Chords

Chord notation


Añadir un bajo cifrado encima o debajo de las notas

Al escribir un bajo cifrado, podemos situar las cifras encima o debajo de las notas del bajo, mediante la definición de la propiedad BassFigureAlignmentPositioning #'direction (exclusivamente dentro de un contexto Staff). Se puede elegir entre #UP (o #1, arriba), #CENTER (o #0, centrado) y #DOWN (o #-1, abajo).

Esta propiedad se puede cambiar tantas veces como queramos. Utilice \once \override si no quiere que la sobreescritura se aplique a toda la partitura.

bass = {
  \clef bass
  g4 b, c d
  e d8 c d2
}

continuo = \figuremode {
  <_>4 <6>4 <5/>4
  \override Staff.BassFigureAlignmentPositioning.direction = #UP
  %\bassFigureStaffAlignmentUp
  < _+ >4 <6>
  \set Staff.useBassFigureExtenders = ##t
  \override Staff.BassFigureAlignmentPositioning.direction = #DOWN
  %\bassFigureStaffAlignmentDown
  <4>4. <4>8 <_+>4
}

\score {
  <<
    \new Staff = bassStaff \bass
    \context Staff = bassStaff \continuo
  >>
}

[image of music]


Añadir barras de compás al contexto de nombres de acorde (ChordNames)

Para añadir indicaciones de línea divisoria dentro del contexto de los nombres de acorde ChordNames, incluya el grabador Bar_engraver.

\new ChordNames \with {
  \override BarLine.bar-extent = #'(-2 . 2)
  \consists "Bar_engraver"
}

\chordmode {
  f1:maj7 f:7 bes:7
}

[image of music]


Bar chords notation for Guitar (with Text Spanner)

Here is how to print bar chords (or barre chords) or half-bar chords (just uncomment the appropriate line for to select either one).

The syntax is : \bbarre #"fret_number" note(s)

%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%% %%%%%%%  Cut here ----- Start 'bbarred.ly'

%% C with slash -------------------------------
cWithSlash = \markup {
  \combine \roman C \translate #'(0.6 . -0.4) \draw-line #'(0 . 2.0)
}
%% Span -----------------------------------
%% Syntax: \bbarre #"text" { notes } - text = any number of box
bbarre =
#(define-music-function (barre location str music) (string? ly:music?)
   (let ((elts (extract-named-music music '(NoteEvent EventChord))))
     (if (pair? elts)
         (let ((first-element (first elts))
               (last-element (last elts)))
           (set! (ly:music-property first-element 'articulations)
                 (cons (make-music 'TextSpanEvent 'span-direction -1)
                       (ly:music-property first-element 'articulations)))
           (set! (ly:music-property last-element 'articulations)
                 (cons (make-music 'TextSpanEvent 'span-direction 1)
                       (ly:music-property last-element 'articulations))))))
   #{
       \once \override TextSpanner.font-size = #-2
       \once \override TextSpanner.font-shape = #'upright
       \once \override TextSpanner.staff-padding = #3
       \once \override TextSpanner.style = #'line
       \once \override TextSpanner.to-barline = ##f
       \once \override TextSpanner.bound-details =
            #`((left
                (text . ,#{ \markup { \draw-line #'( 0 . -.5) } #})
                (Y . 0)
                (padding . 0.25)
                (attach-dir . -2))
               (right
                (text . ,#{ \markup { \cWithSlash #str } #})
                (Y . 0)
                (padding . 0.25)
                (attach-dir . 2)))
%% uncomment this line for make full barred
      % \once \override TextSpanner.bound-details.left.text = \markup{"B" #str}
      $music
   #})

%% %%%%%%%  Cut here ----- End 'bbarred.ly'
%% Copy and change the last line for full barred. Rename in 'fbarred.ly'
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

%% Syntaxe: \bbarre #"text" { notes } - text = any number of box
\relative c'{ \clef "G_8" \stemUp \bbarre #"III" { <f a'>16[  c' d c d8] } }

[image of music]


Modificación del separador de acordes

Se puede establecer el separador entre las distintas partes del nombre de un acorde para que sea cualquier elemento de marcado.

