combine-at-edge
                   (ly:stencil-aligned-to stencil X CENTER)
                   Y dir
                   (ly:stencil-aligned-to
                     (grob-interpret-markup grob text) X CENTER))
                 X LEFT))
               (staff-space (ly:output-def-lookup
                 (ly:grob-layout grob) 'staff-space))
               (staff-line-thickness
                 (ly:output-def-lookup (ly:grob-layout grob) 'line-thickness))
               (par-x (ly:grob-parent grob X))
               (dyn-text (grob::has-interface par-x 'dynamic-text-interface))
               (dyn-text-stencil-x-length
                 (if dyn-text
                   (interval-length
                     (ly:stencil-extent (ly:grob-property par-x 'stencil) X))
                   0))
               (x-shift
                 (if dyn-text
                   (-
                     (+ staff-space dyn-text-stencil-x-length)
                     (* 0.5 staff-line-thickness)) 0)))

        (ly:grob-set-property! grob 'Y-offset 0)
        (ly:grob-set-property! grob 'stencil
           (ly:stencil-translate-axis
            new-stencil
            x-shift X))))
  #})

hairpinMolto =
\hairpinWithCenteredText \markup { \italic molto }

hairpinMore =
\hairpinWithCenteredText \markup { \larger moltissimo }

\layout { ragged-right = ##f }

\relative c' {
  \hairpinMolto
  c2\< c\f
  \hairpinMore
  c2\ppppp\< c\f
  \break
  \hairpinMolto
  c2^\< c\f
  \hairpinMore
  c2\ppppp\< c\f
}

[image of music]


Changing ottava text

Internally, \ottava sets the properties ottavation (for example, to 8va or 8vb) and middleCPosition. To override the text of the bracket, set ottavation after invoking \ottava.

Short text is especially useful when a brief ottava is used.

{
  c'2
  \ottava #1
  \set Staff.ottavation = #"8"
  c''2
  \ottava #0
  c'1
  \ottava #1
  \set Staff.ottavation = #"Text"
  c''1
}

[image of music]


Changing the default text font family

The default font families for text can be overridden with make-pango-font-tree.

\paper {
  % change for other default global staff size.
  myStaffSize = #20
  %{
     run
         lilypond -dshow-available-fonts
     to show all fonts available in the process log.
  %}

  #(define fonts
    (make-pango-font-tree "Times New Roman"
                          "Nimbus Sans,Nimbus Sans L"
                          "Luxi Mono"
;;                        "Helvetica"
;;                        "Courier"
     (/ myStaffSize 20)))
}

\relative c'' {
  c4^\markup {
    roman: foo \bold bla \italic bar \italic \bold baz
  }
  c'4_\markup {
    \override #'(font-family . sans)
    {
      sans: foo \bold bla \italic bar \italic \bold baz
    }
  }
  c'2^\markup {
    \override #'(font-family . typewriter)
    {
      mono: foo \bold bla \italic bar \italic \bold baz
    }
  }
}

[image of music]


Combining dynamics with markup texts

Some dynamics may involve text indications (such as „più forte“ or „piano subito“). These can be produced using a \markup block.

piuF = \markup { \italic più \dynamic f }

\layout { ragged-right = ##f }

\relative c'' {
  c2\f c-\piuF
}

[image of music]


Zwei Stimmen auf einem System kombinieren

Die Funktion, die Stimmen kombiniert (also der \partCombine-Befehl) ermöglicht die Kombination unterschiedlicher Stimmen auf einem System. Textanweisungen wie "solo" oder "a2" werden automatisch hinzugefügt. Wenn man sie entfernen will, muss man die Eigenschaft printPartCombineTexts auf falsch setzen. Für Klavierauszüge muss natürlich kein "solo"/"a2" usw. hinzugefügt werden, man sollte sie also ausschalten. Wenn aber Solo-Stellen in einem Klavierauszug oder einer Chorpartitur angezeigt werden, ist es besser, normale Polyphonie zu verwenden, weil so die Solostellen angezeigt werden, auch wenn der Text des Stimmenkombinierers ausgeschaltet ist.

