Expressive marks

Expressive marks


Adding beams, slurs, ties etc. when using tuplet and non-tuplet rhythms

LilyPond syntax can involve many unusual placements for parentheses, brackets etc., which might sometimes have to be interleaved.

For example, when entering a manual beam, the left square bracket has to be placed after the starting note and its duration, not before. Similarly, the right square bracket should directly follow the note which is to be at the end of the requested beaming, even if this note happens to be inside a tuplet section.

This snippet demonstrates how to combine manual beaming, manual slurs, ties and phrasing slurs with tuplet sections (enclosed within curly braces).

{
  r16[ g16 \tuplet 3/2 { r16 e'8] }
  g16( a \tuplet 3/2 { b d e') }
  g8[( a \tuplet 3/2 { b d') e'] ~ }
  \time 2/4
  \tuplet 5/4 { e'32\( a b d' e' } a'4.\)
}

[image of music]


Adding parentheses around an expressive mark or chordal note

The \parenthesize function is a special tweak that encloses objects in parentheses. The associated grob is ParenthesesItem.

\relative c' {
  c2-\parenthesize ->
  \override ParenthesesItem.padding = #0.1
  \override ParenthesesItem.font-size = #-4
  <d \parenthesize f a>2
}

[image of music]


Aggiungere i segni di tempo per i glissandi lunghi

I battiti saltati nei glissandi molto lunghi vengono talvolta segnalati con delle indicazioni di tempo, che consistono solitamente in dei gambi privi di teste di nota. Questi gambi possono essere usati anche per contenere segni di espressione intermedi.

Se i gambi non si allineano bene al glissando, può essere necessario riposizionarli leggermente.

glissandoSkipOn = {
  \override NoteColumn.glissando-skip = ##t
  \hide NoteHead
  \override NoteHead.no-ledgers = ##t
}

glissandoSkipOff = {
  \revert NoteColumn.glissando-skip
  \undo \hide NoteHead
  \revert NoteHead.no-ledgers
}

\relative c'' {
  r8 f8\glissando
  \glissandoSkipOn
  f4 g a a8\noBeam
  \glissandoSkipOff
  a8

  r8 f8\glissando
  \glissandoSkipOn
  g4 a8
  \glissandoSkipOff
  a8 |

  r4 f\glissando \<
  \glissandoSkipOn
  a4\f \>
  \glissandoSkipOff
  b8\! r |
}

[image of music]


Cambiare la forma dei portamenti indeterminati verso il basso o verso l’alto

La proprietà shortest-duration-space può essere modificata per cambiare la forma dei portamenti indeterminati verso il basso o verso l’alto.

\relative c'' {
  \override Score.SpacingSpanner.shortest-duration-space = #4.0
  c2-\bendAfter #5
  c2-\bendAfter #-4.75
  c2-\bendAfter #8.5
  c2-\bendAfter #-6
}

[image of music]


Note brevi alternative

Le note brevi sono disponibili anche con due linee verticali su ciascun lato della testa invece di una sola e in stile barocco.

\relative c'' {
  \time 4/2
  c\breve |
  \override Staff.NoteHead.style = #'altdefault
  b\breve
  \override Staff.NoteHead.style = #'baroque
  b\breve
  \revert Staff.NoteHead.style
  a\breve
}

[image of music]


Asymmetric slurs

Slurs can be made asymmetric to match an asymmetric pattern of notes better.

slurNotes = { d,8( a' d f a f' d, a) }

\relative c' {
  \stemDown
  \slurUp
  \slurNotes
  \once \override Slur.eccentricity = #3.0
  \slurNotes
}

[image of music]


Breathing signs

Breathing signs are available in different tastes: commas (default), ticks, vees and “railroad tracks” (caesura).

\new Staff \relative c'' {
  \key es \major
  \time 3/4
  % this bar contains no \breathe
  << { g4 as g } \\ { es4 bes es } >> |
  % Modern notation:
  % by default, \breathe uses the rcomma, just as if saying:
  % \override BreathingSign.text = #(make-musicglyph-markup "scripts.rcomma")
  << { g4 as g } \\ { es4 \breathe bes es } >> |

  % rvarcomma and lvarcomma are variations of the default rcomma and lcomma
  % N.B.: must use Staff context here, since we start a Voice below
  \override Staff.BreathingSign.text =
    \markup { \musicglyph "scripts.rvarcomma" }
  << { g4 as g } \\ { es4 \breathe bes es } >> |

  % vee
  \override BreathingSign.text = \markup { \musicglyph "scripts.upbow" }
  es8[ d es f g] \breathe f |

  % caesura
  \override BreathingSign.text =
    \markup { \musicglyph "scripts.caesura.curved" }
  es8[ d] \breathe es[ f g f] |
  es2 r4 \bar "||"
}

[image of music]


Broken Crescendo Hairpin

In order to make parts of a crescendo hairpin invisible, the following method is used: A white rectangle is drawn on top of the respective part of the crescendo hairpin, making it invisible. The rectangle is defined as postscript code within a text markup.

The markup command with-dimensions tells LilyPond to consider only the bottom edge of the rectangle when spacing it against the hairpin. The property staff-padding prevents the rectangle from fitting between the hairpin and staff.

Make sure the hairpin is in a lower layer than the text markup to draw the rectangle over the hairpin.

\relative c' {
  <<
    {
      \dynamicUp
      r2 r16 c'8.\pp r4
    }
    \\
    {
      \override DynamicLineSpanner.layer = #0
      des,2\mf\< ~
      \override TextScript.layer = #2
      \once\override TextScript.staff-padding = #6
      \once\override TextScript.vertical-skylines = #'()
      des16_\markup \with-dimensions #'(2 . 7) #'(0 . 0)
                    \with-color #white
                    \filled-box #'(2 . 7) #'(0 . 2) #0
      r8. des4 ~ des16->\sff r8.
    }
  >>
}

[image of music]


Caesura ("railtracks") with fermata

A caesura is sometimes denoted by a double “railtracks” breath mark with a fermata sign positioned above. This snippet shows an optically pleasing combination of railtracks and fermata.