\chords {
  c:7sus4
  \set chordNameSeparator
    = \markup { \typewriter | }
  c:7sus4
}

[image of music]


Cambiar la nomenclatura de los acordes del cifrado americano por la notación alemana o semi-alemana

La nomenclatura inglesa (predeterminada) para los acordes del cifrado americano se puede cambiar por la alemana (\germanChords sustituye B y Bes por H y B) o por la semi-alemana (\semiGermanChords sustituye B y Bes por H y Bb).

scm = \chordmode {
  c1/c | cis/cis
  b1/b | bis/bis | bes/bes
}


\layout {
  ragged-right = ##t
  \context {
    \ChordNames
    \consists "Instrument_name_engraver"
  }
}

<<
  \new ChordNames {
    \set instrumentName = #"default"
    \scm
  }
  \new ChordNames {
    \set instrumentName = #"german"
    \germanChords \scm
  }
  \new ChordNames {
    \set instrumentName = #"semi-german"
    \semiGermanChords \scm
  }
  \new ChordNames {
    \set instrumentName = #"italian"
    \italianChords \scm
  }
  \new ChordNames {
    \set instrumentName = #"french"
    \frenchChords \scm
  }
  \context Voice { \scm }
>>

[image of music]


Cambiar las posiciones de las alteraciones del bajo cifrado

Las alteraciones y los signos «más» pueden aparecer antes o después de los números, según el valor de las propiedades figuredBassAlterationDirection y figuredBassPlusDirection.

\figures {
  <6\+> <5+> <6 4-> r
  \set figuredBassAlterationDirection = #RIGHT
  <6\+> <5+> <6 4-> r
  \set figuredBassPlusDirection = #RIGHT
  <6\+> <5+> <6 4-> r
  \set figuredBassAlterationDirection = #LEFT
  <6\+> <5+> <6 4-> r
}

[image of music]


Excepciones para los nombres de acorde

Se puede usar la propiedad chordNameExceptions para almacenar una lista de notaciones espaciales para acordes específicos.

% modify maj9 and 6(add9)
% Exception music is chords with markups
chExceptionMusic = {
  <c e g b d'>1-\markup { \super "maj9" }
  <c e g a d'>1-\markup { \super "6(add9)" }
}

% Convert music to list and prepend to existing exceptions.
chExceptions = #(append
  (sequential-music-to-chord-exceptions chExceptionMusic #t)
  ignatzekExceptions)

theMusic = \chordmode {
  g1:maj9 g1:6.9
  \set chordNameExceptions = #chExceptions
  g1:maj9 g1:6.9
}

\layout {
  ragged-right = ##t
}

<<
   \new ChordNames \theMusic
   \new Voice \theMusic
>>

[image of music]


Nombre de acorde maj7

La presentación del acorde de séptima mayor se puede ajustar mediante majorSevenSymbol.

\chords {
  c:7+
  \set majorSevenSymbol = \markup { j7 }
  c:7+
}

[image of music]


Chord names alternative

Chord names are generated from a list of pitches. The functions which construct these names can be customised.

Here are shown chords following Ignatzek (pp. 17-18, 1995), used by default since LilyPond 1.7.20, compared with an alternative Jazz chord notation and Harald Banter’s (1987) notation. A smaller font is used in the latter case, as these tend to be overly verbose.

This mirrors the mechanism originally used in early LilyPond versions (pre-1.7); not having been properly maintained, however, some features have been lost (mainly chord exception lists) and bugs have been introduced.