Der Schnipsel zeigt drei Möglichkeiten, Stimmen auf einem System zu kombinieren: Standardpolyphonie, \partCombine ohne Text und \partCombine mit Text.

%% Combining pedal notes with clef changes

musicUp = \relative c'' {
  \time 4/4
  a4 c4.( g8) a4 |
  g4 e' g,( a8 b) |
  c b a2.
}

musicDown = \relative c'' {
  g4 e4.( d8) c4 |
  r2 g'4( f8 e) |
  d2 \stemDown a
}

\score {
    <<
    \new Staff \with { instrumentName = "Standard polyphony" }

      << \musicUp \\ \musicDown >>

    \new Staff \with {
      instrumentName = "PartCombine without text"
      printPartCombineTexts = ##f
    }

    \partCombine \musicUp \musicDown

    \new Staff \with { instrumentName = "PartCombine with text" }
      \partCombine \musicUp \musicDown
    >>
  \layout {
    indent = 6.0\cm
    \context {
      \Score
      \override SystemStartBar.collapse-height = #30
    }
  }
}

[image of music]


Creating "real" parenthesized dynamics

Although the easiest way to add parentheses to a dynamic mark is to use a \markup block, this method has a downside: the created objects will behave like text markups, and not like dynamics.

However, it is possible to create a similar object using the equivalent Scheme code (as described in the Notation Reference), combined with the make-dynamic-script function. This way, the markup will be regarded as a dynamic, and therefore will remain compatible with commands such as \dynamicUp or \dynamicDown.

paren =
#(define-event-function (dyn) (ly:event?)
   (make-dynamic-script
    #{ \markup \concat {
         \normal-text \italic \fontsize #2 (
	 \pad-x #0.2 #(ly:music-property dyn 'text)
	 \normal-text \italic \fontsize #2 )
       }
    #}))

\relative c'' {
  c4\paren\f c c \dynamicUp c\paren\p
}

[image of music]


Creating simultaneous rehearsal marks

Unlike text scripts, rehearsal marks cannot be stacked at a particular point in a score: only one RehearsalMark object is created. Using an invisible measure and bar line, an extra rehearsal mark can be added, giving the appearance of two marks in the same column.

This method may also prove useful for placing rehearsal marks at both the end of one system and the start of the following system.

{
  \key a \major
  \set Score.markFormatter = #format-mark-box-letters
  \once \override Score.RehearsalMark.outside-staff-priority = #5000
  \once \override Score.RehearsalMark.self-alignment-X = #LEFT
  \once \override Score.RehearsalMark.break-align-symbols = #'(key-signature)
  \mark \markup { \bold { Senza denti } }

  % the hidden measure and bar line
  % \cadenzaOn turns off automatic calculation of bar numbers
  \cadenzaOn
  \once \override Score.TimeSignature.stencil = ##f
  \time 1/16
  s16 \bar ""
  \cadenzaOff

  \time 4/4
  \once \override Score.RehearsalMark.self-alignment-X = #LEFT
  \mark \markup { \box \bold Intro }
  d'1
  \mark \default
  d'1
}

[image of music]


Creating text spanners

The \startTextSpan and \stopTextSpan commands allow the creation of text spanners as easily as pedal indications or octavations. Override some properties of the TextSpanner object to modify its output.

\paper { ragged-right = ##f }

\relative c'' {
  \override TextSpanner.bound-details.left.text = #"bla"
  \override TextSpanner.bound-details.right.text = #"blu"
  a4 \startTextSpan
  b4 c
  a4 \stopTextSpan

  \override TextSpanner.style = #'line
  \once \override TextSpanner.bound-details.left.stencil-align-dir-y = #CENTER
  a4 \startTextSpan
  b4 c
  a4 \stopTextSpan

  \override TextSpanner.style = #'dashed-line
  \override TextSpanner.bound-details.left.text =
    \markup { \draw-line #'(0 . 1) }
  \override TextSpanner.bound-details.right.text =
    \markup { \draw-line #'(0 . -2) }
  \once \override TextSpanner.bound-details.right.padding = #-2

  a4 \startTextSpan
  b4 c
  a4 \stopTextSpan

  \set Staff.middleCPosition = #-13
  \override TextSpanner.dash-period = #10
  \override TextSpanner.dash-fraction = #0.5
  \override TextSpanner.thickness = #10
  a4 \startTextSpan
  b4 c
  a4 \stopTextSpan
}

[image of music]


Demonstrating all headers

All header fields with special meanings.