\relative c'' {
  c2.
  % construct the symbol
  \override BreathingSign.text = \markup {
    \override #'(direction . 1)
    \override #'(baseline-skip . 1.8)
    \dir-column {
      \translate #'(0.155 . 0)
        \center-align \musicglyph "scripts.caesura.curved"
      \center-align \musicglyph "scripts.ufermata"
    }
  }
  \breathe c4
  % set the breathe mark back to normal
  \revert BreathingSign.text
  c2. \breathe c4
  \bar "|."
}

[image of music]


Center text below hairpin dynamics

This example provides a function to typeset a hairpin (de)crescendo with some additional text below it, such as “molto” or “poco”. The added text will change the direction according to the direction of the hairpin. The Hairpin is aligned to DynamicText.

The example also illustrates how to modify the way an object is normally printed, using some Scheme code.

hairpinWithCenteredText =
#(define-music-function (text) (markup?)
  #{
    \once \override Voice.Hairpin.after-line-breaking =
      #(lambda (grob)
        (let* ((stencil (ly:hairpin::print grob))
               (par-y (ly:grob-parent grob Y))
               (dir (ly:grob-property par-y 'direction))
               (new-stencil (ly:stencil-aligned-to
                 (ly:stencil-combine-at-edge
                   (ly:stencil-aligned-to stencil X CENTER)
                   Y dir
                   (ly:stencil-aligned-to
                     (grob-interpret-markup grob text) X CENTER))
                 X LEFT))
               (staff-space (ly:output-def-lookup
                 (ly:grob-layout grob) 'staff-space))
               (staff-line-thickness
                 (ly:output-def-lookup (ly:grob-layout grob) 'line-thickness))
               (par-x (ly:grob-parent grob X))
               (dyn-text (grob::has-interface par-x 'dynamic-text-interface))
               (dyn-text-stencil-x-length
                 (if dyn-text
                   (interval-length
                     (ly:stencil-extent (ly:grob-property par-x 'stencil) X))
                   0))
               (x-shift
                 (if dyn-text
                   (-
                     (+ staff-space dyn-text-stencil-x-length)
                     (* 0.5 staff-line-thickness)) 0)))

        (ly:grob-set-property! grob 'Y-offset 0)
        (ly:grob-set-property! grob 'stencil
           (ly:stencil-translate-axis
            new-stencil
            x-shift X))))
  #})

hairpinMolto =
\hairpinWithCenteredText \markup { \italic molto }

hairpinMore =
\hairpinWithCenteredText \markup { \larger moltissimo }

\layout { ragged-right = ##f }

\relative c' {
  \hairpinMolto
  c2\< c\f
  \hairpinMore
  c2\ppppp\< c\f
  \break
  \hairpinMolto
  c2^\< c\f
  \hairpinMore
  c2\ppppp\< c\f
}

[image of music]


Modifica della dimensione del segno di \flageolet

Per ridurre la dimensione del cerchio di \flageolet, usare la seguente funzione Scheme.

smallFlageolet = \tweak font-size -3 \flageolet

\layout { ragged-right = ##f }

\relative c'' {
  d4^\flageolet_\markup { default size } d_\flageolet
  c4^\smallFlageolet_\markup { smaller } c_\smallFlageolet
}

[image of music]


Nascondere la linea di estensione per le dinamiche testuali

Il testo usato per i crescendo e i decrescendo può essere cambiato modificando le proprietà di contesto crescendoText e decrescendoText.

Lo stile della linea dell’estensore può essere cambiato modificando la proprietà 'style di DynamicTextSpanner. Il valore predefinito è 'dashed-line; gli altri valori possibili sono 'line, 'dotted-line e 'none.

\relative c'' {
  \set crescendoText = \markup { \italic { cresc. poco } }
  \set crescendoSpanner = #'text
  \override DynamicTextSpanner.style = #'dotted-line
  a2\< a
  a2 a
  a2 a
  a2 a\mf
}

[image of music]


Changing the appearance of a slur from solid to dotted or dashed

The appearance of slurs may be changed from solid to dotted or dashed.

\relative c' {
  c4( d e c)
  \slurDotted
  c4( d e c)
  \slurSolid
  c4( d e c)
  \slurDashed
  c4( d e c)
  \slurSolid
  c4( d e c)
}

[image of music]


Cambiare il simbolo del segno di respiro

Il glifo del respiro può essere modificato sovrascrivendo la proprietà text dell’oggetto di formattazione BreathingSign con qualsiasi testo incluso in un blocco markup.

\relative c'' {
  c2
  \override BreathingSign.text =
    \markup { \musicglyph "scripts.rvarcomma" }
  \breathe
  d2
}

[image of music]


Modifica del numero di punti di aumentazione per nota

Il numero di punti di aumentazione su una singola nota può essere modificato in modo indipendente dai punti posizionati dopo la nota.

\relative c' {
  c4.. a16 r2 |
  \override Dots.dot-count = #4
  c4.. a16 r2 |
  \override Dots.dot-count = #0
  c4.. a16 r2 |
  \revert Dots.dot-count
  c4.. a16 r2 |
}

[image of music]


Combining dynamics with markup texts

Some dynamics may involve text indications (such as “più forte” or “piano subito”). These can be produced using a \markup block.

piuF = \markup { \italic più \dynamic f }

\layout { ragged-right = ##f }

\relative c'' {
  c2\f c-\piuF
}

[image of music]


Glissando contemporaneo

Un glissando contemporaneo senza una nota finale può essere creato usando una nota nascosta e un tempo di cadenza.

