Rhythms

Rhythms


Adding beams, slurs, ties etc. when using tuplet and non-tuplet rhythms

LilyPond syntax can involve many unusual placements for parentheses, brackets etc., which might sometimes have to be interleaved.

For example, when entering a manual beam, the left square bracket has to be placed after the starting note and its duration, not before. Similarly, the right square bracket should directly follow the note which is to be at the end of the requested beaming, even if this note happens to be inside a tuplet section.

This snippet demonstrates how to combine manual beaming, manual slurs, ties and phrasing slurs with tuplet sections (enclosed within curly braces).

{
  r16[ g16 \tuplet 3/2 { r16 e'8] }
  g16( a \tuplet 3/2 { b d e') }
  g8[( a \tuplet 3/2 { b d') e'] ~ }
  \time 2/4
  \tuplet 5/4 { e'32\( a b d' e' } a'4.\)
}

[image of music]


Adding drum parts

Using the powerful pre-configured tools such as the \drummode function and the DrumStaff context, inputting drum parts is quite easy: drums are placed at their own staff positions (with a special clef symbol) and have note heads according to the drum. Attaching an extra symbol to the drum or restricting the number of lines is possible.

drh = \drummode {
        cymc4.^"crash" hhc16^"h.h." hh hhc8 hho hhc8 hh16 hh
        hhc4 r4 r2
      }
drl = \drummode {
        bd4 sn8 bd bd4 << bd ss >>
        bd8 tommh tommh bd toml toml bd tomfh16 tomfh
      }
timb = \drummode {
         timh4 ssh timl8 ssh r timh r4
         ssh8 timl r4 cb8 cb
       }

\score {
  <<
    \new DrumStaff \with {
      instrumentName = "timbales"
      drumStyleTable = #timbales-style
      \override StaffSymbol.line-count = #2
      \override BarLine.bar-extent = #'(-1 . 1)
    }
    <<
      \timb
    >>
    \new DrumStaff \with { instrumentName = "drums" }
    <<
      \new DrumVoice { \stemUp \drh }
      \new DrumVoice { \stemDown \drl }
    >>
  >>
  \layout { }
  \midi { \tempo 4 = 120 }
}

[image of music]


Adjusting grace note spacing

The space given to grace notes can be adjusted using the spacing-increment property of Score.GraceSpacing.

graceNotes = {
  \grace { c4 c8 c16 c32 }
  c8
}

\relative c'' {
  c8
  \graceNotes
  \override Score.GraceSpacing.spacing-increment = #2.0
  \graceNotes
  \revert Score.GraceSpacing.spacing-increment
  \graceNotes
}

[image of music]


Taktnummern ausrichten

Taktnummern sind standardmäßig links an ihrem Ursprungsobjekt ausgerichtet. Das ist normalerweise die linke Ecke einer Linie oder, wenn die Nummern innerhalb einer Zeile gesetzt werden, auf der linken Seite eines Taktstrichs. Die Nummern können auch direkt über dem Taktstrich positioniert werden oder rechts vom Taktstrich gesetzt werden.

\relative c' {
  \set Score.currentBarNumber = #111
  \override Score.BarNumber.break-visibility = #all-visible
  % Increase the size of the bar number by 2
  \override Score.BarNumber.font-size = #2
  % Print a bar number every second measure
  \set Score.barNumberVisibility = #(every-nth-bar-number-visible 2)
  c1 | c1
  % Center-align bar numbers
  \override Score.BarNumber.self-alignment-X = #CENTER
  c1 | c1
  % Left-align bar numbers
  \override Score.BarNumber.self-alignment-X = #LEFT
  c1 | c1
}

[image of music]


Alternative breve notes

Breve notes are also available with two vertical lines on each side of the notehead instead of one line and in baroque style.

\relative c'' {
  \time 4/2
  c\breve |
  \override Staff.NoteHead.style = #'altdefault
  b\breve
  \override Staff.NoteHead.style = #'baroque
  b\breve
  \revert Staff.NoteHead.style
  a\breve
}

[image of music]


Appoggiatura or grace note before a bar line

By default, appoggiaturas and grace notes that occur on the first beat of a measure are printed after the bar line. They can however be printed before, simply by adding an invisible BarLine and then the visible one, as demonstrated here.

{
  R1
  %% default
  \appoggiatura d''8 c''4 r2.
  %% cheated
  \appoggiatura { \bar "" d''8 \bar "|" } c''4 r2.
}

[image of music]


Automatic beam subdivisions

Beams can be subdivided automatically. By setting the property subdivideBeams, beams are subdivided at beat positions (as specified in baseMoment).

\new Staff {
  \relative c'' {
    <<
      {
        \voiceOne
        \set subdivideBeams = ##t
        b32[ a g f c' b a g
        b32^"subdivide beams" a g f c' b a g]
      }
      \new Voice {
        \voiceTwo
        b32_"default"[ a g f c' b a g
        b32 a g f c' b a g]
      }
    >>
    \oneVoice
    \set baseMoment = #(ly:make-moment 1/8)
    \set beatStructure = 2,2,2,2
    b32^"baseMoment 1 8"[ a g f c' b a g]
    \set baseMoment = #(ly:make-moment 1/16)
    \set beatStructure = 4,4,4,4
    b32^"baseMoment 1 16"[ a g f c' b a g]
  }
}

[image of music]


Automatically change durations

shiftDurations can be used to change the note lengths of a piece of music.

It takes two arguments - the scaling factor as a power of two, and the number of dots to be added as a positive integer.

\paper { indent = 0 }

music = \relative c'' { a1 b2 c4 d8 r }

\score {
  \new Voice {
    \time 4/2
    \music
    \time 4/4
    \shiftDurations #1 #0 { \music }
    \time 2/4
    \shiftDurations #2 #0 { \music }
    \time 4/1
    \shiftDurations #-1 #0 { \music }
    \time 8/1
    \shiftDurations #-2 #0 { \music }
    \time 6/2
    \shiftDurations #0 #1 { \music }
    \time 7/2
    \shiftDurations #0 #2 { \music }
  }
}

[image of music]


Balkenenden auf Score-Ebene

Balkenenderegeln, die im Score-Kontext definiert werden, wirken sich auf alle Systeme aus, können aber auf Staff- und Voice-Ebene neu verändert werden:

\relative c'' {
  \time 5/4
  % Set default beaming for all staves
  \set Score.baseMoment = #(ly:make-moment 1/8)
  \set Score.beatStructure = 3,4,3
  <<
    \new Staff {
      c8 c c c c c c c c c
    }
    \new Staff {
      % Modify beaming for just this staff
      \set Staff.beatStructure = 6,4
      c8 c c c c c c c c c
    }
    \new Staff {
      % Inherit beaming from Score context
      <<
        {
          \voiceOne
          c8 c c c c c c c c c
        }
        % Modify beaming for this voice only
        \new Voice {
          \voiceTwo
          \set Voice.beatStructure = 6,4
          a8 a a a a a a a a a
        }
      >>
    }
  >>
}

[image of music]


Balken über Zeilenumbrüche

Zeilenumbrüche sind normalerweise während Balken verboten. Das kann geändert werden.

\relative c'' {
  \override Beam.breakable = ##t
  c8 c[ c] c[ c] c[ c] c[ \break
  c8] c[ c] c[ c] c[ c] c
}

[image of music]


Balken für weit auseinander liegende Noten ändern

Balken mit Hälsen in unterschiedliche Richtungen werden automatisch erstellt, wenn ein großer Sprung zwischen Tonhöhen gefunden wird. Dieses Verhalten kann durch die auto-knee-gap-Eigenschaft beeinflusst werden. Ein derartiger Knie-Balken wird erstellt, wenn der Abstand größer ist als der Wert von auto-knee-gap plus der Dicke des Balkens (was von der Notendauer und der Neigung des Balkens abhängt). Der Standardwert von auto-knee-gap ist 5.5 Notensystemabstände.