\header {
  copyright = "copyright"
  title = "title"
  subtitle = "subtitle"
  composer = "composer"
  arranger = "arranger"
  instrument = "instrument"
  metre = "metre"
  opus = "opus"
  piece = "piece"
  poet = "poet"
  texidoc = "All header fields with special meanings."
  copyright = "public domain"
  enteredby = "jcn"
  source = "urtext"
}

\layout {
  ragged-right = ##f
}

\score {
  \relative c'' { c1 | c | c | c }
}

\score {
   \relative c'' { c1 | c | c | c }
   \header {
     title = "localtitle"
     subtitle = "localsubtitle"
     composer = "localcomposer"
     arranger = "localarranger"
     instrument = "localinstrument"
     metre = "localmetre"
     opus = "localopus"
     piece = "localpiece"
     poet = "localpoet"
     copyright = "localcopyright"
   }
}

[image of music]


Embedding native PostScript in a \markup block

PostScript code can be directly inserted inside a \markup block.

% PostScript is a registered trademark of Adobe Systems Inc.

\relative c'' {
  a4-\markup { \postscript "3 4 moveto 5 3 rlineto stroke" }
  -\markup { \postscript "[ 0 1 ] 0 setdash 3 5 moveto 5 -3 rlineto stroke " }

  b4-\markup { \postscript "3 4 moveto 0 0 1 2 8 4 20 3.5 rcurveto stroke" }
  s2
  a'1
}

[image of music]


Silben im Gesangstext formatieren

Textbeschriftungsmodus kann eingesetzt werden, um individuelle Silben im Gesangstext zu formatieren.

mel = \relative c'' { c4 c c c }
lyr = \lyricmode {
  Lyrics \markup { \italic can } \markup { \with-color #red contain }
  \markup { \fontsize #8 \bold Markup! }
}

<<
  \new Voice = melody \mel
  \new Lyrics \lyricsto melody \lyr
>>

[image of music]


How to put ties between syllables in lyrics

This can be achieved by separating those syllables by tildes.

\lyrics {
  wa~o~a
}

[image of music]


Ausrichtung von Gesangstext

Die horizontale Ausrichtung von Gesangstext kann eingestellt werden, indem man die self-alignment-X-Eigenschaft des LyricText-Objekts verändert. #-1 bedeutet links, #0 bedeutet mittig und #1 bedeutet rechts, man kann aber genauso gut auch #LEFT, #CENTER und #RIGHT benutzen.

\layout { ragged-right = ##f }
\relative c'' {
  c1
  c1
  c1
}
\addlyrics {
  \once \override LyricText.self-alignment-X = #LEFT
  "This is left-aligned"
  \once \override LyricText.self-alignment-X = #CENTER
  "This is centered"
  \once \override LyricText.self-alignment-X = #1
  "This is right-aligned"
}

[image of music]


Markup list

Text that can spread over pages is entered with the \markuplist command.