\relative c'' {
  \time 3/4
  \override Glissando.style = #'zigzag
  c4 c
  \cadenzaOn
  c4\glissando
  \hideNotes
  c,,4
  \unHideNotes
  \cadenzaOff
  \bar "|"
}

[image of music]


Controlling spanner visibility after a line break

The visibility of spanners which end on the first note following a line break is controlled by the after-line-breaking callback ly:spanner::kill-zero-spanned-time.

For objects such as glissandos and hairpins, the default behaviour is to hide the spanner after a break; disabling the callback will allow the left-broken span to be shown.

Conversely, spanners which are usually visible, such as text spans, can be hidden by enabling the callback.

\paper { ragged-right = ##t }

\relative c'' {
  \override Hairpin.to-barline = ##f
  \override Glissando.breakable = ##t
  % show hairpin
  \override Hairpin.after-line-breaking = ##t
  % hide text span
  \override TextSpanner.after-line-breaking =
    #ly:spanner::kill-zero-spanned-time
  e2\<\startTextSpan
  % show glissando
  \override Glissando.after-line-breaking = ##t
  f2\glissando
  \break
  f,1\!\stopTextSpan
}

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Controllo dell’ordine verticale degli script

L’ordine verticale degli script è determinato dalla proprietà 'script-priority. Più il numero è piccolo, più sarà posto vicino alla nota. In questo esempio, il simbolo di diesis (oggetto TextScript) ha prima la priorità più bassa, dunque è posto più in basso nel primo esempio. Nel secondo, il trillo (oggetto Script) ha la priorità più bassa, quindi si trova all’interno. Quando due oggetti hanno la stessa priorità, l’ordine in cui sono inseriti determina quale viene prima.

\relative c''' {
  \once \override TextScript.script-priority = #-100
  a2^\prall^\markup { \sharp }

  \once \override Script.script-priority = #-100
  a2^\prall^\markup { \sharp }
}

[image of music]


Creare un gruppetto ritardato

Creare un gruppetto ritardato, dove la nota più bassa del gruppetto usa l’alterazione, richiede vari \override. La proprietà outside-staff-priority deve essere impostata su #f, perché altrimenti questa avrebbe la precedenza sulla proprietà avoid-slur. Cambiando le frazioni 2/3 e 1/3 si aggiusta la posizione orizzontale.

\relative c'' {
  c2*2/3 ( s2*1/3\turn d4) r
  <<
    { c4.( d8) }
    { s4 s\turn }
  >>
  \transpose c d \relative c'' <<
    { c4.( d8) }
    {
      s4
      \once \set suggestAccidentals = ##t
      \once \override AccidentalSuggestion.outside-staff-priority = ##f
      \once \override AccidentalSuggestion.avoid-slur = #'inside
      \once \override AccidentalSuggestion.font-size = -3
      \once \override AccidentalSuggestion.script-priority = -1
      \single \hideNotes
      b8-\turn \noBeam
      s8
    }
  >>
}

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Creare degli arpeggi che attraversano note appartenenti a voci diverse

Si può disegnare un arpeggio che attraversa delle note in voci diverse dello stesso rigo se si aggiunge l’incisore Span_arpeggio_engraver nel contesto Staff:

\new Staff \with {
  \consists "Span_arpeggio_engraver"
}
\relative c' {
  \set Staff.connectArpeggios = ##t
  <<
    { <e' g>4\arpeggio <d f> <d f>2 }
    \\
    { <d, f>2\arpeggio <g b>2 }
  >>
}

[image of music]


Creare degli arpeggi che attraversano il rigo del pianoforte

In un rigo per pianoforte (PianoStaff), è possibile far sì che un arpeggio attraversi i righi impostando la proprietà PianoStaff.connectArpeggios.

\new PianoStaff \relative c'' <<
  \set PianoStaff.connectArpeggios = ##t
  \new Staff {
    <c e g c>4\arpeggio
    <g c e g>4\arpeggio
    <e g c e>4\arpeggio
    <c e g c>4\arpeggio
  }
  \new Staff {
    \clef bass
    \repeat unfold 4 {
      <c,, e g c>4\arpeggio
    }
  }
>>

[image of music]


Creare degli arpeggi che attraversano i righi in altri contesti

Si possono creare arpeggi che attraversano i righi in contesti diversi da GrandStaff, PianoStaff e StaffGroup se l’incisore Span_arpeggio_engraver è incluso nel contesto Score.

\score {
  \new ChoirStaff {
    \set Score.connectArpeggios = ##t
    <<
      \new Voice \relative c' {
        <c e>2\arpeggio
        <d f>2\arpeggio
        <c e>1\arpeggio
      }
      \new Voice \relative c {
        \clef bass
        <c g'>2\arpeggio
        <b g'>2\arpeggio
        <c g'>1\arpeggio
      }
    >>
  }
  \layout {
    \context {
      \Score
      \consists "Span_arpeggio_engraver"
    }
  }
}

[image of music]


Creating double-digit fingerings

Creating fingerings larger than 5 is possible.

\relative c' {
  c1-10
  c1-50
  c1-36
  c1-29
}

[image of music]


Creating "real" parenthesized dynamics

Although the easiest way to add parentheses to a dynamic mark is to use a \markup block, this method has a downside: the created objects will behave like text markups, and not like dynamics.

However, it is possible to create a similar object using the equivalent Scheme code (as described in the Notation Reference), combined with the make-dynamic-script function. This way, the markup will be regarded as a dynamic, and therefore will remain compatible with commands such as \dynamicUp or \dynamicDown.

paren =
#(define-event-function (dyn) (ly:event?)
   (make-dynamic-script
    #{ \markup \concat {
         \normal-text \italic \fontsize #2 (
	 \pad-x #0.2 #(ly:music-property dyn 'text)
	 \normal-text \italic \fontsize #2 )
       }
    #}))

\relative c'' {
  c4\paren\f c c \dynamicUp c\paren\p
}

[image of music]


Creating simultaneous rehearsal marks

Unlike text scripts, rehearsal marks cannot be stacked at a particular point in a score: only one RehearsalMark object is created. Using an invisible measure and bar line, an extra rehearsal mark can be added, giving the appearance of two marks in the same column.