%%%% Legacy chord naming functions (formerly in scm/chord-generic-names.scm)
%%%% Copyright (C) 2003--2015 Jan Nieuwenhuizen <janneke@gnu.org>

#(set-global-staff-size 19.7)

#(define-public (banter-chordnames pitches bass inversion context)
  (old_chord->markup 'banter pitches bass inversion context))

#(define-public (jazz-chordnames pitches bass inversion context)
  (old_chord->markup 'jazz pitches bass inversion context))

#(define (define-translator-property symbol type? description)
  (if (not (and (symbol? symbol)
    (procedure? type?)
    (string? description)))
      (ly:error "error in call of define-translator-property"))
  (if (not (equal? (object-property symbol 'translation-doc) #f))
      (ly:error (_ "symbol ~S redefined") symbol))

  (set-object-property! symbol 'translation-type? type?)
  (set-object-property! symbol 'translation-doc description)
  symbol)

#(for-each
  (lambda (x)
    (apply define-translator-property x))
  `((chordNameExceptionsFull ,list? "An alist of full chord
exceptions.  Contains @code{(@var{chord} . @var{markup})} entries.")
    (chordNameExceptionsPartial ,list? "An alist of partial chord
exceptions.  Contains @code{(@var{chord} . (@var{prefix-markup}
@var{suffix-markup}))} entries.")))

#(define-public (old_chord->markup
                style pitches bass inversion context)
  "Entry point for @code{Chord_name_engraver}.
@var{pitches}, @var{bass}, and @var{inversion} are lily pitches."
  (define (default-note-namer pitch)
    (note-name->markup pitch #f))

  (define (markup-or-empty-markup markup)
    "Return MARKUP if markup, else empty-markup"
    (if (markup? markup) markup empty-markup))

  (define (accidental->markup alteration)
    "Return accidental markup for ALTERATION."
    (if (= alteration 0)
        (make-line-markup (list empty-markup))
        (conditional-kern-before
         (alteration->text-accidental-markup alteration)
         (= alteration FLAT) 0.094725)))

  (define (list-minus a b)
    "Return list of elements in A that are not in B."
    (lset-difference eq? a b))

  (define (markup-join markups sep)
    "Return line-markup of MARKUPS, joining them with markup SEP"
    (if (pair? markups)
        (make-line-markup (list-insert-separator markups sep))
        empty-markup))

  (define (conditional-kern-before markup bool amount)
    "Add AMOUNT of space before MARKUP if BOOL is true."
    (if bool
        (make-line-markup
         (list (make-hspace-markup amount)
           markup))
        markup))

  (define (step-nr pitch)
    (let* ((pitch-nr (+ (* 7 (ly:pitch-octave pitch))
                        (ly:pitch-notename pitch)))
           (root-nr (+ (* 7 (ly:pitch-octave (car pitches)))
                       (ly:pitch-notename (car pitches)))))
      (+ 1 (- pitch-nr root-nr))))

  (define (next-third pitch)
    (ly:pitch-transpose pitch
                        (ly:make-pitch 0 2 (if (or (= (step-nr pitch) 3)
                                                   (= (step-nr pitch) 5))
                                               FLAT 0))))

  (define (step-alteration pitch)
    (let* ((diff (ly:pitch-diff (ly:make-pitch 0 0 0) (car pitches)))
           (normalized-pitch (ly:pitch-transpose pitch diff))
           (alteration (ly:pitch-alteration normalized-pitch)))
      (if (= (step-nr pitch) 7) (+ alteration SEMI-TONE) alteration)))

  (define (pitch-unalter pitch)
    (let ((alteration (step-alteration pitch)))
      (if (= alteration 0)
          pitch
          (ly:make-pitch (ly:pitch-octave pitch) (ly:pitch-notename pitch)
                         (- (ly:pitch-alteration pitch) alteration)))))

  (define (step-even-or-altered? pitch)
    (let ((nr (step-nr pitch)))
      (if (!= (modulo nr 2) 0)
          (!= (step-alteration pitch) 0)
          #t)))

  (define (step->markup-plusminus pitch)
    (let ((alt (step-alteration pitch)))
      (make-line-markup
       (list
        (number->string (step-nr pitch))
        (cond
         ((= alt DOUBLE-FLAT) "--")
         ((= alt FLAT) "-")
         ((= alt NATURAL) "")
         ((= alt SHARP) "+")
         ((= alt DOUBLE-SHARP) "++"))))))