%% updated/modified by P.P.Schneider on Feb. 2014

#(set-default-paper-size "a6")

#(define-markup-list-command (paragraph layout props args) (markup-list?)
  (interpret-markup-list layout props
   (make-justified-lines-markup-list (cons (make-hspace-markup 2) args))))

% Candide, Voltaire
\markuplist {
  \override-lines #'(baseline-skip . 2.5) {
    \paragraph {
      Il y avait en Westphalie, dans le château de M. le baron de
      Thunder-ten-tronckh, un jeune garçon à qui la nature avait donné
      les mœurs les plus douces.  Sa physionomie annonçait son âme.
      Il avait le jugement assez droit, avec l'esprit le plus
      \concat { simple \hspace #.3 ; }
      c'est, je crois, pour cette raison qu'on le nommait Candide.  Les
      anciens domestiques de la maison soupçonnaient qu'il était fils
      de la sœur de monsieur le baron et d'un bon et honnête
      gentilhomme du voisinage, que cette demoiselle ne voulut jamais
      épouser parce qu'il n'avait pu prouver que soixante et onze
      quartiers, et que le reste de son arbre généalogique avait été
      perdu par l'injure du temps.
    }
    \vspace #.3
    \paragraph {
      Monsieur le baron était un des plus puissants seigneurs de la
      Westphalie, car son château avait une porte et des fenêtres.  Sa
      grande salle même était ornée d'une tapisserie.  Tous les chiens
      de ses basses-cours composaient une meute dans le
      \concat { besoin \hspace #.3 ; }
      ses palefreniers étaient ses
      \concat { piqueurs \hspace #.3 ; }
      le vicaire du village était
      son grand-aumônier.  Ils l'appelaient tous monseigneur, et ils
      riaient quand il faisait des contes.
    }
  }
}

[image of music]


Textbeschriftung und Mehrtaktpausen

Textbeschriftungen, die an Mehrtaktpausen gehängt wird, wird über oder unter der Pause zentriert. Lange Beschriftungen lassen den Takt nicht breiter werden. Um eine Mehrtaktpause einer Beschriftung anzupassen, muss eine unsichtbare Pause mit der Beschriftung direkt vor der Mehrtaktpause eingesetzt werden.

Man sollte beachten, dass unsichtbare Pausen automatische Taktstriche nach sich ziehen. Text, der an eine unsichtbare Pause gehängt wird, ist links ausgerichtet an der Position, wo die Pause erscheinen würde. Wenn aber die Länge des Taktes durch die Länge des Textes bestimmt wird, sieht es so aus, als ob der Text zentriert gesetzt ist.

\relative c' {
  \compressMMRests {
    \textLengthOn
    <>^\markup { [MAJOR GENERAL] }
    R1*19
    <>_\markup { \italic { Cue: ... it is yours } }
    <>^\markup { A }
    R1*30^\markup { [MABEL] }
    \textLengthOff
    c4^\markup { CHORUS } d f c
  }
}

[image of music]


Of the ubiquity of markup objects

Text objects are entered either as simple strings between double quotes or as \markup blocks that can accept a variety of advanced text formatting and graphical enhancements.

As such, markup blocks may be used:

\markup may additionally be used for lyrics, in chord names, and as dynamics. In fact, it is possible to use \markup to customize the appearance of virtually any object, as demonstrated in this example using various methods.

%% Thanks to Aaron Hill https://lists.gnu.org/archive/html/lilypond-user/2019-01/msg00437.html

\paper {
  paper-width = 8\cm paper-height = 8\cm
}
\header {
  title = \markup "Header"
  tagline = \markup "(tagline)"
}
\markup "Top-level markup"
dyn = #(make-dynamic-script #{ \markup \text "DynamicText" #})
\score {
  <<
    \new ChordNames
    \with { majorSevenSymbol = \markup "majorSevenSymbol" }
    \chordmode { c1:maj7 }
    \new Staff {
      \tempo \markup "MetronomeMark"
      \mark \markup "RehearsalMark"
      \once \override TupletNumber.text = \markup "TupletNumber"
      \tuplet 3/2 {
        \once \override NoteHead.stencil = #ly:text-interface::print
        \once \override NoteHead.text = \markup \lower #0.5 "NoteHead"
        c''8^\markup "TextScript"
        \once \override Rest.stencil = #(lambda (grob)
          (grob-interpret-markup grob #{
            \markup  "Rest"
            #}))
        r4
      }
    }
    \new Lyrics \lyricmode { \markup "LyricText" 1 }
    \new Dynamics { s1\dyn }
  >>
}