This method may also prove useful for placing rehearsal marks at both the end of one system and the start of the following system.

{
  \key a \major
  \set Score.markFormatter = #format-mark-box-letters
  \once \override Score.RehearsalMark.outside-staff-priority = #5000
  \once \override Score.RehearsalMark.self-alignment-X = #LEFT
  \once \override Score.RehearsalMark.break-align-symbols = #'(key-signature)
  \mark \markup { \bold { Senza denti } }

  % the hidden measure and bar line
  % \cadenzaOn turns off automatic calculation of bar numbers
  \cadenzaOn
  \once \override Score.TimeSignature.stencil = ##f
  \time 1/16
  s16 \bar ""
  \cadenzaOff

  \time 4/4
  \once \override Score.RehearsalMark.self-alignment-X = #LEFT
  \mark \markup { \box \bold Intro }
  d'1
  \mark \default
  d'1
}

[image of music]


Creating slurs across voices

In some situations, it may be necessary to create slurs between notes from different voices. The solution is to add invisible notes to one of the voices, using \hideNotes.

This example is measure 235 of the Ciaconna from Bach’s 2nd Partita for solo violin, BWV 1004.

\relative c' {
  <<
    {
      d16( a') s a s a[ s a] s a[ s a]
    }
    \\
    {
      \slurUp
      bes,16[ s e](
      \hideNotes a)
      \unHideNotes f[(
      \hideNotes a)
      \unHideNotes fis](
      \hideNotes a)
      \unHideNotes g[(
      \hideNotes a)
      \unHideNotes gis](
      \hideNotes a)
    }
  >>
}

[image of music]


Creating text spanners

The \startTextSpan and \stopTextSpan commands allow the creation of text spanners as easily as pedal indications or octavations. Override some properties of the TextSpanner object to modify its output.

\paper { ragged-right = ##f }

\relative c'' {
  \override TextSpanner.bound-details.left.text = #"bla"
  \override TextSpanner.bound-details.right.text = #"blu"
  a4 \startTextSpan
  b4 c
  a4 \stopTextSpan

  \override TextSpanner.style = #'line
  \once \override TextSpanner.bound-details.left.stencil-align-dir-y = #CENTER
  a4 \startTextSpan
  b4 c
  a4 \stopTextSpan

  \override TextSpanner.style = #'dashed-line
  \override TextSpanner.bound-details.left.text =
    \markup { \draw-line #'(0 . 1) }
  \override TextSpanner.bound-details.right.text =
    \markup { \draw-line #'(0 . -2) }
  \once \override TextSpanner.bound-details.right.padding = #-2

  a4 \startTextSpan
  b4 c
  a4 \stopTextSpan

  \set Staff.middleCPosition = #-13
  \override TextSpanner.dash-period = #10
  \override TextSpanner.dash-fraction = #0.5
  \override TextSpanner.thickness = #10
  a4 \startTextSpan
  b4 c
  a4 \stopTextSpan
}

[image of music]


Estensore testuale della dinamica personalizzato

Funzioni postfix per estensori testuali personalizzati del crescendo. Gli estensori devono iniziare sulla prima nota della misura; e bisogna usare -\mycresc, altrimenti l’inizio dell’estensore viene assegnato alla nota successiva.

% Two functions for (de)crescendo spanners where you can explicitly
% give the spanner text.
mycresc =
#(define-music-function (mymarkup) (markup?)
   (make-music 'CrescendoEvent
               'span-direction START
               'span-type 'text
               'span-text mymarkup))
mydecresc =
#(define-music-function (mymarkup) (markup?)
   (make-music 'DecrescendoEvent
               'span-direction START
               'span-type 'text
               'span-text mymarkup))

\relative c' {
  c4-\mycresc "custom cresc" c4 c4 c4 |
  c4 c4 c4 c4 |
  c4-\mydecresc "custom decresc" c4 c4 c4 |
  c4 c4\! c4 c4
}

[image of music]


Estensore testuale della dinamica personalizzato

Si possono definire estensori testuali personalizzati che fanno uso delle forcine e dei crescendo testuali. \< e \> generano le forcine, \cresc etc. generano gli estensori testuali.

% Some sample text dynamic spanners, to be used as postfix operators
crpoco =
#(make-music 'CrescendoEvent
             'span-direction START
             'span-type 'text
             'span-text "cresc. poco a poco")

\relative c' {
  c4\cresc d4 e4 f4 |
  g4 a4\! b4\crpoco c4 |
  c4 d4 e4 f4 |
  g4 a4\! b4\< c4 |
  g4\dim a4 b4\decresc c4\!
}

[image of music]


Glissandi can skip grobs

NoteColumn grobs can be skipped over by glissandi.

\relative c' {
  a2 \glissando
  \once \override NoteColumn.glissando-skip = ##t
  f''4 d,
}

[image of music]


Hairpins with different line styles

Hairpins can take any style from line-interface - dashed-line, dotted-line, line, trill or zigzag.