  (define (step->markup-accidental pitch)
    (make-line-markup
     (list (accidental->markup (step-alteration pitch))
           (make-simple-markup (number->string (step-nr pitch))))))

  (define (step->markup-ignatzek pitch)
    (make-line-markup
     (if (and (= (step-nr pitch) 7)
              (= (step-alteration pitch) 1))
         (list (ly:context-property context 'majorSevenSymbol))
         (list (accidental->markup (step-alteration pitch))
               (make-simple-markup (number->string (step-nr pitch)))))))

  ;; tja, kennok
  (define (make-sub->markup step->markup)
    (lambda (pitch)
      (make-line-markup (list (make-simple-markup "no")
                              (step->markup pitch)))))

  (define (step-based-sub->markup step->markup pitch)
    (make-line-markup (list (make-simple-markup "no") (step->markup pitch))))

  (define (get-full-list pitch)
    (if (<= (step-nr pitch) (step-nr (last pitches)))
        (cons pitch (get-full-list (next-third pitch)))
        '()))

  (define (get-consecutive nr pitches)
    (if (pair? pitches)
        (let* ((pitch-nr (step-nr (car pitches)))
               (next-nr (if (!= (modulo pitch-nr 2) 0) (+ pitch-nr 2) nr)))
          (if (<= pitch-nr nr)
              (cons (car pitches) (get-consecutive next-nr (cdr pitches)))
              '()))
        '()))

  ;;; FIXME -- exceptions no longer work. -vv

  (define (full-match exceptions)
    (if (pair? exceptions)
        (let* ((e (car exceptions))
               (e-pitches (car e)))
          (if (equal? e-pitches pitches)
              e
              (full-match (cdr exceptions))))
        #f))

  (define (partial-match exceptions)
    (if (pair? exceptions)
        (let* ((e (car exceptions))
               (e-pitches (car e)))
          (if (equal? e-pitches (take pitches (length e-pitches)))
              e
              (partial-match (cdr exceptions))))
        #f))

  ;; FIXME: exceptions don’t work anyway.
  (if #f (begin
           (write-me "pitches: " pitches)))
  (let* ((full-exceptions
          (ly:context-property context 'chordNameExceptionsFull))
         (full-exception (full-match full-exceptions))
         (full-markup (if full-exception (cadr full-exception) '()))
         (partial-exceptions
          (ly:context-property context 'chordNameExceptionsPartial))
         (partial-exception (partial-match partial-exceptions))
         (partial-pitches (if partial-exception (car partial-exception) '()))
         (partial-markup-prefix
          (if partial-exception (markup-or-empty-markup
                                 (cadr partial-exception)) empty-markup))
         (partial-markup-suffix
          (if (and partial-exception (pair? (cddr partial-exception)))
              (markup-or-empty-markup (caddr partial-exception)) empty-markup))
         (root (car pitches))
         (full (get-full-list root))
         ;; kludge alert: replace partial matched lower part of all with
         ;; 'normal' pitches from full
         ;; (all pitches)
         (all (append (take full (length partial-pitches))
                      (drop pitches (length partial-pitches))))

         (highest (last all))
         (missing (list-minus full (map pitch-unalter all)))
         (consecutive (get-consecutive 1 all))
         (rest (list-minus all consecutive))
         (altered (filter step-even-or-altered? all))
         (cons-alt (filter step-even-or-altered? consecutive))
         (base (list-minus consecutive altered)))


    (if #f (begin
             (write-me "full:" full)
             ;; (write-me "partial-pitches:" partial-pitches)
             (write-me "full-markup:" full-markup)
             (write-me "partial-markup-perfix:" partial-markup-prefix)
             (write-me "partial-markup-suffix:" partial-markup-suffix)
             (write-me "all:" all)
             (write-me "altered:" altered)
             (write-me "missing:" missing)
             (write-me "consecutive:" consecutive)
             (write-me "rest:" rest)
             (write-me "base:" base)))

    (case style
      ((banter)
       ;;    root
       ;;    + steps:altered + (highest all -- if not altered)
       ;;    + subs:missing