{
  f8 f''8 f8 f''8
  \override Beam.auto-knee-gap = #6
  f8 f''8 f8 f''8
}

[image of music]


Die Erscheinung von Pausentakten ändern

Wenn zehn oder weniger Pausentakte vorkommen, wird eine Reihe von Longa- und Brevispausen (auch Kirchenpausen genannt) gesetzt, bei mehr Takten wird eine Line mit der Taktanzahl ausgegeben. Der vorgegebene Wert von zehn kann geändert werden, indem man die expand-limit-Eigenschaft setzt:

\relative c'' {
  \compressMMRests {
    R1*2 | R1*5 | R1*9
    \override MultiMeasureRest.expand-limit = #3
    R1*2 | R1*5 | R1*9
  }
}

[image of music]


Changing the number of augmentation dots per note

The number of augmentation dots on a single note can be changed independently of the dots placed after the note.

\relative c' {
  c4.. a16 r2 |
  \override Dots.dot-count = #4
  c4.. a16 r2 |
  \override Dots.dot-count = #0
  c4.. a16 r2 |
  \revert Dots.dot-count
  c4.. a16 r2 |
}

[image of music]


Das Tempo ohne Metronom-Angabe verändern

Um das Tempo für die MIDI-Ausgabe zu ändern, ohne eine Tempoangabe in den Noten auszugeben, kann die Metronombezeichnung unsichtbar gemacht werden:

\score {
  \new Staff \relative c' {
    \tempo 4 = 160
    c4 e g b
    c4 b d c
    \set Score.tempoHideNote = ##t
    \tempo 4 = 96
    d,4 fis a cis
    d4 cis e d
  }
  \layout { }
  \midi { }
}

[image of music]


Die Zahl der N-tole verändern

Standardmäßig wird nur der Zähler des N-tolen-Bruchs über der Klammer dargestellt, wie er dem \times-Befehl übergeben wird. Man kann aber auch Zähler/Nenner ausgeben lassen, oder die Zahl vollständig unterdrücken.

\relative c'' {
  \tuplet 3/2 { c8 c c }
  \tuplet 3/2 { c8 c c }
  \override TupletNumber.text = #tuplet-number::calc-fraction-text
  \tuplet 3/2 { c8 c c }
  \omit TupletNumber
  \tuplet 3/2 { c8 c c }
}

[image of music]


Changing time signatures inside a polymetric section using \scaleDurations

The measureLength property, together with measurePosition, determines when a bar line is needed. However, when using \scaleDurations, the scaling of durations makes it difficult to change time signatures. In this case, measureLength should be set manually, using the ly:make-moment callback. The second argument must be the same as the second argument of \scaleDurations.

\layout {
  \context {
    \Score
    \remove "Timing_translator"
    \remove "Default_bar_line_engraver"
  }
  \context {
    \Staff
    \consists "Timing_translator"
    \consists "Default_bar_line_engraver"
  }
}

<<
  \new Staff {
    \scaleDurations 8/5 {
      \time 6/8
      \set Timing.measureLength = #(ly:make-moment 6/5)
      b8 b b b b b
      \time 2/4
      \set Timing.measureLength = #(ly:make-moment 4/5)
      b4 b
    }
  }
  \new Staff {
    \clef bass
    \time 2/4
    c2 d e f
  }
>>

[image of music]


Psalmennotation

Diese Form der Notation wird benutzt für die Notation von Psalmen, in denen die Strophen nicht die gleiche Länge haben.

stemOff = \hide Staff.Stem
stemOn  = \undo \stemOff

\score {
  \new Staff \with { \remove "Time_signature_engraver" }
  {
    \key g \minor
    \cadenzaOn
    \stemOff a'\breve bes'4 g'4
    \stemOn a'2 \bar "||"
    \stemOff a'\breve g'4 a'4
    \stemOn f'2 \bar "||"
    \stemOff a'\breve^\markup { \italic flexe }
    \stemOn g'2 \bar "||"
  }
}

[image of music]


Zusammengesetzte Taktarten

Ungerade Taktarten werden (wie etwa "5/8") werden oft als zusammengesetzte Taktarten interpretiert (bspw. "3/8 + 2/8"), in welchen zwei oder mehr Teiltakte unterschieden werden. LilyPond kann derartige Noten produzieren, indem entsprechende Taktarten gesetzt werden und die automatische Bebalkung angepasst wird.

\relative c' {
  \compoundMeter #'((2 8) (3 8))
  c8 d e fis gis
  c8 fis, gis e d
  c8 d e4 gis8
}

[image of music]


Dirigierzeichen, Taktgruppenzeichen

Optionen, mit denen die Balken in einem Takt gruppiert werden, sind durch die Scheme-Funktion set-time-signature erhältlich, die drei Argumente braucht: Die Zahl der Taktschläge, die Länge des Schlages und die interne gruppieren von Balken in dem Takt. Wenn der Measure_grouping_engraver hinzugefügt worden ist, erstellt diese Funktion auch MeasureGrouping-(Taktgruppen)-Zeichen. Derartige Zeichen erleichtern das Lesen von rhythmisch komplexer Musik. In dem Beispiel ist der 9/8-Takt in 2, 2, 2 und 3 aufgeteilt. Das wird der set-time-signature-Funktion als das dritte Argument mitgegeben: '(2 2 2 3):

\score {
  \new Voice \relative c'' {
    \time 9/8
    g8 g d d g g a( bes g) |
    \set Timing.beatStructure = 2,2,2,3
    g8 g d d g g a( bes g) |
    \time 4,5 9/8
    g8 g d d g g a( bes g) |
    \time 5/8
    a4. g4 |
  }
  \layout {
    \context {
      \Staff
      \consists "Measure_grouping_engraver"
    }
  }
}

[image of music]


Consistently left aligned bar numbers

When left aligning bar numbers, overlapping problems may occur with Staves brackets.

The snippet solves this by keeping right aligned the first bar number following line breaks.

consistentlyLeftAlignedBarNumbers = {
  \override Score.BarNumber.break-visibility = #end-of-line-invisible
  \override Score.BarNumber.self-alignment-X =
    #(lambda (grob)
       (let ((break-dir (ly:item-break-dir grob)))
         (if (= break-dir RIGHT) RIGHT LEFT)))
}

\new ChoirStaff <<
  \new Staff {
    \relative c' {
      \set Score.barNumberVisibility = #(every-nth-bar-number-visible 3)
      \bar ""
      \consistentlyLeftAlignedBarNumbers

      \set Score.currentBarNumber = #112
      \repeat unfold 8 { R1 }
      \break
      \repeat unfold 9 { R1 }
      \break
      \repeat unfold 7 { R1 }
    }
  }
  \new Staff {
    \relative c' {
      \repeat unfold 24 { R1 }
    }
  }
>>

\layout {
  indent = #0
  ragged-right = ##t
  ragged-last = ##t
}

[image of music]


Controlling tuplet bracket visibility

The default behavior of tuplet-bracket visibility is to print a bracket unless there is a beam of the same length as the tuplet.

To control the visibility of tuplet brackets, set the property 'bracket-visibility to either #t (always print a bracket), 'if-no-beam (only print a bracket if there is no beam, which is the default behavior), or #f (never print a bracket). The latter is in fact equivalent to omitting the @code{TupletBracket} object altogether from the printed output.

music = \relative c'' {
  \tuplet 3/2 { c16[ d e } f8]
  \tuplet 3/2 { c8 d e }
  \tuplet 3/2 { c4 d e }
}

\new Voice {
  \relative c' {
    << \music s4^"default" >>
    \override TupletBracket.bracket-visibility = #'if-no-beam
    << \music s4^"'if-no-beam" >>
    \override TupletBracket.bracket-visibility = ##t
    << \music s4^"#t" >>
    \override TupletBracket.bracket-visibility = ##f
    << \music s4^"#f" >>
    \omit TupletBracket
    << \music s4^"omit" >>
  }
}

[image of music]


Eine Metronombezeichnung als Textbeschriftung erstellen

Neue Metronombezeichnungen können als Textbeschriftung erstellt werden, aber sie ändern nicht das Tempo für die MIDI-Ausgabe.