\relative c' {
  c2\< c\!
  \override Hairpin.style = #'dashed-line
  c2\< c\!
  \override Hairpin.style = #'dotted-line
  c2\< c\!
  \override Hairpin.style = #'line
  c2\< c\!
  \override Hairpin.style = #'trill
  c2\< c\!
  \override Hairpin.style = #'zigzag
  c2\< c\!
  \revert Hairpin.style
  c2\< c\!
}

[image of music]


Nascondere la linea di estensione per le dinamiche testuali

I cambi di dinamica in stile testuale (come cresc. e dim.) appaiono con una linea tratteggiata che mostra la loro estensione. Questa linea può essere soppressa nel modo seguente:

\relative c'' {
  \override DynamicTextSpanner.style = #'none
  \crescTextCresc
  c1\< | d | b | c\!
}

[image of music]


Horizontally aligning custom dynamics (e.g. "sempre pp" "piu f" "subito p")

Some dynamic expressions involve additional text, like “sempre pp”. Since dynamics are usually centered under the note, the \pp would be displayed way after the note it applies to.

To correctly align the “sempre pp” horizontally, so that it is aligned as if it were only the \pp, there are several approaches:

* Simply use \once\override DynamicText.X-offset = #-9.2 before the note with the dynamics to manually shift it to the correct position. Drawback: This has to be done manually each time you use that dynamic markup...

* Add some padding (#:hspace 7.1) into the definition of your custom dynamic mark, so that after lilypond center-aligns it, it is already correctly aligned. Drawback: The padding really takes up that space and does not allow any other markup or dynamics to be shown in that position.

* Shift the dynamic script \once\override ... .X-offset = ... Drawback: \once\override is needed for every invocation!

* Set the dimensions of the additional text to 0 (using #:with-dimensions '(0 . 0) '(0 . 0)). Drawback: To LilyPond “sempre” has no extent, so it might put other stuff there and create collisions (which are not detected by the collision detection!). Also, there seems to be some spacing, so it’s not exactly the same alignment as without the additional text

* Add an explicit shifting directly inside the scheme function for the dynamic-script.

* Set an explicit alignment inside the dynamic-script. By default, this won’t have any effect, only if one sets X-offset! Drawback: One needs to set DynamicText.X-offset, which will apply to all dynamic texts! Also, it is aligned at the right edge of the additional text, not at the center of pp.

\paper {
  ragged-right = ##f
  indent = 2.5\cm
}

% Solution 1: Using a simple markup with a particular halign value
% Drawback: It's a markup, not a dynamic command, so \dynamicDown
%           etc. will have no effect
semppMarkup = \markup { \halign #1.4 \italic "sempre" \dynamic "pp" }

% Solution 2: Using a dynamic script & shifting with
%             \once \override ...X-offset = ..
% Drawback: \once \override needed for every invocation
semppK =
#(make-dynamic-script
  (markup #:line
          (#:normal-text
           #:italic "sempre"
           #:dynamic "pp")))

% Solution 3: Padding the dynamic script so the center-alignment
%             puts it at the correct position
% Drawback: the padding really reserves the space, nothing else can be there
semppT =
#(make-dynamic-script
  (markup #:line
          (#:normal-text
           #:italic "sempre"
           #:dynamic "pp"
           #:hspace 7.1)))

% Solution 4: Dynamic, setting the dimensions of the additional text to 0
% Drawback: To lilypond "sempre" has no extent, so it might put
%           other stuff there => collisions
% Drawback: Also, there seems to be some spacing, so it's not exactly the
%           same alignment as without the additional text
semppM =
#(make-dynamic-script
  (markup #:line
          (#:with-dimensions '(0 . 0) '(0 . 0)
                             #:right-align
                             #:normal-text
                             #:italic "sempre"
                             #:dynamic "pp")))

% Solution 5: Dynamic with explicit shifting inside the scheme function
semppG =
#(make-dynamic-script
  (markup #:hspace 0
          #:translate '(-18.85 . 0)
          #:line (#:normal-text
                  #:italic "sempre"
                  #:dynamic "pp")))

% Solution 6: Dynamic with explicit alignment. This has only effect
%             if one sets X-offset!
% Drawback: One needs to set DynamicText.X-offset!
% Drawback: Aligned at the right edge of the additional text,
%           not at the center of pp
semppMII =
#(make-dynamic-script
  (markup #:line (#:right-align
                  #:normal-text
                  #:italic "sempre"
                  #:dynamic "pp")))

\new StaffGroup <<
  \new Staff = "s" \with { instrumentName = \markup \column { Normal } }
  <<
    \relative c'' {
      \key es \major
      c4\pp c\p c c | c\ff c c\pp c
    }
  >>
  \new Staff = "sMarkup" \with {
    instrumentName = \markup \column { Normal markup }
  }
  <<
    \relative c'' {
      \key es \major
      c4-\semppMarkup c\p c c | c\ff c c-\semppMarkup c
    }
  >>
  \new Staff = "sK" \with {
    instrumentName = \markup \column { Explicit shifting }
  }
  <<
    \relative c'' {
      \key es \major
      \once \override DynamicText.X-offset = #-9.2
      c4\semppK c\p c c
      c4\ff c
      \once \override DynamicText.X-offset = #-9.2
      c4\semppK c
    }
  >>
  \new Staff = "sT" \with {
    instrumentName = \markup \column { Right padding }
  }
  <<
    \relative c'' {
      \key es \major
      c4\semppT c\p c c | c\ff c c\semppT c
    }
  >>
  \new Staff = "sM" \with {
    instrumentName = \markup \column { Set dimension "to zero" }
  }
  <<
    \relative c'' {
      \key es \major
      c4\semppM c\p c c | c\ff c c\semppM c
    }
  >>
  \new Staff = "sG" \with {
    instrumentName = \markup \column { Shift inside dynamics}
  }
  <<
    \relative c'' {
      \key es \major
      c4\semppG c\p c c | c\ff c c\semppG c
    }
  >>
  \new Staff = "sMII" \with {
    instrumentName = \markup \column { Alignment inside dynamics }
  }
  <<
    \relative c'' {
      \key es \major
      % Setting to ##f (false) gives the same result
      \override DynamicText.X-offset = #0
      c4\semppMII c\p c c | c\ff c c\semppMII c
    }
  >>
>>

\layout { \override Staff.InstrumentName.self-alignment-X = #LEFT }

[image of music]


How to print two rehearsal marks above and below the same barline (method 1)

This method prints two ’rehearsal marks’, one on top of the other. It shifts the lower rehearsal mark below the staff and then adds padding above it in order to place the upper rehearsal mark above the staff.