[image of music]


Outputting the version number

By putting the output of lilypond-version into a lyric, it is possible to print the version number of LilyPond in a score, or in a document generated with lilypond-book. Another possibility is to append the version number to the doc-string, in this manner:

\score {
  \new Lyrics {
    \override Score.RehearsalMark.self-alignment-X = #LEFT
    \mark #(string-append "Processed with LilyPond version " (lilypond-version))
    s2
  }
}

[image of music]


Piano template with centered lyrics

Anstatt ein eigenes System für Melodie und Text zu schreiben, können Sie den Text auch zwischen die beiden Klaviersysteme schreiben (und damit das zusätzliche System für die Gesangstimme auslassen).

upper = \relative c'' {
  \clef treble
  \key c \major
  \time 4/4

  a4 b c d
}

lower = \relative c {
  \clef bass
  \key c \major
  \time 4/4

  a2 c
}

text = \lyricmode {
  Aaa Bee Cee Dee
}

\score {
  \new PianoStaff <<
    \new Staff = upper { \new Voice = "singer" \upper }
    \new Lyrics \lyricsto "singer" \text
    \new Staff = lower { \lower }
  >>
  \layout { }
  \midi { }
}

[image of music]


Printing bar numbers with changing regular intervals

The bar number interval can be changed by changing the context function {set-bar-number-visibility}.

\relative c' {
  \override Score.BarNumber.break-visibility = #end-of-line-invisible
  \context Score \applyContext #(set-bar-number-visibility 4)
  \repeat unfold 10 c'1
  \context Score \applyContext #(set-bar-number-visibility 2)
  \repeat unfold 10 c
}

[image of music]


Printing marks at the end of a line

Marks can be printed at the end of the current line, instead of the beginning of the following line. In such cases, it might be preferable to align the right end of the mark with the bar line.

\relative c'' {
  g2 c
  d,2 a'
  \once \override Score.RehearsalMark.break-visibility =
    #end-of-line-visible
  \once \override Score.RehearsalMark.self-alignment-X =
    #RIGHT
  \mark "D.C. al Fine"
  \break
  g2 b,
  c1 \bar "||"
}

[image of music]


Zeichen über jedem System ausgeben

Normalerweise werden Textzeichen nur über dem obersten Notensystem gesetzt. Sie können aber auch über jedem System ausgegeben werden.

\score {
  <<
    \new Staff { c''1 \mark "molto" c'' }
    \new Staff { c'1 \mark "molto" c' }
  >>
  \layout {
    \context {
      \Score
      \remove "Mark_engraver"
      \remove "Staff_collecting_engraver"
    }
    \context {
      \Staff
      \consists "Mark_engraver"
      \consists "Staff_collecting_engraver"
    }
  }
}

[image of music]


Printing text from right to left

It is possible to print text from right to left in a markup object, as demonstrated here.

{
  b1^\markup {
    \line { i n g i r u m i m u s n o c t e }
  }
  f'_\markup {
    \override #'(text-direction . -1)
    \line { i n g i r u m i m u s n o c t e }
  }
}

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Putting lyrics inside the staff

Lyrics can be moved vertically to place them inside the staff. The lyrics are moved with \override LyricText.extra-offset = #'(0 . dy) and there are similar commands to move the extenders and hyphens. The offset needed is established with trial and error.

<<
  \new Staff <<
    \new Voice = "voc" \relative c' { \stemDown a bes c8 b c4 }
  >>
  \new Lyrics \with {
    \override LyricText.extra-offset = #'(0 . 8.6)
    \override LyricExtender.extra-offset = #'(0 . 8.6)
    \override LyricHyphen.extra-offset = #'(0 . 8.6)
  } \lyricsto "voc" { La la -- la __ _ la }
>>

[image of music]


Isolierter Text in zwei Spalten

Isolierter Text kann in mehreren Spalten mit \markup-Befehlen angeordnet werden:

\markup {
  \fill-line {
    \hspace #1
    \column {
      \line { O sacrum convivium }
      \line { in quo Christus sumitur, }
      \line { recolitur memoria passionis ejus, }
      \line { mens impletur gratia, }
      \line { futurae gloriae nobis pignus datur. }
      \line { Amen. }
    }
    \hspace #2
    \column \italic {
      \line { O sacred feast }
      \line { in which Christ is received, }
      \line { the memory of His Passion is renewed, }
      \line { the mind is filled with grace, }
      \line { and a pledge of future glory is given to us. }
      \line { Amen. }
    }
    \hspace #1
  }
}

[image of music]


String number extender lines

Make an extender line for string number indications, showing that a series of notes is supposed to be played all on the same string.

stringNumberSpanner =
  #(define-music-function (StringNumber) (string?)
    #{
      \override TextSpanner.style = #'solid
      \override TextSpanner.font-size = #-5
      \override TextSpanner.bound-details.left.stencil-align-dir-y = #CENTER
      \override TextSpanner.bound-details.left.text =
        \markup { \circle \number $StringNumber }
    #})


\relative c {
  \clef "treble_8"
  \stringNumberSpanner "5"
  \textSpannerDown
  a8\startTextSpan
  b c d e f\stopTextSpan
  \stringNumberSpanner "4"
  g\startTextSpan a
  bes4 a g2\stopTextSpan
}

[image of music]


Three-sided box

This example shows how to add a markup command to get a three sided box around some text (or other markup).

% New command to add a three sided box, with sides north, west and south
% Based on the box-stencil command defined in scm/stencil.scm
% Note that ";;" is used to comment a line in Scheme
#(define-public (NWS-box-stencil stencil thickness padding)
   "Add a box around STENCIL, producing a new stencil."
   (let* ((x-ext (interval-widen (ly:stencil-extent stencil X) padding))
          (y-ext (interval-widen (ly:stencil-extent stencil Y) padding))
          (y-rule (make-filled-box-stencil (cons 0 thickness) y-ext))
          (x-rule (make-filled-box-stencil
                   (interval-widen x-ext thickness) (cons 0 thickness))))
     ;; (set! stencil (ly:stencil-combine-at-edge stencil X 1 y-rule padding))
     (set! stencil (ly:stencil-combine-at-edge stencil X LEFT y-rule padding))
     (set! stencil (ly:stencil-combine-at-edge stencil Y UP x-rule 0.0))
     (set! stencil (ly:stencil-combine-at-edge stencil Y DOWN x-rule 0.0))
     stencil))

% The corresponding markup command, based on the \box command defined
% in scm/define-markup-commands.scm
#(define-markup-command (NWS-box layout props arg) (markup?)
   #:properties ((thickness 0.1) (font-size 0) (box-padding 0.2))
   "Draw a box round @var{arg}.  Looks at @code{thickness},
@code{box-padding} and @code{font-size} properties to determine line
thickness and padding around the markup."
   (let ((pad (* (magstep font-size) box-padding))
         (m (interpret-markup layout props arg)))
     (NWS-box-stencil m thickness pad)))

% Test it:

\relative c' {
  c1^\markup { \NWS-box ABCD }
  c1^\markup { \NWS-box \note {4} #1.0 }
}

[image of music]


UTF-8

Various scripts may be used for texts (like titles and lyrics) by entering them in UTF-8 encoding, and using a Pango based backend. Depending on the fonts installed, this fragment will render Bulgarian (Cyrillic), Hebrew, Japanese and Portuguese.

% end verbatim - this comment is a hack to prevent texinfo.tex
% from choking on non-European UTF-8 subsets

%% Edit this file using a Unicode aware editor, such as GVIM, GEDIT, Emacs

%{

You may have to install additional fonts.