\relative c' {
  \tempo \markup {
    \concat {
      (
      \smaller \general-align #Y #DOWN \note {16.} #1
      " = "
      \smaller \general-align #Y #DOWN \note {8} #1
      )
    }
  }
  c1
  c4 c' c,2
}

[image of music]


Bindebögen manuell setzen

Überbindungen können manuell gesetzt werden, indem man die tie-configuration-Eigenschaft des TieColumn-Objekts beeinflusst. Die erste Zahl zeigt den Abstand von der Mitte in Notensystemabständen an, die zweite Zahl zeigt die Richtung an (1 = nach oben, -1 = nach unten).

\relative c' {
  <c e g>2~ <c e g>
  \override TieColumn.tie-configuration =
    #'((0.0 . 1) (-2.0 . 1) (-4.0 . 1))
  <c e g>2~ <c e g>
  \override TieColumn.tie-configuration =
    #'((0 . 1) (-2 . 1) (-4 . 1))
  <c e g>2~ <c e g>
}

[image of music]


Engraving tremolos with floating beams

If a tremolo’s total duration is less than a quarter-note, or exactly a half-note, or between a half-note and a whole-note, it is normally typeset with all beams touching the stems. Certain engraving styles typeset some of these beams as centered floating beams that do not touch the stems. The number of floating beams in this type of tremolo is controlled with the 'gap-count property of the Beam object, and the size of the gaps between beams and stems is set with the 'gap property.

\relative c'' {
  \repeat tremolo 8 { a32 f }
  \override Beam.gap-count = #1
  \repeat tremolo 8 { a32 f }
  \override Beam.gap-count = #2
  \repeat tremolo 8 { a32 f }
  \override Beam.gap-count = #3
  \repeat tremolo 8 { a32 f }

  \override Beam.gap-count = #3
  \override Beam.gap = #1.33
  \repeat tremolo 8 { a32 f }
  \override Beam.gap = #1
  \repeat tremolo 8 { a32 f }
  \override Beam.gap = #0.67
  \repeat tremolo 8 { a32 f }
  \override Beam.gap = #0.33
  \repeat tremolo 8 { a32 f }
}

[image of music]


Entering several tuplets using only one \tuplet command

The property tupletSpannerDuration sets how long each of the tuplets contained within the brackets after \tuplet should last. Many consecutive tuplets can then be placed within a single \tuplet expression, thus saving typing.

There are several ways to set tupletSpannerDuration. The command \tupletSpan sets it to a given duration, and clears it when instead of a duration \default is specified. Another way is to use an optional argument with \tuplet.

\relative c' {
  \time 2/4
  \tupletSpan 4
  \tuplet 3/2 { c8^"\\tupletSpan 4" c c c c c }
  \tupletSpan \default
  \tuplet 3/2 { c8^"\\tupletSpan \\default" c c c c c }
  \tuplet 3/2 4 { c8^"\\tuplet 3/2 4 {...}" c c c c c }
}

[image of music]


Gerade Fähnchen und überstehende Balkenenden

Gerade Fähnchen an einzelnen Noten und überstehende Balkenenden bei bebalkten Notengruppen sind möglich mit einer Kombination aus stemLeftBeamCount, stemRightBeamCount und Paaren von []-Balkenbegrenzungen.

Für gerade Fähnchen, die nach rechts zeigen, kann [] eingesetzt werden und stemLeftBeamCount auf Null gesetzt werden (wie Bsp. 1).

Für gerade Fähnchen, die nach links zeigen, muss stemRightBeamCount eingesetzt werden (Bsp. 2).

Für überstehende Balkenenden nach rechts muss stemRightBeamCount auf einen positiven Wert gesetzt werden, für Balkenenden, die nach links zeigen benutzt man stemLeftBeamCount (Bsp. 3).

Manchmal können einzelne Noten, die von Pausen umgeben sind, auch Balkenenden in beide Richtungen tragen. Das geschieht mit []-Klammern (Bsp. 4).

(\set stemLeftBeamCount entspricht immer dem Befehl \once \set. Anders gesagt müssen die Einstellungen immer wieder wiederholt werden und die Fähnchen des letzten Sechzehntels im letzten Beispiel haben nichts mit dem \set-Befehl zwei Noten vorher zu tun.)

\score {
  <<
    % Example 1
    \new RhythmicStaff {
      \set stemLeftBeamCount = #0
      c16[]
      r8.
    }
    % Example 2
    \new RhythmicStaff {
      r8.
      \set stemRightBeamCount = #0
      16[]
    }
    % Example 3
    \new RhythmicStaff {
      16 16
      \set stemRightBeamCount = #2
      16 r r
      \set stemLeftBeamCount = #2
      16 16 16
    }
    % Example 4
    \new RhythmicStaff {
      16 16
      \set stemRightBeamCount = #2
      16 r16
      16[]
      r16
      \set stemLeftBeamCount = #2
      16 16
    }
  >>
}

[image of music]


Forcing rehearsal marks to start from a given letter or number

This snippet demonstrates how to obtain automatic ordered rehearsal marks, but from the letter or number desired.

\relative c'' {
  c1 \mark \default
  c1 \mark \default
  c1 \mark \default
  c1 \mark #14
  c1 \mark \default
  c1 \mark \default
  c1 \mark \default
  c1
}

[image of music]


Generating custom flags

The stencil property of the Flag grob can be set to a custom scheme function to generate the glyph for the flag.

#(define-public (weight-flag grob)
   (let* ((stem-grob (ly:grob-parent grob X))
          (log (- (ly:grob-property stem-grob 'duration-log) 2))
          (is-up? (eqv? (ly:grob-property stem-grob 'direction) UP))
          (yext (if is-up? (cons (* log -0.8) 0) (cons 0 (* log 0.8))))
          (flag-stencil (make-filled-box-stencil '(-0.4 . 0.4) yext))
          (stroke-style (ly:grob-property grob 'stroke-style))
          (stroke-stencil (if (equal? stroke-style "grace")
                              (make-line-stencil 0.2 -0.9 -0.4 0.9 -0.4)
                              empty-stencil)))
     (ly:stencil-add flag-stencil stroke-stencil)))


% Create a flag stencil by looking up the glyph from the font
#(define (inverted-flag grob)
   (let* ((stem-grob (ly:grob-parent grob X))
          (dir (if (eqv? (ly:grob-property stem-grob 'direction) UP) "d" "u"))
          (flag (retrieve-glyph-flag "" dir "" grob))
          (line-thickness (ly:staff-symbol-line-thickness grob))
          (stem-thickness (ly:grob-property stem-grob 'thickness))
          (stem-width (* line-thickness stem-thickness))
          (stroke-style (ly:grob-property grob 'stroke-style))
          (stencil (if (null? stroke-style)
                       flag
                       (add-stroke-glyph flag stem-grob dir stroke-style "")))
          (rotated-flag (ly:stencil-rotate-absolute stencil 180 0 0)))
     (ly:stencil-translate rotated-flag (cons (- (/ stem-width 2)) 0))))

snippetexamplenotes =
{
  \autoBeamOff c'8 d'16 c'32 d'64 \acciaccatura {c'8} d'64
}

{
  \override Score.RehearsalMark.self-alignment-X = #LEFT
  \time 1/4
  \mark "Normal flags"
  \snippetexamplenotes

  \mark "Custom flag: inverted"
  \override Flag.stencil = #inverted-flag
  \snippetexamplenotes

  \mark "Custom flag: weight"
  \override Flag.stencil = #weight-flag
  \snippetexamplenotes

  \mark "Revert to normal"
  \revert Flag.stencil
  \snippetexamplenotes
}

[image of music]


Schlagrhythmus für Gitarren

In Gitarrennotation kann neben Melodie, Akkordbezeichnungen und Bunddiagrammen auch der Schlagrhythmus angegeben werden.