By adjusting the extra-offset and baseline-skip values you can increase or decrease the overall space between the rehearsal mark and the staff.

Because nearly every type of glyph or string can be made to behave like a rehearsal mark it is possible to centre those above and below a bar line.

Adding the appropriate ’break visibility’ as shown in snippet 1 will allow you to position two marks at the end of a line as well.

Note: Method 1 is less complex than Method 2 but does not really allow for fine tuning of placement of one of the rehearsal marks without affecting the other. It may also give some problems with vertical spacing, since using extra-offset does not change the bounding box of the mark from its original value.

\relative c'{
  c d e f |
  \once \override Score.RehearsalMark.extra-offset = #'(0 . -8.5)
  \once \override Score.RehearsalMark.baseline-skip = #9
  \mark \markup \center-column { \circle 1 \box A }
  g f e d |
  \once \override Score.RehearsalMark.extra-offset = #'(0 . -8.5)
  \once \override Score.RehearsalMark.baseline-skip = #9
  \mark \markup \center-column { \flat { \bold \small \italic Fine. } }
  g f e d |
  \once \override Score.RehearsalMark.extra-offset = #'(0 . -8.5)
  \once \override Score.RehearsalMark.baseline-skip = #9
  \override Score.RehearsalMark.break-visibility = #begin-of-line-invisible
  \mark \markup \center-column { \fermata \box z }
}

[image of music]


How to print two rehearsal marks above and below the same barline (method 2)

This method prints two ’rehearsal marks’ - one above the stave and one below, by creating two voices, adding the Rehearsal Mark engraver to each voice - without this no rehearsal mark is printed - and then placing each rehearsal mark UP and DOWN in each voice respectively.

This method (as opposed to method 1) is more complex, but allows for more flexibility, should it be needed to tweak each rehearsal mark independently of the other.

\score {
  \relative c'
  <<
    \new Staff {
      <<
        \new Voice \with {
          \consists Mark_engraver
          \consists "Staff_collecting_engraver"
        }
        { c4 d e f
          \mark \markup { \box A }
          c4 d e f
        }
        \new Voice \with {
          \consists Mark_engraver
          \consists "Staff_collecting_engraver"
          \override RehearsalMark.direction = #DOWN
        }
        { s4 s s s
          \mark \markup { \circle 1 }
          s4 s s s
        }
      >>
    }
  >>
  \layout {
    \context {
      \Score
      \remove "Mark_engraver"
      \remove "Staff_collecting_engraver"
    }
  }
}

[image of music]


Inserire una cesura

I segni di cesura possono essere creati sovrascrivendo la proprietà 'text dell’oggetto BreathingSign. È disponibile anche un segno di cesura curvo.

\relative c'' {
  \override BreathingSign.text = \markup {
    \musicglyph "scripts.caesura.straight"
  }
  c8 e4. \breathe g8. e16 c4

  \override BreathingSign.text = \markup {
    \musicglyph "scripts.caesura.curved"
  }
  g8 e'4. \breathe g8. e16 c4
}

[image of music]


Laissez vibrer ties

Laissez vibrer ties have a fixed size. Their formatting can be tuned using 'tie-configuration.

\relative c' {
  <c e g>4\laissezVibrer r <c f g>\laissezVibrer r
  <c d f g>4\laissezVibrer r <c d f g>4.\laissezVibrer r8

  <c d e f>4\laissezVibrer r
  \override LaissezVibrerTieColumn.tie-configuration
     = #`((-7 . ,DOWN)
          (-5 . ,DOWN)
          (-3 . ,UP)
          (-1 . ,UP))
  <c d e f>4\laissezVibrer r
}

[image of music]


Line arrows

Arrows can be applied to text-spanners and line-spanners (such as the Glissando).

\relative c'' {
  \override TextSpanner.bound-padding = #1.0
  \override TextSpanner.style = #'line
  \override TextSpanner.bound-details.right.arrow = ##t
  \override TextSpanner.bound-details.left.text = #"fof"
  \override TextSpanner.bound-details.right.text = #"gag"
  \override TextSpanner.bound-details.right.padding = #0.6

  \override TextSpanner.bound-details.right.stencil-align-dir-y = #CENTER
  \override TextSpanner.bound-details.left.stencil-align-dir-y = #CENTER

  \override Glissando.bound-details.right.arrow = ##t
  \override Glissando.arrow-length = #0.5
  \override Glissando.arrow-width = #0.25

  a8\startTextSpan gis a4 b\glissando b,
  g'4 c\stopTextSpan c2
}

[image of music]


Legature di portamento con complesse strutture di tratteggio

Le legature di portamento possono avere schemi di tratteggio complessi definendo la proprietà dash-definition. dash-definition è una lista di dash-elements. Un dash-element è una lista di parametri che definiscono il comportamento del tratteggio per un segmento della legatura.

La legatura di portamento è definita come il parametro t della curva di bezier che va da 0 sul margine sinistro della legatura fino a 1 su quello destro. dash-element è una lista di (inizio-t fine-t frazione-trattino punto-trattino). La regione della legatura di portamento che va da inizio-t a fine-t avrà una frazione frazione-trattino di ogni punto-trattino nero. punto-trattino viene definito in spazi rigo. frazione-trattino è impostato su 1 per una legatura di portamento continua.