       (let* ((root->markup default-note-namer)
              (step->markup step->markup-plusminus)
              (sub->markup (lambda (x)
                              (step-based-sub->markup step->markup x)))
              (sep (make-simple-markup "/")))

         (if
          (pair? full-markup)
          (make-line-markup (list (root->markup root) full-markup))

          (make-line-markup
           (list
            (root->markup root)
            partial-markup-prefix
            (make-super-markup
             (markup-join
              (append
               (map step->markup
                    (append altered
                            (if (and (> (step-nr highest) 5)
                                     (not
                                      (step-even-or-altered? highest)))
                                (list highest) '())))
               (list partial-markup-suffix)
               (map sub->markup missing))
              sep)))))))


      ((jazz)
       ;;    root
       ;;    + steps:(highest base) + cons-alt
       ;;    + 'add'
       ;;    + steps:rest
       (let* ((root->markup default-note-namer)
              (step->markup step->markup-ignatzek)
              (sep (make-simple-markup " "))
              (add-prefix (make-simple-markup " add")))

         (if
          (pair? full-markup)
          (make-line-markup (list (root->markup root) full-markup))

          (make-line-markup
           (list
            (root->markup root)
            partial-markup-prefix
            (make-super-markup
             (make-line-markup
              (list

               ;; kludge alert: omit <= 5
               ;;(markup-join (map step->markup
               ;;                        (cons (last base) cons-alt)) sep)

               ;; This fixes:
               ;;  c     C5       -> C
               ;;  c:2   C5 2     -> C2
               ;;  c:3-  Cm5      -> Cm
               ;;  c:6.9 C5 6add9 -> C6 add 9 (add?)
               ;;  ch = \chords { c c:2 c:3- c:6.9^7 }
               (markup-join (map step->markup
                                 (let ((tb (last base)))
                                   (if (> (step-nr tb) 5)
                                       (cons tb cons-alt)
                                       cons-alt))) sep)

               (if (pair? rest)
                   add-prefix
                   empty-markup)
               (markup-join (map step->markup rest) sep)
               partial-markup-suffix))))))))

      (else empty-markup))))


%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%%%%
%%%% Here begins the actual snippet:

chs = \transpose c' c' {
  <c e g>1
  <c es g>  % m = minor triad
  <c e gis>
  <c es ges> \break
  <c e g bes>
  <c es g bes>
  <c e g b>  % triangle = maj
  <c es ges beses>
  <c es ges b> \break
  <c e gis bes>
  <c es g b>
  <c e gis b>
  <c es ges bes> \break
  <c e g a>  % 6 = major triad with added sixth
  <c es g a>  % m6 = minor triad with added sixth
  <c e g bes d'>
  <c es g bes d'> \break
  <c es g bes d' f' a' >
  <c es g bes d' f' >
  <c es ges bes d' >
  <c e g bes des' > \break
  <c e g bes dis'>
  <c e g bes d' f'>
  <c e g bes d' fis'>
  <c e g bes d' f' a'> \break
  <c e g bes d' fis' as'>
  <c e gis bes dis'>
  <c e g bes dis' fis'>
  <c e g bes d' f' as'> \break
  <c e g bes des' f' as'>
  <c e g bes d' fis'>
  <c e g b d'>
  <c e g bes d' f' as'> \break
  <c e g bes des' f' as'>
  <c e g bes des' f' a'>
  <c e g b d'>
  <c e g b d' f' a'> \break
  <c e g b d' fis'>
  <c e g bes des' f ' a'>
  <c f g>
  <c f g bes> \break
  <c f g bes d'>
  <c e g d'>  % add9
  <c es g f'>
  <c e g b fis'>  % Lydian
  <c e g bes des' ees' fis' aes'>  % altered chord
}


%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
% alternate Jazz notation

efullmusicJazzAlt = {
  <c e gis>1-\markup { "+" }
  <c e g b>-\markup {
    \normal-size-super
    % \override #'(font-family . math) "N"
    \override #'(font-family . math) "M"
  }
  %%c:3.5.7 = \markup { \override #'(font-family . math) "M" }
  %%c:3.5.7 = \markup { \normal-size-super "maj7" }