\include "predefined-guitar-fretboards.ly"
<<
  \new ChordNames {
    \chordmode {
      c1 | f | g | c
    }
  }
  \new FretBoards {
    \chordmode {
      c1 | f | g | c
    }
  }
  \new Voice \with {
    \consists "Pitch_squash_engraver"
  } {
    \relative c'' {
      \improvisationOn
      c4 c8 c c4 c8 c
      f4 f8 f f4 f8 f
      g4 g8 g g4 g8 g
      c4 c8 c c4 c8 c
    }
  }
  \new Voice = "melody" {
    \relative c'' {
      c2 e4 e4
      f2. r4
      g2. a4
      e4 c2.
    }
  }
  \new Lyrics {
    \lyricsto "melody" {
      This is my song.
      I like to sing.
    }
  }
>>

[image of music]


Heavily customized polymetric time signatures

Though the polymetric time signature shown was not the most essential item here, it has been included to show the beat of this piece (which is the template of a real Balkan song!).

melody = \relative c'' {
  \key g \major
  \compoundMeter #'((3 8) (2 8) (2 8) (3 8) (2 8) (2 8)
                    (2 8) (2 8) (3 8) (2 8) (2 8))
  c8 c c d4 c8 c b c b a4 g fis8 e d c b' c d e4-^ fis8 g \break
  c,4. d4 c4 d4. c4 d c2 d4. e4-^ d4
  c4. d4 c4 d4. c4 d c2 d4. e4-^ d4 \break
  c4. d4 c4 d4. c4 d c2 d4. e4-^ d4
  c4. d4 c4 d4. c4 d c2 d4. e4-^ d4 \break
}

drum = \new DrumStaff \drummode {
  \bar ".|:" bd4.^\markup { Drums } sn4 bd \bar ";" sn4.
  bd4 sn \bar ";" bd sn bd4. sn4 bd \bar ":|."
}

  \new Staff \with {
    instrumentName = \markup { \concat { "B" \flat " Sop." } }
  }

{
  \melody
  \drum
}

[image of music]


Making an object invisible with the ’transparent property

Setting the transparent property will cause an object to be printed in „invisible ink“: the object is not printed, but all its other behavior is retained. The object still takes up space, it takes part in collisions, and slurs, ties and beams can be attached to it.

This snippet demonstrates how to connect different voices using ties. Normally, ties only connect two notes in the same voice. By introducing a tie in a different voice, and blanking the first up-stem in that voice, the tie appears to cross voices.

\relative {
  \time 2/4
  <<
    {
      \once \hide Stem
      \once \override Stem.length = #8
      b'8 ~ 8\noBeam
      \once \hide Stem
      \once \override Stem.length = #8
      g8 ~ 8\noBeam
    }
    \\
    {
      b8 g g e
    }
  >>
}

[image of music]


Legatobögen mit kompliziertem Strichelmuster

definieren

Legatobögen können mit einem komplizierten Strichelmuster gesetzt werden, indem die dash-definition-Eigenschaft definiert wird. dash-definition ist eine Liste bestehend aus dash-elements-Elementen. Ein dash-element ist eine Liste an Parametern, die das Strichverhalten für einen Abschnitt des Legatobogens definieren.

Der Bogen wird nach dem Bezierparameter t definiert, welcher von 0 am linken Ende des Bogens zu 1 am rechten Ende des Bogens reicht. dash-element ist eine Liste (start-t stop-t dash-Unterbrechung dash-Abschnitt). Die Region des Bogens von start-t bis stop-t hat eine Unterbrechung von dash-Unterbrechung von jedem dash-Abschnitt-Schwarzabschnitt. dash-Abschnitt ist in Notenlinienzwischenräumen definiert. dash-Abschnitt ist auf 1 für einen durchgehenden Bogen gesetzt.

\relative c' {
  \once \override
    Slur.dash-definition = #'((0 0.3 0.1 0.75)
                                (0.3 0.6 1 1)
                                (0.65 1.0 0.4 0.75))
  c4( d e f)
  \once \override
    Slur.dash-definition = #'((0 0.25 1 1)
                                (0.3 0.7 0.4 0.75)
                                (0.75 1.0 1 1))
  c4( d e f)
}

[image of music]


Manually controlling beam positions

Beam positions may be controlled manually, by overriding the positions setting of the Beam grob.

\relative c' {
  \time 2/4
  % from upper staff-line (position 2) to center (position 0)
  \override Beam.positions = #'(2 . 0)
  c8 c
  % from center to one above center (position 1)
  \override Beam.positions = #'(0 . 1)
  c8 c
}

[image of music]


Merging multi-measure rests in a polyphonic part

When using multi-measure rests in a polyphonic staff, the rests will be placed differently depending on the voice they belong to. However they can be printed on the same staff line, using the following setting.

normalPos = \revert MultiMeasureRest.direction

{
  <<
    {
      c''1
      R1
      c''1
      \normalPos
      R1
    }
    \\
    {
      c'1
      R1
      c'1
      \normalPos
      R1
    }
  >>
}

[image of music]


Modifying tuplet bracket length

Tuplet brackets can be made to run to prefatory matter or the next note. Default tuplet brackets end at the right edge of the final note of the tuplet; full-length tuplet brackets extend farther to the right, either to cover all the non-rhythmic notation up to the following note, or to cover only the whitespace before the next item of notation, be that a clef, time signature, key signature, or another note. The example shows how to switch tuplets to full length mode and how to modify what material they cover.

\new RhythmicStaff {
  % Set tuplets to be extendable...
  \set tupletFullLength = ##t
  % ...to cover all items up to the next note
  \set tupletFullLengthNote = ##t
  \time 2/4
  \tuplet 3/2 { c4 4 4 }
  % ...or to cover just whitespace
  \set tupletFullLengthNote = ##f
  \time 4/4
  \tuplet 5/4 { 4 1 }
  \time 3/4
  2.
}

[image of music]


Moving dotted notes in polyphony

When a dotted note in the upper voice is moved to avoid a collision with a note in another voice, the default is to move the upper note to the right. This behaviour can be over-ridden by using the prefer-dotted-right property of NoteCollision.

\new Staff \relative c' <<
  {
    f2. f4
    \override Staff.NoteCollision.prefer-dotted-right = ##f
    f2. f4
    \override Staff.NoteCollision.prefer-dotted-right = ##t
    f2. f4
  }
  \\
  { e4 e e e e e e e e e e e }
>>

[image of music]


Multi-measure rest length control

Multi-measure rests have length according to their total duration which is under the control of MultiMeasureRest.space-increment. Note that the default value is 2.0.

\relative c' {
  \compressEmptyMeasures
  R1*2 R1*4 R1*64 R1*16
  \override Staff.MultiMeasureRest.space-increment = 2.5
  R1*2 R1*4 R1*64 R1*16
}

[image of music]


Textbeschriftung und Mehrtaktpausen

Textbeschriftungen, die an Mehrtaktpausen gehängt wird, wird über oder unter der Pause zentriert. Lange Beschriftungen lassen den Takt nicht breiter werden. Um eine Mehrtaktpause einer Beschriftung anzupassen, muss eine unsichtbare Pause mit der Beschriftung direkt vor der Mehrtaktpause eingesetzt werden.

Man sollte beachten, dass unsichtbare Pausen automatische Taktstriche nach sich ziehen. Text, der an eine unsichtbare Pause gehängt wird, ist links ausgerichtet an der Position, wo die Pause erscheinen würde. Wenn aber die Länge des Taktes durch die Länge des Textes bestimmt wird, sieht es so aus, als ob der Text zentriert gesetzt ist.

\relative c' {
  \compressMMRests {
    \textLengthOn
    <>^\markup { [MAJOR GENERAL] }
    R1*19
    <>_\markup { \italic { Cue: ... it is yours } }
    <>^\markup { A }
    R1*30^\markup { [MABEL] }
    \textLengthOff
    c4^\markup { CHORUS } d f c
  }
}

[image of music]


Nicht-standard-N-tolennummern

LilyPond stellt auch Formatierungsfunktionen zur Verfügung, mit denen N-tolennummern gesetzt werden können, die sich von dem eigentlichen Bruch unterscheiden. Auch ein Notenwert kann zu Nenner oder Zähler des Bruchs hinzugefügt werden.

