Simultaneous notes

Simultaneous notes


Voci ulteriori per evitare le collisioni

In alcuni casi di musica polifonica complessa sono necessarie delle voci ulteriori per evitare le collisioni tra note. Se servono più di quattro voci parallele, si possono aggiungere altre voci definendo una variabile con la funzione Scheme function context-spec-music.

voiceFive = #(context-spec-music (make-voice-props-set 4) 'Voice)

\relative c'' {
  \time 3/4
  \key d \minor
  \partial 2
  <<
    \new Voice  {
      \voiceOne
      a4. a8
      e'4 e4. e8
      f4 d4. c8
    }
    \new Voice {
      \voiceTwo
      d,2
      d4 cis2
      d4 bes2
    }
    \new Voice {
      \voiceThree
      f'2
      bes4 a2
      a4 s2
    }
    \new Voice {
      \voiceFive
      s2
      g4 g2
      f4 f2
    }
  >>
}

[image of music]


Changing a single note’s size in a chord

Individual note heads in a chord can be modified with the \tweak command inside a chord, by altering the font-size property.

Inside the chord (within the brackets < >), before the note to be altered, place the \tweak command, followed by font-size and define the proper size like #-2 (a tiny note head).

\relative c' {
  <\tweak font-size #+2 c e g c
   \tweak font-size #-2 e>1
   ^\markup { A tiny e }_\markup { A big c }
}

[image of music]


Modificare le indicazioni testuali di partCombine

Quando si usa la funzionalità di combinazione automatica delle parti, si può modificare il testo delle sezioni soliste e dell’unisono:

\new Staff <<
  \set Staff.soloText = #"girl"
  \set Staff.soloIIText = #"boy"
  \set Staff.aDueText = #"together"
  \partCombine
    \relative c'' {
      g4 g r r
      a2 g
    }
    \relative c'' {
      r4 r a( b)
      a2 g
    }
>>

[image of music]


Clusters

Clusters are a device to denote that a complete range of notes is to be played.

fragment = \relative c' {
  c4 f <e d'>4
  <g a>8 <e a> a4 c2 <d b>4
  e2 c
}

<<
  \new Staff \fragment
  \new Staff \makeClusters \fragment
>>

[image of music]


Combinare due parti sullo stesso rigo

Lo strumento di unione delle parti (il comando \partCombine) permette di combinare varie parti sullo stesso rigo. Indicazioni testuali come “solo” e “a2” sono aggiunte automaticamente; per toglierele basta impostare la proprietà printPartCombineTexts su f. Per le partiture vocali (inni), non c’è bisogno di aggiungere i testi “solo/a2”, quindi dovrebbero essere disattivati. Tuttavia potrebbe convenire non usarlo se c’è una qualche parte solista, perché non verrebbe indicata. In tali casi è preferibile usare la notazione polifonica normale.

Questo frammento illustra i tre modi con cui due parti possono essere stampate su uno stesso rigo: normale polifonia, \partCombine senza testo e \partCombine con testo.

%% Combining pedal notes with clef changes

musicUp = \relative c'' {
  \time 4/4
  a4 c4.( g8) a4 |
  g4 e' g,( a8 b) |
  c b a2.
}

musicDown = \relative c'' {
  g4 e4.( d8) c4 |
  r2 g'4( f8 e) |
  d2 \stemDown a
}

\score {
    <<
    \new Staff \with { instrumentName = "Standard polyphony" }

      << \musicUp \\ \musicDown >>

    \new Staff \with {
      instrumentName = "PartCombine without text"
      printPartCombineTexts = ##f
    }

    \partCombine \musicUp \musicDown

    \new Staff \with { instrumentName = "PartCombine with text" }
      \partCombine \musicUp \musicDown
    >>
  \layout {
    indent = 6.0\cm
    \context {
      \Score
      \override SystemStartBar.collapse-height = #30
    }
  }
}

[image of music]


Displaying complex chords

Here is a way to display a chord where the same note is played twice with different accidentals.

fixA = {
  \once \override Stem.length = #11
}

fixB = {
  \once \override NoteHead.X-offset = #1.7
  \once \override Stem.length = #7
  \once \override Stem.rotation = #'(45 0 0)
  \once \override Stem.extra-offset = #'(-0.1 . -0.2)
  \once \override Flag.style = #'no-flag
  \once \override Accidental.extra-offset = #'(4 . -.1)
}


\relative c' {
  << { \fixA <b d!>8 } \\ { \voiceThree \fixB dis } >> s
}

[image of music]


Forzare lo spostamento orizzonatale delle note

Quando il motore tipografico non riesce a risolvere una situazione, si può usare la sintassi che sovrascrive le decisioni tipografiche. L’unità di misura usata è lo spazio del rigo.

\relative c' <<
  {
    <d g>2 <d g>
  }
  \\
  {
    <b f'>2
    \once \override NoteColumn.force-hshift = #1.7
    <b f'>2
  }
>>

[image of music]


Making an object invisible with the ’transparent property

Setting the transparent property will cause an object to be printed in “invisible ink”: the object is not printed, but all its other behavior is retained. The object still takes up space, it takes part in collisions, and slurs, ties and beams can be attached to it.