  <c es ges>-\markup { \super "o" }  % should be $\circ$ ?
  <c es ges bes>-\markup { \super \combine "o" "/" }
  <c es ges beses>-\markup { \super  "o7" }
}

efullJazzAlt = #(sequential-music-to-chord-exceptions efullmusicJazzAlt #f)

epartialmusicJazzAlt = {
  <c d>1-\markup { \normal-size-super "2" }
  <c es>-\markup { "m" }
  <c f>-\markup { \normal-size-super "sus4" }
  <c g>-\markup { \normal-size-super "5" }
  %% TODO, partial exceptions
  <c es f>-\markup { "m" }-\markup { \normal-size-super "sus4" }
  <c d es>-\markup { "m" }-\markup { \normal-size-super "sus2" }
}

epartialJazzAlt = #(sequential-music-to-chord-exceptions epartialmusicJazzAlt #f)

%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

\score {
  <<
    \new ChordNames {
      %% Already set by default:
      %\set chordNameFunction = #ignatzek-chord-names
      \set instrumentName = "Ignatzek"
      \set shortInstrumentName = "Def"
      \chs
    }

    \new ChordNames {
      \set chordNameFunction = #jazz-chordnames
      \set majorSevenSymbol = \whiteTriangleMarkup
      \set chordNameSeparator = "/"
      \set chordNameExceptionsFull = \efullJazzAlt
      \set chordNameExceptionsPartial = \epartialJazzAlt
      \set instrumentName = "Alternative"
      \set shortInstrumentName = "Alt"
      \chs
    }

    %% This is the Banter (1987) style.  It gives exceedingly
    %% verbose (wide) names, making the output file take up to 4 pages.

    \new ChordNames {
      \set chordNameFunction = #banter-chordnames
      \override ChordName.font-size = #-3
      \set instrumentName = "Banter"
      \set shortInstrumentName = "Ban"
      \chs
    }

  \new Staff \transpose c c' { \chs }
  >>
  \layout {
    #(layout-set-staff-size 16)
    system-system-spacing.basic-distance = #0
    \context {
      \ChordNames
      \consists "Instrument_name_engraver"
    }
    \context {
      \Score
      \remove "Bar_number_engraver"
    }
  }
}

[image of music]


Chords with stretched fingering for FretBoards and TabVoice

Sometimes chords with a stretched fingering are required. If not otherwise specified the context-property maximumFretStretch is set to 4, though. Resulting in a warning about "No string for pitch ..." and the note is omitted. You may set maximumFretStretch to an approppriate value or explecitely assign string-numbers to all notes of a chord.

%% The code below will print two warnings, which may be omitted by uncommenting:
%#(for-each (lambda (x) (ly:expect-warning "No string for pitch")) (iota 2))

mus = {
  <c' bes'>
  <c'\2 bes'>
  \set maximumFretStretch = 5
  <c' bes'>
  <c'\2 bes'\1>
}

<<
  \new FretBoards \mus
  \new TabVoice \mus
>>

[image of music]


Clusters («racimos»)

Los «clusters» o racimos son un mecanismo para indicar la interpretación de un ámbito de notas al mismo tiempo.

fragment = \relative c' {
  c4 f <e d'>4
  <g a>8 <e a> a4 c2 <d b>4
  e2 c
}

<<
  \new Staff \fragment
  \new Staff \makeClusters \fragment
>>

[image of music]


Controlar la colocación de las digitaciones de acordes

Se puede controlar con precisión la colocación de los números de digitación. Para que se tenga en cuenta la orientación de las digitaciones, se debe utilizar dentro de una construcción de acorde <> aunque sea una sola nota. Se puede establecer la orientación para los números de cuerda y las digitaciones de la mano derecha de una forma similar.