\relative c'' {
  \once \override TupletNumber.text =
    #(tuplet-number::non-default-tuplet-denominator-text 7)
  \tuplet 3/2  { c4. c4. c4. c4. }
  \once \override TupletNumber.text =
    #(tuplet-number::non-default-tuplet-fraction-text 12 7)
  \tuplet 3/2  { c4. c4. c4. c4. }
  \once \override TupletNumber.text =
    #(tuplet-number::append-note-wrapper
      (tuplet-number::non-default-tuplet-fraction-text 12 7)
      (ly:make-duration 3 0))
  \tuplet 3/2  { c4. c4. c4. c4. }
  \once \override TupletNumber.text =
    #(tuplet-number::append-note-wrapper
      tuplet-number::calc-denominator-text
      (ly:make-duration 2 0))
  \tuplet 3/2  { c8 c8 c8 c8 c8 c8 }
  \once \override TupletNumber.text =
    #(tuplet-number::append-note-wrapper
      tuplet-number::calc-fraction-text
      (ly:make-duration 2 0))
  \tuplet 3/2  { c8 c8 c8 c8 c8 c8 }
  \once \override TupletNumber.text =
    #(tuplet-number::fraction-with-notes
      (ly:make-duration 2 1) (ly:make-duration 3 0))
  \tuplet 3/2  { c4. c4. c4. c4. }
  \once \override TupletNumber.text =
    #(tuplet-number::non-default-fraction-with-notes 12
      (ly:make-duration 3 0) 4 (ly:make-duration 2 0))
  \tuplet 3/2  { c4. c4. c4. c4. }
}

[image of music]


Numbering single measure rests

Multi measure rests show their length by a number except for single measures. This can be changed by setting restNumberThreshold.

{
  \compressEmptyMeasures
  R1 R1*10 R1*11 \bar "||"
  \set restNumberThreshold = 0
  R1 R1*10 R1*11 \bar "||"
  \set restNumberThreshold = 10
  R1 R1*10 R1*11
}

[image of music]


PartCombine und autoBeamOff

Die Funktionsweise von \autoBeamOff, wenn es zusammen mit \partCombine eingesetzt wird, kann schwer zu verstehen sein. Es kann besser sein, anstatt dessen

\set Staff.autobeaming = ##f

zu benutzen, um sicherzustellen, dass die automatische Bebalkung für das gesamte System ausgeschaltet ist.

\partCombine funktioniert offensichtlich mit 3 Stimme (Hals nach oben einfach, Hals nach unten einfach, Hals nach oben kombiniert).

Ein \autoBeamOff-Befehl im ersten Argument von \partCombine gilt für die Stimme, die zu dem Zeitpunkt aktiv ist, an dem der Befehl verarbeitet wird, entweder für Hals nach oben, nach unten oder Hals nach oben kombiniert. Ein \autoBeamOff-Befehl im zweiten Argument gilt für die Stimme, die mit Hals nach unten einfach ist.

Um \autoBeamOff zu benutzen, damit alle automatischen Balken aufhören, wenn man es mit \partCombine verwendet, muss \autoBeamOff dreimal aufgerufen werden.

{
  %\set Staff.autoBeaming = ##f % turns off all autobeaming
  \partCombine
  {
    \autoBeamOff % applies to split up stems
    \repeat unfold 4 a'16
    %\autoBeamOff % applies to combined up stems
    \repeat unfold 4 a'8
    \repeat unfold 4 a'16
  }
  {
    \autoBeamOff % applies to down stems
    \repeat unfold 4 f'8
    \repeat unfold 8 f'16 |
  }
}

[image of music]


Percussion example

A short example taken from Stravinsky’s L’histoire du Soldat.

#(define mydrums '((bassdrum   default #t  4)
                   (snare      default #t -4)
                   (tambourine default #t  0)))

global = {
  \time 3/8 s4.
  \time 2/4 s2*2
  \time 3/8 s4.
  \time 2/4 s2
}

drumsA = {
  \context DrumVoice <<
    { \global }
    { \drummode {
        \autoBeamOff
        \stemDown sn8 \stemUp tamb s8 |
        sn4 \stemDown sn4 |
        \stemUp tamb8 \stemDown sn8 \stemUp sn16 \stemDown sn \stemUp sn8 |
        \stemDown sn8 \stemUp tamb s8 |
        \stemUp sn4 s8 \stemUp tamb
      }
    }
  >>
}

drumsB = {
  \drummode {
    s4 bd8 s2*2 s4 bd8 s4 bd8 s8
  }
}

\layout {
  indent = #40
}

\score {
  \new StaffGroup <<
    \new DrumStaff \with {
      instrumentName = \markup {
        \center-column {
          "Tambourine"
          "et"
          "caisse claire s. timbre"
        }
      }
    drumStyleTable = #(alist->hash-table mydrums)
  }
  \drumsA
  \new DrumStaff \with {
    instrumentName = #"Grosse Caisse"
    drumStyleTable = #(alist->hash-table mydrums)
  }
  \drumsB
  >>
}

[image of music]


Zeilenumbrüche bei N-tolen mit Balken erlauben

Dieses künstliche Beispiel zeigt, wie sowohl automatische als auch manuelle Zeilenumbrüche innerhalb einer N-tole mit Balken erlaubt werden können. Diese unregelmäßige Bebalkung muss allerdings manuell gesetzt werden.

\layout {
  \context {
    \Voice
    % Permit line breaks within tuplets
    \remove "Forbid_line_break_engraver"
    % Allow beams to be broken at line breaks
    \override Beam.breakable = ##t
  }
}
\relative c'' {
  a8
  \repeat unfold 5 { \tuplet 3/2 { c[ b a] } }
  % Insert a manual line break within a tuplet
  \tuplet 3/2 { c[ b \bar "" \break a] }
  \repeat unfold 5 { \tuplet 3/2 { c[ b a] } }
  c8
}

[image of music]


Positioning grace note beams at the height of normal note beams

When notes are placed on ledger lines, their beams are usually centred on the stave. Grace notes beams are shorter and grace notes on ledger lines may well have beams outside the stave. You can override this beaming for grace notes.

\relative c {
  f8[ e]
  \grace {
    f8[ e]
    \override Stem.no-stem-extend = ##f
    f8[ e]
    \revert Stem.no-stem-extend
  }
  f8[ e]
}

[image of music]


Positionierung von Verzierungen mit verschiebbarem Platz

Wenn man die Eigenschaft 'strict-grace-spacing aktiviert, werden die Verzierungsnoten "fließend" gemacht, d.h. sie sind von den normalen Noten los gekoppelt: Zuerst werden die normalen Noten platziert, dann erst die Verzierungen links von der Hauptnote gesetzt.