This snippet demonstrates how to connect different voices using ties. Normally, ties only connect two notes in the same voice. By introducing a tie in a different voice, and blanking the first up-stem in that voice, the tie appears to cross voices.

\relative {
  \time 2/4
  <<
    {
      \once \hide Stem
      \once \override Stem.length = #8
      b'8 ~ 8\noBeam
      \once \hide Stem
      \once \override Stem.length = #8
      g8 ~ 8\noBeam
    }
    \\
    {
      b8 g g e
    }
  >>
}

[image of music]


Spostare le note puntate in polifonia

Quando una nota puntata della voce più alta viene spostata per evitare una collisione con una nota di un’altra voce, il comportamento predefinito è spostare la nota più alta a destra. Tale comportamento può essere modificato tramite la proprietà prefer-dotted-right di NoteCollision.

\new Staff \relative c' <<
  {
    f2. f4
    \override Staff.NoteCollision.prefer-dotted-right = ##f
    f2. f4
    \override Staff.NoteCollision.prefer-dotted-right = ##t
    f2. f4
  }
  \\
  { e4 e e e e e e e e e e e }
>>

[image of music]


Suppressing warnings for clashing note columns

If notes from two voices with stems in the same direction are placed at the same position, and both voices have no shift or the same shift specified, the error message ‘warning: ignoring too many clashing note columns’ will appear when compiling the LilyPond file. This message can be suppressed by setting the 'ignore-collision property of the NoteColumn object to #t. Please note that this does not just suppress warnings but stops LilyPond trying to resolve collisions at all and so may have unintended results unless used with care.

ignore = \override NoteColumn.ignore-collision = ##t

\relative c' {
  \new Staff <<
    \new Voice { \ignore \stemDown f2 g }
    \new Voice { c2 \stemDown c, }
  >>
}

[image of music]


Two \partCombine pairs on one staff

The \partCombine function takes two music expressions each containing a part, and distributes them among four Voices named “two” “one” “solo” and “chords” depending on when and how the parts merged into a common voice. The voices output from \partCombine can have their layout properties adjusted in the usual way. Here we define extensions of \partCombine to make it easier to put four voices on a staff.

soprano = { d'4 | cis'  b  e'  d'8 cis' | cis'2 b }
alto = { fis4 | e8 fis gis ais b4 b | b ais fis2 }
tenor = { a8 b | cis' dis' e'4 b8 cis' d'4 | gis cis' dis'2 }
bass = { fis8 gis | a4 gis g fis | eis fis b,2 }

\new Staff <<
  \key b\minor
  \clef alto
  \partial 4
  \transpose b b'
  \partCombineUp \soprano \alto
  \partCombineDown \tenor \bass
>>
\layout {
  \context {
    \Staff
    \accepts "VoiceBox"
  }
  \context {
    \name "VoiceBox"
    \type "Engraver_group"
    \defaultchild "Voice"
    \accepts "Voice"
    \accepts "NullVoice"
  }
}

customPartCombineUp =
#(define-music-function (partOne partTwo)
  (ly:music? ly:music?)
"Take the music in @var{partOne} and @var{partTwo} and return
a @code{VoiceBox} named @q{Up} containing @code{Voice}s
that contain @var{partOne} and @var{partTwo} merged into one
voice where feasible.  This variant sets the default voicing
in the output to use upward stems."
#{
  \new VoiceBox = "Up" <<
    \context Voice = "one" { \voiceOne }
    \context Voice = "two" { \voiceThree }
    \context Voice = "shared" { \voiceOne }
    \context Voice = "solo" { \voiceOne }
    \context NullVoice = "null" {}
    \partCombine #partOne #partTwo
  >>
#})

customPartCombineDown = #
(define-music-function (partOne partTwo)
  (ly:music? ly:music?)
"Take the music in @var{partOne} and @var{partTwo} and return
a @code{VoiceBox} named @q{Down} containing @code{Voice}s
that contain @var{partOne} and @var{partTwo} merged into one
voice where feasible.  This variant sets the default voicing
in the output to use downward stems."
#{
  \new VoiceBox = "Down" <<
    \set VoiceBox.soloText = #"Solo III"
    \set VoiceBox.soloIIText = #"Solo IV"
    \context Voice ="one" { \voiceFour }
    \context Voice ="two" { \voiceTwo }
    \context Voice ="shared" { \voiceFour }
    \context Voice ="solo" { \voiceFour }
    \context NullVoice = "null" {}
    \partCombine #partOne #partTwo
  >>
#})

soprano = { d'4 | cis'  b  e'  d'8 cis' | cis'2 b }
alto = { fis4 | e8 fis gis ais b4 b | b ais fis2 }
tenor = { a8 b | cis' dis' e'4 b8 cis' d'4 | gis cis' dis'2 }
bass = { fis8 gis | a4 gis g fis | eis fis b,2 }

\new Staff <<
  \key b\minor
  \clef alto
  \partial 4
  \transpose b b'
  \customPartCombineUp \soprano \alto
  \customPartCombineDown \tenor \bass
>>

[image of music]


LilyPond — Frammenti v2.22.1 (ramo stabile).