\relative c' {
  \set fingeringOrientations = #'(left)
  <c-1 e-3 a-5>4
  \set fingeringOrientations = #'(down)
  <c-1 e-3 a-5>4
  \set fingeringOrientations = #'(down right up)
  <c-1 e-3 a-5>4
  \set fingeringOrientations = #'(up)
  <c-1 e-3 a-5>4
  \set fingeringOrientations = #'(left)
  <c-1>2
  \set fingeringOrientations = #'(down)
  <e-3>2
  \set stringNumberOrientations = #'(up left down)
  <f\3 a\2 c\1>1
  \set strokeFingerOrientations = #'(down right up)
  <c\rightHandFinger #1 e\rightHandFinger #2 c'\rightHandFinger #4 >
}

[image of music]


Cross-staff chords - beaming problems workaround

Sometimes it is better to use stems from the upper staff for creating cross-staff chords, because no problems with automatic beam collision avoidance then arise. If the stems from the lower staff were used in the following example, it would be necessary to change the automatic beam collision avoidance settings so that it doesn’t detect collisions between staves using \override Staff.Beam.collision-voice-only = ##t

\new PianoStaff <<
  \new Staff = up
    \relative c' {
      <<
        { r4
          \override Stem.cross-staff = ##t
          \override Stem.length = #19 % this is in half-spaces,
              % so it makes stems 9.5 staffspaces long
          \override Stem.Y-offset = #-6 % stems are normally lengthened
              % upwards, so here we must lower the stem by the amount
              % equal to the lengthening - in this case (19 - 7) / 2
              % (7 is default stem length)
          e e e }
        { s4
          \change Staff = "bottom"
          \override NoteColumn.ignore-collision = ##t
          c, c c
        }
      >>
    }
  \new Staff = bottom
    \relative c' {
      \clef bass
      \voiceOne
      g8 a g a g a g a
    }
>>

[image of music]


Impresión de acordes complejos

He aquí una forma de imprimir un acorde en el que suena la misma nota dos veces con distintas alteraciones.

fixA = {
  \once \override Stem.length = #11
}

fixB = {
  \once \override NoteHead.X-offset = #1.7
  \once \override Stem.length = #7
  \once \override Stem.rotation = #'(45 0 0)
  \once \override Stem.extra-offset = #'(-0.1 . -0.2)
  \once \override Flag.style = #'no-flag
  \once \override Accidental.extra-offset = #'(4 . -.1)
}


\relative c' {
  << { \fixA <b d!>8 } \\ { \voiceThree \fixB dis } >> s
}

[image of music]


Dividir manualmente las líneas de extensión del bajo cifrado para ciertos números solamente

A menudo, el bajo figurado usa líneas de extensión para indicar la continuación del elemento correspondiente dentro del acorde. Sin embargo, en este caso lilypond está en el “modo voraz” y usa los extensores cuando es posible. Para dividir los extensores individuales, podemos sencillamente usar el modificador \! para un número, lo que quiebra cualquier línea de extensión atribuida a dicho número justo antes del número.

bassfigures = \figuremode {
  \set useBassFigureExtenders = ##t
  <6 4>4 <6 4\!> <6 4\!> <6 4\!> |  <6\! 4\!>  <6 4> <6 4\!> <6 4>
}

<<
  \new Staff \relative c'' { c1 c1 }
  \new FiguredBass \bassfigures
>>

[image of music]


Imprimir los acordes cuando se produce un cambio

De forma predeterminada se imprimen todos los acordes que aparecen en el código de entrada; se puede modificar este comportamiento de tal manera que los acordes se impriman exclusivamente al comienzo de las líneas y cuando cambia el acorde.

harmonies = \chordmode {
  c1:m c:m \break c:m c:m d
}

<<
  \new ChordNames {
    \set chordChanges = ##t
    \harmonies
  }
  \new Staff {
    \relative c' { \harmonies }
  }
>>

[image of music]


Hoja guía de acordes o «lead sheet» sencilla

Al juntar nombres de acorde en cifrado americano, melodía y letra, obtenemos una hoja guía de acordes o «lead sheet»:

<<
  \chords { c2 g:sus4 f e }
  \new Staff \relative c'' {
    a4 e c8 e r4
    b2 c4( d)
  }
  \addlyrics { One day this shall be free __ }
>>