\relative c'' {
  <<
    \override Score.SpacingSpanner.strict-grace-spacing = ##t
    \new Staff \new Voice {
      \afterGrace c4 { c16[ c8 c16] }
      c8[ \grace { b16 d } c8]
      c4 r
    }
    \new Staff {
      c16 c c c c c c c c4 r
    }
  >>
}

[image of music]


Positionierung von Ganztaktpausen

Anders als bei normalen Pausen gibt es keinen direkten Befehl, um die vertikale Position von Ganztaktpausen zu beeinflussen, indem man sie an eine Tonhöhe anhängt. In polyphoner Notation wird aber dennoch die Position der Pausen von geraden und ungeraden Stimmen voneinander unterschieden. Die Position von Ganztaktpausen kann wie folgt verändert werden:

\relative c'' {
  % Multi-measure rests by default are set under the fourth line
  R1
  % They can be moved using an override
  \override MultiMeasureRest.staff-position = #-2
  R1
  \override MultiMeasureRest.staff-position = #0
  R1
  \override MultiMeasureRest.staff-position = #2
  R1
  \override MultiMeasureRest.staff-position = #3
  R1
  \override MultiMeasureRest.staff-position = #6
  R1
  \revert MultiMeasureRest.staff-position
  \break

  % In two Voices, odd-numbered voices are under the top line
  << { R1 } \\ { a1 } >>
  % Even-numbered voices are under the bottom line
  << { a1 } \\ { R1 } >>
  % Multi-measure rests in both voices remain separate
  << { R1 } \\ { R1 } >>

  % Separating multi-measure rests in more than two voices
  % requires an override
  << { R1 } \\ { R1 } \\
     \once \override MultiMeasureRest.staff-position = #0
     { R1 }
  >>

  % Using compressed bars in multiple voices requires another override
  % in all voices to avoid multiple instances being printed
  \compressMMRests
  <<
   \revert MultiMeasureRest.direction
    { R1*3 }
    \\
   \revert MultiMeasureRest.direction
    { R1*3 }
  >>
}

[image of music]


Preventing final mark from removing final tuplet

The addition of a final mark can result in the loss of a final tuplet marking. This can be overcome by setting TupletBracket.full-length-to-extent to false.

% due to issue 2362 a long mark such as
%   \mark "Composed Feb 2007 - Feb 2008"
% cannot be used here.

\new Staff {
   \set tupletFullLength = ##t
   \time 1/8
   \tuplet 3/2 8 { c'16 c' c' c' c' c' c' c' c' }
   \override Score.RehearsalMark.break-visibility = ##(#t #t #t)
   \override Score.RehearsalMark.direction = #DOWN
   \override Score.RehearsalMark.self-alignment-X = #RIGHT
   \mark "1234"
}

\new Staff {
  \set tupletFullLength = ##t
  \override TupletBracket.full-length-to-extent = ##f

  \time 1/8
   \tuplet 3/2 8 { c'16 c' c' c' c' c' c' c' c' }
  \override Score.RehearsalMark.break-visibility = ##(#t #t #t)
  \override Score.RehearsalMark.direction = #DOWN
  \override Score.RehearsalMark.self-alignment-X = #RIGHT
   \mark "1234"
}

[image of music]


Setzen der Taktnummern in regelmäßigen Intervallen

Taktnummern können in regelmäßigen Intervallen gesetzt werden, indem man die Eigenschaft barNumberVisibility definiert. In diesem Beispiel werden die Taktnummern jeden zweiten Takt gesetzt, außer am Ende einer Zeile.

\relative c' {
  \override Score.BarNumber.break-visibility = #end-of-line-invisible
  \set Score.currentBarNumber = #11
  % Permit first bar number to be printed
  \bar ""
  % Print a bar number every second measure
  \set Score.barNumberVisibility = #(every-nth-bar-number-visible 2)
  c1 | c | c | c | c
  \break
  c1 | c | c | c | c
}

[image of music]


Setzen von Taktnummern in Kästen oder Kreisen

Taktnummern können auch in Boxen oder Kreisen gesetzt werden.

\relative c' {
  % Prevent bar numbers at the end of a line and permit them elsewhere
  \override Score.BarNumber.break-visibility = #end-of-line-invisible
  \set Score.barNumberVisibility = #(every-nth-bar-number-visible 4)

  % Increase the size of the bar number by 2
  \override Score.BarNumber.font-size = #2

  % Draw a box round the following bar number(s)
  \override Score.BarNumber.stencil
    = #(make-stencil-boxer 0.1 0.25 ly:text-interface::print)
  \repeat unfold 5 { c1 }

  % Draw a circle round the following bar number(s)
  \override Score.BarNumber.stencil
    = #(make-stencil-circler 0.1 0.25 ly:text-interface::print)
  \repeat unfold 4 { c1 } \bar "|."
}

[image of music]


Printing bar numbers with changing regular intervals

The bar number interval can be changed by changing the context function {set-bar-number-visibility}.

\relative c' {
  \override Score.BarNumber.break-visibility = #end-of-line-invisible
  \context Score \applyContext #(set-bar-number-visibility 4)
  \repeat unfold 10 c'1
  \context Score \applyContext #(set-bar-number-visibility 2)
  \repeat unfold 10 c
}

[image of music]


Metronom- und Übungszeichen unter das System setzen

Normalerweise werden Metronom- und Übungszeichen über dem Notensystem ausgegeben. Um sie unter das System zu setzen, muss die direction-Eigenschaft von MetronomeMark oder RehearsalMark entsprechend verändert werden.

\layout {
  indent = 0
  ragged-right = ##f
}

{
  % Metronome marks below the staff
  \override Score.MetronomeMark.direction = #DOWN
  \tempo 8. = 120
  c''1

  % Rehearsal marks below the staff
  \override Score.RehearsalMark.direction = #DOWN
  \mark \default
  c''1
}

[image of music]


Printing music with different time signatures

In the following snippet, two parts have a completely different time signature, yet remain synchronized.

The bar lines can no longer be printed at the Score level; to allow independent bar lines in each part, the Default_barline_engraver and Timing_translator are moved from the Score context to the Staff context.

If bar numbers are required, the Bar_number_engraver should also be moved, since it relies on properties set by the Timing_translator; a \with block can be used to add bar numbers to the relevant staff.

\paper {
  indent = #0
  ragged-right = ##t
}

global = { \time 3/4 { s2.*3 } \bar "" \break { s2.*3 } }

\layout {
  \context {
    \Score
    \remove "Timing_translator"
    \remove "Default_bar_line_engraver"
    \remove "Bar_number_engraver"
    \override SpacingSpanner.uniform-stretching = ##t
    \override SpacingSpanner.strict-note-spacing = ##t
    proportionalNotationDuration = #(ly:make-moment 1/64)
  }
  \context {
    \Staff
    \consists "Timing_translator"
    \consists "Default_bar_line_engraver"
  }
  \context {
    \Voice
    \remove "Forbid_line_break_engraver"
    tupletFullLength = ##t
  }
}

Bassklarinette = \new Staff \with {
  \consists "Bar_number_engraver"
  barNumberVisibility = #(every-nth-bar-number-visible 2)
  \override BarNumber.break-visibility = #end-of-line-invisible
} <<
  \global {
    \bar "|"
    \clef treble
    \time 3/8
    d''4.

    \bar "|"
    \time 3/4
    r8 des''2( c''8)

    \bar "|"
    \time 7/8
    r4. ees''2 ~

    \bar "|"
    \time 2/4
    \tupletUp
    \tuplet 3/2 { ees''4 r4 d''4 ~ }

    \bar "|"
    \time 3/8
    \tupletUp
    \tuplet 4/3 { d''4 r4 }

    \bar "|"
    \time 2/4
    e''2

    \bar "|"
    \time 3/8
    es''4.

    \bar "|"
    \time 3/4
    r8 d''2 r8
    \bar "|"
  }
>>

Perkussion = \new StaffGroup <<
  \new Staff <<
    \global {
      \bar "|"
      \clef percussion
      \time 3/4
      r4 c'2 ~

      \bar "|"
      c'2.

      \bar "|"
      R2.

      \bar "|"
      r2 g'4 ~

      \bar "|"
      g'2. ~

      \bar "|"
      g'2.
    }
  >>
  \new Staff <<
    \global {
      \bar "|"
      \clef percussion
      \time 3/4
      R2.

      \bar "|"
      g'2. ~

      \bar "|"
      g'2.

      \bar "|"
      r4 g'2 ~

      \bar "|"
      g'2 r4

      \bar "|"
      g'2.
    }
  >>
>>

\score {
  <<
    \Bassklarinette
    \Perkussion
  >>
}

[image of music]


Setzen der Taktnummer für den ersten Takt

Standardmäßig wird die erste Taktzahl einer Partitur nicht gesetzt, wenn sie weniger oder gleich ’1’ ist. Indem man barNumberVisibility auf all-bar-numbers-visible setzt, kann eine beliebige Taktzahl für den ersten und die folgenden Takte gesetzt werden. Eine leere Taktlinie muss jedoch vor der ersten Note eingefügt werden, damit das funktioniert.