\relative c' {
  \once \override
    Slur.dash-definition = #'((0 0.3 0.1 0.75)
                                (0.3 0.6 1 1)
                                (0.65 1.0 0.4 0.75))
  c4( d e f)
  \once \override
    Slur.dash-definition = #'((0 0.25 1 1)
                                (0.3 0.7 0.4 0.75)
                                (0.75 1.0 1 1))
  c4( d e f)
}

[image of music]


Modificare i valori predefiniti per le abbreviazioni delle articolazioni

Le abbreviazioni sono definite in ‘ly/script-init.ly’, dove sono assegnati valori predefiniti alle variabili dashHat, dashPlus, dashDash, dashBang, dashLarger, dashDot e dashUnderscore. Questi valori predefiniti possono essere modificati. Ad esempio, per associare l’abbreviazione -+ (dashPlus) al simbolo del trillo invece che al simbolo + predefinito, si assegna il valore trill alla variabile dashPlus:

\relative c'' { c1-+ }

dashPlus = "trill"

\relative c'' { c1-+ }

[image of music]


Moving slur positions vertically

The vertical position of a slur can be adjusted using the positions property of Slur. The property has 2 parameters, the first referring to the left end of the slur and the second to the right. The values of the parameters are not used by LilyPond to make an exact movement of the slur - instead it selects what placement of the slur looks best, taking into account the parameter values. Positive values move the slur up, and are appropriate for notes with stems down. Negative values move downward slurs further down.

\relative c' {
  \stemDown
  e4( a)
  \override Slur.positions = #'(1 . 1)
  e4( a)
  \override Slur.positions = #'(2 . 2)
  e4( a)
  \override Slur.positions = #'(3 . 3)
  e4( a)
  \override Slur.positions = #'(4 . 4)
  e4( a)
  \override Slur.positions = #'(5 . 5)
  e4( a)
  \override Slur.positions = #'(0 . 5)
  e4( a)
  \override Slur.positions = #'(5 . 0)
  e4( a)
  \stemUp
  \override Slur.positions = #'(-5 . -5)
  e4( a)
  \stemDown
  \revert Slur.positions
  e4( a)
}

[image of music]


Spostare le estremità delle forcelle

Le estremità delle forcelle possono essere spostate in modo relativo alla loro posizione predefinita (offset) impostando la proprietà shorten-pair dell’oggetto Hairpin. Valori positivi spostano le estremità a destra, valori negativi le spostano a sinistra. Diversamente dalla proprietà minimum-length, questa proprietà modifica solo l’aspetto della forcella; non cambia la spaziatura orizzontale (inclusa la posizione delle dinamiche confinanti). Questo metodo è quindi utile per ritoccare una forcella entro lo spazio ad essa allocato.

{
  c'1~\<
  c'2~ c'\!
  \once \override Hairpin.shorten-pair = #'(2 . 2)
  c'1~\<
  c'2~ c'\!
  \once \override Hairpin.shorten-pair = #'(-2 . -2)
  c'1~\<
  c'2~ c'\!
  c'1~\p-\tweak shorten-pair #'(2 . 0)\<
  c'2~ c'\ffff
}

[image of music]


Positioning arpeggios

If you need to extend or shorten an arpeggio, you can modify the upper and lower start positions independently.

\relative c' {
  <c e g b>1\arpeggio
  \once \override Arpeggio.positions = #'(-5 . 0)
  <c e g b>1\arpeggio
  \once \override Arpeggio.positions = #'(0 . 5)
  <c e g b>1\arpeggio
  \once \override Arpeggio.positions = #'(-5 . 5)
  <c e g b>1\arpeggio
}

[image of music]


Posizionare il testo a margine dentro le legature di portamento

I testi a margine devono avere la proprietà outside-staff-priority impostata su false per poter apparire dentro le legature di portamento.

\relative c'' {
  \override TextScript.avoid-slur = #'inside
  \override TextScript.outside-staff-priority = ##f
  c2(^\markup { \halign #-10 \natural } d4.) c8
}

[image of music]


Stampare le forcelle in vari stili

Il segno di dinamica della forcella può avere diversi stili

\relative c'' {
  \override Hairpin.stencil = #flared-hairpin
  a4\< a a a\f
  a4\p\< a a a\ff
  a4\sfz\< a a a\!
  \override Hairpin.stencil = #constante-hairpin
  a4\< a a a\f
  a4\p\< a a a\ff
  a4\sfz\< a a a\!
  \override Hairpin.stencil = #flared-hairpin
  a4\> a a a\f
  a4\p\> a a a\ff
  a4\sfz\> a a a\!
  \override Hairpin.stencil = #constante-hairpin
  a4\> a a a\f
  a4\p\> a a a\ff
  a4\sfz\> a a a\!
}

[image of music]


Forcelle con notazione al niente

Le forcelle di dinamica possono essere rappresentate con ua punta tonda (notazione “al niente”) impostando la proprietà circled-tip dell’oggetto Hairpin su #t.

\relative c'' {
  \override Hairpin.circled-tip = ##t
  c2\< c\!
  c4\> c\< c2\!
}

[image of music]


Posizionare il metronomo e i numeri di chiamata sotto il rigo

Di norma, il metronomo e i numeri di chiamata vengono posizionati sopra il rigo. Per metterli sotto il rigo basta impostare correttamente la proprietà direction di MetronomeMark o RehearsalMark.

\layout {
  indent = 0
  ragged-right = ##f
}

{
  % Metronome marks below the staff
  \override Score.MetronomeMark.direction = #DOWN
  \tempo 8. = 120
  c''1

  % Rehearsal marks below the staff
  \override Score.RehearsalMark.direction = #DOWN
  \mark \default
  c''1
}

[image of music]


Impostare il comportamento delle forcelle sulle stanghette

Se la nota che termina una forcella si trova sul primo battito di una battuta, la forcella si ferma prima della stanghetta che precede la nota. Si può controllare questo comportamento modificando la proprietà 'to-barline.