[image of music]


Plantilla de pentagrama único con música, letra y acordes

Esta plantilla facilita la preparación de una canción con melodía, letra y acordes.

melody = \relative c' {
  \clef treble
  \key c \major
  \time 4/4

  a4 b c d
}

text = \lyricmode {
  Aaa Bee Cee Dee
}

harmonies = \chordmode {
  a2 c
}

\score {
  <<
    \new ChordNames {
      \set chordChanges = ##t
      \harmonies
    }
    \new Voice = "one" { \autoBeamOff \melody }
    \new Lyrics \lyricsto "one" \text
  >>
  \layout { }
  \midi { }
}

[image of music]


Plantilla para un pentagrama único con música, letra, acordes y trastes

Presentamos a continuación un ejemplo de plantilla para una hoja guía de acordes con melodía, letra, acordes y diagramas de trastes.

verseI = \lyricmode {
  \set stanza = #"1."
  This is the first verse
}

verseII = \lyricmode {
  \set stanza = #"2."
  This is the second verse.
}

theChords = \chordmode {
  % insert chords for chordnames and fretboards here
  c2 g4 c
}

staffMelody = \relative c' {
   \key c \major
   \clef treble
   % Type notes for melody here
   c4 d8 e f4 g
   \bar "|."
}

\score {
  <<
    \context ChordNames { \theChords }
    \context FretBoards { \theChords }
    \new Staff {
      \context Voice = "voiceMelody" { \staffMelody }
    }
    \new Lyrics = "lyricsI" {
      \lyricsto "voiceMelody" \verseI
    }
    \new Lyrics = "lyricsII" {
      \lyricsto "voiceMelody" \verseII
    }
  >>
  \layout { }
  \midi { }
}

[image of music]


Plantilla de pentagrama único con música y acordes

¿Quiere preparar una hoja guía de acordes (o «lead sheet») con melodía y acordes? ¡No busque más!

melody = \relative c' {
  \clef treble
  \key c \major
  \time 4/4

  f4 e8[ c] d4 g
  a2 ~ a
}

harmonies = \chordmode {
  c4:m f:min7 g:maj c:aug
  d2:dim b4:5 e:sus
}

\score {
  <<
    \new ChordNames {
      \set chordChanges = ##t
      \harmonies
    }
    \new Staff \melody
  >>
  \layout{ }
  \midi { }
}

[image of music]


Centrado vertical de las líneas de bajo cifrado emparejadas

Allí donde se utilicen líneas extensoras para el bajo cifrado mediante el establecimiento de useBassFigureExtenders al valor verdadero, las parejas de líneas extensoras congruentes se centran verticalmente si el valor de figuredBassCenterContinuations tiene el valor verdadero.

<<
  \relative c' {
    c8 c b b a a c16 c b b
    c8 c b b a a c16 c b b
    c8 c b b a a c c b b
  }
  \figures {
    \set useBassFigureExtenders = ##t
    <6+ 4 3>4 <6 4 3>8 r
    <6+ 4 3>4 <6 4 3>8 <4 3+>16 r
    \set figuredBassCenterContinuations = ##t
    <6+ 4 3>4 <6 4 3>8 r
    <6+ 4 3>4 <6 4 3>8 <4 3+>16 r
    \set figuredBassCenterContinuations = ##f
    <6+ 4 3>4 <6 4 3>8 r
    <6+ 4 3>4 <6 4 3>8 <4 3+>8
  }
>>

[image of music]


Corchetes de primera y segunda vez debajo de los acordes

Mediante la adición del grabador Volta_engraver al pentagrama pertinente, se pueden poner los corchetes de primera y segunda vez debajo de los acordes.

\score {
  <<
    \chords {
      c1
      c1
    }
    \new Staff \with {
      \consists "Volta_engraver"
    }
    {
      \repeat volta 2 { c'1 }
      \alternative { c' }
    }
  >>
  \layout {
    \context {
      \Score
      \remove "Volta_engraver"
    }
  }
}

[image of music]


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