\layout {
  indent = 0
  ragged-right = ##t
}

\relative c' {
  \set Score.barNumberVisibility = #all-bar-numbers-visible
  \bar ""
  c1 | d | e | f \break
  g1 | e | d | c
}

[image of music]


Globale Umdefinition von Verzierungsnoten

Die globalen Standardeinstellungen für Verzierungsnoten werden in den VariablenstartGraceMusic, stopGraceMusic, startAcciaccaturaMusic, stopAcciaccaturaMusic, startAppoggiaturaMusic und stopAppoggiaturaMusic gespeichert, die in der Datei ‘ly/grace-init.ly’ definiert sind. Wenn man sie umdefiniert, können andere Effekte erreicht werden.

startAcciaccaturaMusic = {
  <>(
  \override Flag.stroke-style = #"grace"
  \slurDashed
}

stopAcciaccaturaMusic = {
  \revert Flag.stroke-style
  \slurSolid
  <>)
}

\relative c'' {
  \acciaccatura d8 c1
}

[image of music]


Entfernung von Taktnummern in einer Partitur

Taktnummern können vollkommen aus den Noten entfernt werden, indem man den Bar_number_engraver aus dem Score-Kontext entfernt.

\layout {
  \context {
    \Score
    \omit BarNumber
    % or:
    %\remove "Bar_number_engraver"
  }
}

\relative c'' {
  c4 c c c \break
  c4 c c c
}

[image of music]


Removing connecting bar lines on StaffGroup, PianoStaff, or GrandStaff

By default, bar lines in StaffGroup, PianoStaff, or GrandStaff groups are connected between the staves, i.e. a SpanBar is printed. This behaviour can be overridden on a staff-by-staff basis.

\relative c' {
  \new StaffGroup <<
    \new Staff {
      e1 | e
      \once \override Staff.BarLine.allow-span-bar = ##f
      e1 | e | e
    }
    \new Staff {
      c1 | c | c
      \once \override Staff.BarLine.allow-span-bar = ##f
      c1 | c
    }
    \new Staff {
      a1 | a | a | a | a
    }
  >>
}

[image of music]


Pausenstile

Pausen können in verschiedenen Stilen dargestellt werden.

\new Staff \relative c {
  \omit Score.TimeSignature
  \cadenzaOn

  \override Staff.Rest.style = #'mensural
  r\maxima^\markup \typewriter { mensural }
  r\longa r\breve r1 r2 r4 r8 r16 s32 s64 s128 s128
  \bar ""
  \break

  \override Staff.Rest.style = #'neomensural
  r\maxima^\markup \typewriter { neomensural }
  r\longa r\breve r1 r2 r4 r8 r16 s32 s64 s128 s128
  \bar ""
  \break

  \override Staff.Rest.style = #'classical
  r\maxima^\markup \typewriter { classical }
  r\longa r\breve r1 r2 r4 r8 r16 r32 r64 r128 s128
  \bar ""
  \break

  \override Staff.Rest.style = #'z
  r\maxima^\markup \typewriter { z-style }
  r\longa r\breve r1 r2 r4 r8 r16 r32 r64 r128 s128
  \bar ""
  \break

  \override Staff.Rest.style = #'default
  r\maxima^\markup \typewriter { default }
  r\longa r\breve r1 r2 r4 r8 r16 r32 r64 r128 s128
}

[image of music]


Standard-Balkenwerte rückgängig machen

Um Balken im 12/8-Takt als 3-4-3-2 zu gruppieren, muss man zuerst die Standardwerte für die Balken im 12/8-Takt rückgängig machen und dann die neuen Werte setzen:

\relative c'' {
  \time 12/8

  % Default beaming
  a8 a a a a a a a a a a a

  % Set new values for beam endings
  \set Score.beatStructure = 3,4,3,2
  a8 a a a a a a a a a a a
}

[image of music]


Rhythmic slashes

In „simple“ lead-sheets, sometimes no actual notes are written, instead only „rhythmic patterns“ and chords above the measures are notated giving the structure of a song. Such a feature is for example useful while creating/transcribing the structure of a song and also when sharing lead sheets with guitarists or jazz musicians.

The standard support for this using \repeat percent is unsuitable here since the first beat has to be an ordinary note or rest.

This example shows two solutions to this problem, by redefining ordinary rests to be printed as slashes. (If the duration of each beat is not a quarter note, replace the r4 in the definitions with a rest of the appropriate duration).

% Macro to print single slash
rs = {
  \once \override Rest.stencil = #ly:percent-repeat-item-interface::beat-slash
  \once \override Rest.thickness = #0.48
  \once \override Rest.slope = #1.7
  r4
}

% Function to print a specified number of slashes
comp = #(define-music-function (count) (integer?)
  #{
    \override Rest.stencil = #ly:percent-repeat-item-interface::beat-slash
    \override Rest.thickness = #0.48
    \override Rest.slope = #1.7
    \repeat unfold $count { r4 }
    \revert Rest.stencil
  #}
)

\score {
  \relative c' {
    c4 d e f |
    \rs \rs \rs \rs |
    \comp #4 |
  }
}

[image of music]


Skips in lyric mode (2)

Although s skips cannot be used in \lyricmode (it is taken to be a literal „s“, not a space), double quotes ("") or underscores (_) are available.

So for example:

<<
  \relative c'' { a4 b c d }
  \new Lyrics \lyricmode { a4 "" _ gap }
>>

[image of music]


Skips in lyric mode

The s syntax for skips is only available in note mode and chord mode. In other situations, for example, when entering lyrics, using the \skip command is recommended.

<<
  \relative c'' { a1 | a }
  \new Lyrics \lyricmode { \skip 1 bla1 }
>>

[image of music]


Stemlets

In some notational conventions beams are allowed to extend over rests. Depending on preference, these beams may drop ’stemlets’ to help the eye appreciate the rhythm better, and in some modern music the rest itself is omitted and only the stemlet remains.

This snippet shows a progression from traditional notation, to beams over the rest, to stemlets over the rest, to stemlets alone. Stemlets are generated by overriding the 'stemlet-length property of Stem, while rests are hidden by setting 'transparent = ##t.

Some \markup elements are included in the source to highlight the different notations.

\paper { ragged-right = ##f }

{
  c'16^\markup { traditional } d' r f'
  g'16[^\markup { beams over rests } f' r d']

  % N.B. use Score.Stem to set for the whole score.
  \override Staff.Stem.stemlet-length = #0.75

  c'16[^\markup { stemlets over rests } d' r f']
  g'16[^\markup { stemlets and no rests } f'
  \once \hide Rest
  r16 d']
}

[image of music]


Bebalkung nach Taktschlag

Sekundäre Balken können in die Richtung gesetzt werden, die ihrer rhythmischen Zugehörigkeit entspricht. Der erste Balken ist zusammengefasst (Standard), der zweite Sechszehntelbalken zeigt den Taktschlag an.