Red Hat Fedora

	linux-libertine-fonts (Latin, Cyrillic, Hebrew)
	ipa-mincho-fonts ipa-gothic-fonts (Japanese)

Debian GNU/Linux, Ubuntu

	fonts-linuxlibertine (Latin, Cyrillic, Hebrew)
	fonts-ipafont (Japanese)

%}

% Font settings for Cyrillic and Hebrew
% Linux Libertine fonts contain Cyrillic and Hebrew glyphs.
\paper {
  #(define fonts
    (set-global-fonts
     #:roman "Linux Libertine O,serif"
     #:sans "Linux Biolinum O,sans-serif"
     #:typewriter "Linux Libertine Mono O,monospace"
   ))
}

% Cyrillic font
bulgarian = \lyricmode {
  Жълтата дюля беше щастлива, че пухът, който цъфна, замръзна като гьон.
}

hebrew = \lyricmode {
  זה כיף סתם לשמוע איך תנצח קרפד עץ טוב בגן.
}

japanese = \lyricmode {
  いろはにほへど ちりぬるを
  わがよたれぞ  つねならむ
  うゐのおくや  まけふこえて
  あさきゆめみじ ゑひもせず
}

% "a legal song to you"
portuguese = \lyricmode {
  à vo -- cê uma can -- ção legal
}

\relative c' {
  c2 d
  e2 f
  g2 f
  e1
}
\addlyrics { \bulgarian }
\addlyrics { \hebrew }
\addlyrics { \japanese }
\addlyrics { \portuguese }

[image of music]


Vorlage für Vokalensemble mit dem Gesangstext über und unter dem System

In diesem Beispiel werden die Texte mit den Befehlen alignAboveContext und alignBelowContext über und unter dem System angeordnet.

global = {
  \key c \major
  \time 4/4
}

sopMusic = \relative c'' {
  c4 c c8[( b)] c4
}
sopWords = \lyricmode {
  hi hi hi hi
}

altoMusic = \relative c' {
  e4 f d e
}
altoWords = \lyricmode {
  ha ha ha ha
}

tenorMusic = \relative c' {
  g4 a f g
}
tenorWords = \lyricmode {
  hu hu hu hu
}

bassMusic = \relative c {
  c4 c g c
}
bassWords = \lyricmode {
  ho ho ho ho
}

\score {
  \new ChoirStaff <<
    \new Staff = "women" <<
      \new Voice = "sopranos" { \voiceOne << \global \sopMusic >> }
      \new Voice = "altos" { \voiceTwo << \global \altoMusic >> }
    >>
    \new Lyrics \with { alignAboveContext = #"women" }
      \lyricsto "sopranos" \sopWords
    \new Lyrics \with { alignBelowContext = #"women" }
      \lyricsto "altos" \altoWords
    % we could remove the line about this with the line below, since
    % we want the alto lyrics to be below the alto Voice anyway.
    % \new Lyrics \lyricsto "altos" \altoWords

    \new Staff = "men" <<
      \clef bass
      \new Voice = "tenors" { \voiceOne << \global \tenorMusic >> }
      \new Voice = "basses" { \voiceTwo << \global \bassMusic >> }
    >>
    \new Lyrics \with { alignAboveContext = #"men" }
      \lyricsto "tenors" \tenorWords
    \new Lyrics \with { alignBelowContext = #"men" }
      \lyricsto "basses" \bassWords
    % again, we could replace the line above this with the line below.
    % \new Lyrics \lyricsto "basses" \bassWords
  >>
}

[image of music]


Volta text markup using repeatCommands

Though volte are best specified using \repeat volta, the context property repeatCommands must be used in cases where the volta text needs more advanced formatting with \markup.

Since repeatCommands takes a list, the simplest method of including markup is to use an identifier for the text and embed it in the command list using the Scheme syntax #(list (list 'volta textIdentifier)). Start- and end-repeat commands can be added as separate list elements:

voltaAdLib = \markup { 1. 2. 3... \text \italic { ad lib. } }

\relative c'' {
  c1
  \set Score.repeatCommands = #(list (list 'volta voltaAdLib) 'start-repeat)
  c4 b d e
  \set Score.repeatCommands = #'((volta #f) (volta "4.") end-repeat)
  f1
  \set Score.repeatCommands = #'((volta #f))
}

[image of music]


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