\relative c'' {
  e4\< e2.
  e1\!
  \override Hairpin.to-barline = ##f
  e4\< e2.
  e1\!
}

[image of music]


Impostare la lunghezza minima delle forcelle

Se le forcelle sono troppo corte, possono essere allungate modificando la proprietà minimum-length dell’oggetto Hairpin.

\relative c'' {
  c4\< c\! d\> e\!
  << f1 { s4 s\< s\> s\! } >>
  \override Hairpin.minimum-length = #5
  << f1 { s4 s\< s\> s\! } >>
}

[image of music]


Showing the same articulation above and below a note or chord

By default, LilyPond does not allow the same articulation (e.g., an accent, a fermata, a flageolet, etc.) to be displayed above and below a note. For example, c4_\fermata^\fermata will only show a fermata below. The fermata above will simply be ignored.

However, one can stick scripts (just like fingerings) inside a chord, which means it is possible to have as many articulations as desired. This approach has the advantage that it ignores the stem and positions the articulation relative to the note head. This can be seen in the case of the flageolets in the snippet. To mimic the behaviour of scripts outside a chord, ’add-stem-support would be required.

So, the solution is to write the note as a chord and add the articulations inside the <...>. The direction will always be above, but one can tweak this via a \tweak: <c-\tweak direction #DOWN-\fermata^\fermata>

% The same as \flageolet, just a little smaller
smallFlageolet = \tweak font-size #-2 \flageolet

\relative c' {
  s4^"Wrong:"
  c4_\fermata^\fermata % The second fermata is ignored!
  <e d'>4^\smallFlageolet_\smallFlageolet

  s4^"Works if written inside a chord:"
  <e_\smallFlageolet d'^\smallFlageolet>4
  <e_\flageolet d'^\flageolet>4
  <e_\smallFlageolet^\smallFlageolet>4
  <e_\fermata^\fermata>4
}

[image of music]


Snap-pizzicato or Bartok pizzicato

A snap-pizzicato (also known as “Bartok pizzicato”) is a “strong pizzicato where the string is plucked vertically by snapping and rebounds off the fingerboard of the instrument” (Wikipedia). It is denoted by a circle with a vertical line going from the center upwards outside the circle.

\relative c' {
  c4\snappizzicato
  <c' e g>4\snappizzicato
  <c' e g>4^\snappizzicato
  <c, e g>4_\snappizzicato
}

[image of music]


Usare un segno di spunta come simbolo di respiro

La musica vocale e per fiati usa frequentemente il segno di spunta come segno di respiro. Questo indica un respiro che sottrae un po’ di tempo alla nota precedente invece di prendere una piccola pausa, indicata dal segno di respiro rappresentato dalla virgola. Il segno può essere spostato un po’ su per allontanarlo dal rigo.

\relative c'' {
  c2
  \breathe
  d2
  \override BreathingSign.Y-offset = #2.6
  \override BreathingSign.text =
    \markup { \musicglyph "scripts.tickmark" }
  c2
  \breathe
  d2
}

[image of music]


Usare arpeggioBracket per rendere i divisi più visibili

Si può usare arpeggioBracket per indicare la divisione delle voci quando non ci sono gambi che forniscano questa informazione. Questo caso è frequente nella musica corale.

\include "english.ly"

\score {
  \relative c'' {
    \key a \major
    \time 2/2
    <<
      \new Voice = "upper"
      <<
        { \voiceOne \arpeggioBracket
          a2( b2
          <b d>1\arpeggio)
          <cs e>\arpeggio ~
          <cs e>4
        }
        \addlyrics { \lyricmode { A -- men. } }
      >>
      \new Voice = "lower"
      { \voiceTwo
        a1 ~
        a
        a ~
        a4 \bar "|."
      }
    >>
  }
  \layout { ragged-right = ##t }
}

[image of music]


Uso delle doppie legature di portamento per gli accordi legati

Alcuni compositori scrivono due legature di portamento per indicare gli accordi legati. Si può ottenere questo risultato impostando doubleSlurs.

\relative c' {
  \set doubleSlurs = ##t
  <c e>4( <d f> <c e> <d f>)
}

[image of music]


Using the whiteout property

Any graphical object can be printed over a white background to mask parts of objects that lie beneath. This can be useful to improve the appearance of collisions in complex situations when repositioning objects is impractical. It is necessary to explicitly set the layer property to control which objects are masked by the white background.

In this example the collision of the tie with the time signature is improved by masking out the part of the tie that crosses the time signature by setting the whiteout property of TimeSignature. To do this TimeSignature is moved to a layer above Tie, which is left in the default layer of 1, and StaffSymbol is moved to a layer above TimeSignature so it is not masked.

{
  \override Score.StaffSymbol.layer = #4
  \override Staff.TimeSignature.layer = #3
  b'2 b'~
  \once \override Staff.TimeSignature.whiteout = ##t
  \time 3/4
  b' r4
}

[image of music]


Vertical line as a baroque articulation mark

This short vertical line placed above the note is commonly used in baroque music. Its meaning can vary, but generally indicates notes that should be played with more “weight”. The following example demonstrates how to achieve such a notation.

upline =
\tweak stencil
  #(lambda (grob)
    (grob-interpret-markup grob #{ \markup \draw-line #'(0 . 1) #}))
  \stopped

\relative c' {
  a'4^\upline a( c d')_\upline
}

[image of music]


Vertically aligning dynamics across multiple notes

Dynamics that occur at, begin on, or end on the same note will be vertically aligned. To ensure that dynamics are aligned when they do not occur on the same note, increase the staff-padding property of the DynamicLineSpanner object.

\relative c' {
  \override DynamicLineSpanner.staff-padding = #4
  c2\p f\mf
  g2\< b4\> c\!
}

[image of music]


LilyPond — Frammenti v2.21.82 (ramo di sviluppo).