\relative c'' {
  \time 6/8
  a8. a16 a a
  \set strictBeatBeaming = ##t
  a8. a16 a a
}

[image of music]


Subdividing beams

The beams of consecutive 16th (or shorter) notes are, by default, not subdivided. That is, the three (or more) beams stretch unbroken over entire groups of notes. This behavior can be modified to subdivide the beams into sub-groups by setting the property subdivideBeams. When set, multiple beams will be subdivided at intervals defined by the current value of baseMoment by reducing the multiple beams to the number of beams that indicates the metric value of the subdivision. If the group following the division is shorter than the current metric value (usually because the beam is incomplete) the number of beams reflects the longest possible subdivision group. However, if there is only one note left after the division this restriction isn’t applied. Note that baseMoment defaults to one over the denominator of the current time signature if not set explicitly. It must be set to a fraction giving the duration of the beam sub-group using the ly:make-moment function, as shown in this snippet. Also, when baseMoment is changed, beatStructure should also be changed to match the new baseMoment:

\relative c'' {
  c32[ c c c c c c c]
  \set subdivideBeams = ##t
  c32[ c c c c c c c]

  % Set beam sub-group length to an eighth note
  \set baseMoment = #(ly:make-moment 1/8)
  \set beatStructure = 2,2,2,2
  c32[ c c c c c c c]

  % Set beam sub-group length to a sixteenth note
  \set baseMoment = #(ly:make-moment 1/16)
  \set beatStructure = 4,4,4,4
  c32[ c c c c c c c]

  % Shorten beam by 1/32
  \set baseMoment = #(ly:make-moment 1/8)
  \set beatStructure = 2,2,2,2
  c32[ c c c c c c] r32

  % Shorten beam by 3/32
  \set baseMoment = #(ly:make-moment 1/8)
  \set beatStructure = 2,2,2,2
  c32[ c c c c] r16.
  r2
}

[image of music]


Tam-tam example

A tam-tam example, entered with ’tt’

#(define mydrums '((tamtam default #t 0)))

\new DrumStaff \with { instrumentName = #"Tamtam" }

\drummode {
  \set DrumStaff.drumStyleTable = #(alist->hash-table mydrums)
  \override Staff.StaffSymbol.line-positions = #'( 0 )
  \override Staff.BarLine.bar-extent = #'(-1.5 . 1.5)

  tt 1 \pp \laissezVibrer
}

[image of music]


Three-sided box

This example shows how to add a markup command to get a three sided box around some text (or other markup).

% New command to add a three sided box, with sides north, west and south
% Based on the box-stencil command defined in scm/stencil.scm
% Note that ";;" is used to comment a line in Scheme
#(define-public (NWS-box-stencil stencil thickness padding)
   "Add a box around STENCIL, producing a new stencil."
   (let* ((x-ext (interval-widen (ly:stencil-extent stencil X) padding))
          (y-ext (interval-widen (ly:stencil-extent stencil Y) padding))
          (y-rule (make-filled-box-stencil (cons 0 thickness) y-ext))
          (x-rule (make-filled-box-stencil
                   (interval-widen x-ext thickness) (cons 0 thickness))))
     ;; (set! stencil (ly:stencil-combine-at-edge stencil X 1 y-rule padding))
     (set! stencil (ly:stencil-combine-at-edge stencil X LEFT y-rule padding))
     (set! stencil (ly:stencil-combine-at-edge stencil Y UP x-rule 0.0))
     (set! stencil (ly:stencil-combine-at-edge stencil Y DOWN x-rule 0.0))
     stencil))

% The corresponding markup command, based on the \box command defined
% in scm/define-markup-commands.scm
#(define-markup-command (NWS-box layout props arg) (markup?)
   #:properties ((thickness 0.1) (font-size 0) (box-padding 0.2))
   "Draw a box round @var{arg}.  Looks at @code{thickness},
@code{box-padding} and @code{font-size} properties to determine line
thickness and padding around the markup."
   (let ((pad (* (magstep font-size) box-padding))
         (m (interpret-markup layout props arg)))
     (NWS-box-stencil m thickness pad)))

% Test it:

\relative c' {
  c1^\markup { \NWS-box ABCD }
  c1^\markup { \NWS-box \note {4} #1.0 }
}

[image of music]


Time signature in parentheses - method 3

Another way to put the time signature in parenthesis

\relative c'' {
  \override Staff.TimeSignature.stencil = #(lambda (grob)
    (parenthesize-stencil (ly:time-signature::print grob) 0.1 0.4 0.4 0.1 ))
  \time 2/4
  a4 b8 c
}

[image of music]


Time signature in parentheses

The time signature can be enclosed within parentheses.

\relative c'' {
  \override Staff.TimeSignature.stencil = #(lambda (grob)
    (bracketify-stencil (ly:time-signature::print grob) Y 0.1 0.2 0.1))
  \time 2/4
  a4 b8 c
}

[image of music]


Time signature printing only the numerator as a number (instead of the fraction)

Sometimes, a time signature should not print the whole fraction (e.g. 7/4), but only the numerator (7 in this case). This can be easily done by using \override Staff.TimeSignature.style = #'single-digit to change the style permanently. By using \revert Staff.TimeSignature.style, this setting can be reversed. To apply the single-digit style to only one time signature, use the \override command and prefix it with a \once.

\relative c'' {
  \time 3/4
  c4 c c
  % Change the style permanently
  \override Staff.TimeSignature.style = #'single-digit
  \time 2/4
  c4 c
  \time 3/4
  c4 c c
  % Revert to default style:
  \revert Staff.TimeSignature.style
  \time 2/4
  c4 c
  % single-digit style only for the next time signature
  \once \override Staff.TimeSignature.style = #'single-digit
  \time 5/4
  c4 c c c c
  \time 2/4
  c4 c
}

[image of music]


Veränderung des Layouts von Verzierungen innerhalb der Noten

Das Layout von Verzierungsausdrücken kann in der Musik verändert werden mit den Funktionen add-grace-property und remove-grace-property. Das folgende Beispiel definiert die Richtung von Hälsen (Stem) für diese Verzierung, sodass die Hälse nicht immer nach unten zeigen, und ändert den Standardnotenkopf in ein Kreuz.

\relative c'' {
  \new Staff {
    $(remove-grace-property 'Voice 'Stem 'direction)
    $(add-grace-property 'Voice 'NoteHead 'style 'cross)
    \new Voice {
       \acciaccatura { f16 } g4
       \grace { d16 e } f4
       \appoggiatura { f,32 g a } e2
    }
  }
}

[image of music]


User defined time signatures

New time signature styles can be defined. The time signature in the second measure should be upside down in both staves.

#(add-simple-time-signature-style 'topsy-turvy
   (lambda (fraction)
     (make-rotate-markup 180 (make-compound-meter-markup fraction))))

<<
  \new Staff {
    \time 3/4 f'2.
    \override Score.TimeSignature.style = #'topsy-turvy
    \time 3/4 R2. \bar "|."
  }
  \new Staff {
    R2. e''
  }
>>

[image of music]


Using alternative flag styles

Alternative styles of flag on eighth and shorter notes can be displayed by overriding the stencil property of Flag. Valid values are modern-straight-flag, old-straight-flag and flat-flag.

testnotes = {
  \autoBeamOff
  c8 d16 c32 d64 \acciaccatura { c8 } d64 r4
}

\score {
  \relative c' {
    \time 2/4
    \testnotes

    \override Flag.stencil = #modern-straight-flag
    \testnotes

    \override Flag.stencil = #old-straight-flag
    \testnotes

    \override Flag.stencil = #flat-flag
    \testnotes

    \revert Flag.stencil
    \testnotes
  }
  \layout {
    indent = 0
    \context {
      \Score
      \override NonMusicalPaperColumn.line-break-permission = ##f
    }
  }
}

[image of music]


Using grace note slashes with normal heads

The slash through the stem found in acciaccaturas can be applied in other situations.

\relative c'' {
  \override Flag.stroke-style = #"grace"
  c8( d2) e8( f4)
}

[image of music]


Überbindungen für Arpeggio benutzen

Überbindungen werden teilweise benutzt, um Arpeggios zu notieren. In diesem Fall stehen die übergebundenen Noten nicht unbedingt hintereinander. Das Verhalten kann erreicht werden, indem die tieWaitForNote-Eigenschaft auf #t gesetzt wird. Diese Funktion ist auch sinnvoll, um etwa ein Tremolo mit einem Akkord zu überbinden, kann aber prinzipiell auch für normale Überbindungen eingesetzt werden

\relative c' {
  \set tieWaitForNote = ##t
  \grace { c16[ ~ e ~ g] ~ } <c, e g>2
  \repeat tremolo 8 { c32 ~ c' ~ } <c c,>1
  e8 ~ c ~ a ~ f ~ <e' c a f>2
  \tieUp
  c8 ~ a
  \tieDown
  \tieDotted
  g8 ~ c g2
}

[image of music]


LilyPond – Snippets v2.21.82 (Entwicklungszweig).