Expressive marks

Expressive marks


Adding beams, slurs, ties etc. when using tuplet and non-tuplet rhythms

LilyPond syntax can involve many unusual placements for parentheses, brackets etc., which might sometimes have to be interleaved.

For example, when entering a manual beam, the left square bracket has to be placed after the starting note and its duration, not before. Similarly, the right square bracket should directly follow the note which is to be at the end of the requested beaming, even if this note happens to be inside a tuplet section.

This snippet demonstrates how to combine manual beaming, manual slurs, ties and phrasing slurs with tuplet sections (enclosed within curly braces).

{
  r16[ g16 \tuplet 3/2 { r16 e'8] }
  g16( a \tuplet 3/2 { b d e') }
  g8[( a \tuplet 3/2 { b d') e'] ~ }
  \time 2/4
  \tuplet 5/4 { e'32\( a b d' e' } a'4.\)
}

[image of music]


Adding parentheses around an expressive mark or chordal note

The \parenthesize function is a special tweak that encloses objects in parentheses. The associated grob is ParenthesesItem.

\relative c' {
  c2-\parenthesize ->
  \override ParenthesesItem.padding = #0.1
  \override ParenthesesItem.font-size = #-4
  <d \parenthesize f a>2
}

[image of music]


Adding timing marks to long glissandi

Skipped beats in very long glissandi are sometimes indicated by timing marks, often consisting of stems without noteheads. Such stems can also be used to carry intermediate expression markings.

If the stems do not align well with the glissando, they may need to be repositioned slightly.

glissandoSkipOn = {
  \override NoteColumn.glissando-skip = ##t
  \hide NoteHead
  \override NoteHead.no-ledgers = ##t
}

glissandoSkipOff = {
  \revert NoteColumn.glissando-skip
  \undo \hide NoteHead
  \revert NoteHead.no-ledgers
}

\relative c'' {
  r8 f8\glissando
  \glissandoSkipOn
  f4 g a a8\noBeam
  \glissandoSkipOff
  a8

  r8 f8\glissando
  \glissandoSkipOn
  g4 a8
  \glissandoSkipOff
  a8 |

  r4 f\glissando \<
  \glissandoSkipOn
  a4\f \>
  \glissandoSkipOff
  b8\! r |
}

[image of music]


Das Aussehen von unbestimmten Glissandi anpassen

Die shortest-duration-space-Eigenschaft kann verändert werden, um das Aussehen von unbestimmten Glissandi anzupassen.

\relative c'' {
  \override Score.SpacingSpanner.shortest-duration-space = #4.0
  c2-\bendAfter #5
  c2-\bendAfter #-4.75
  c2-\bendAfter #8.5
  c2-\bendAfter #-6
}

[image of music]


Alternative breve notes

Breve notes are also available with two vertical lines on each side of the notehead instead of one line and in baroque style.

\relative c'' {
  \time 4/2
  c\breve |
  \override Staff.NoteHead.style = #'altdefault
  b\breve
  \override Staff.NoteHead.style = #'baroque
  b\breve
  \revert Staff.NoteHead.style
  a\breve
}

[image of music]


Asymmetric slurs

Slurs can be made asymmetric to match an asymmetric pattern of notes better.

slurNotes = { d,8( a' d f a f' d, a) }

\relative c' {
  \stemDown
  \slurUp
  \slurNotes
  \once \override Slur.eccentricity = #3.0
  \slurNotes
}

[image of music]


Breathing signs

Breathing signs are available in different tastes: commas (default), ticks, vees and „railroad tracks“ (caesura).

\new Staff \relative c'' {
  \key es \major
  \time 3/4
  % this bar contains no \breathe
  << { g4 as g } \\ { es4 bes es } >> |
  % Modern notation:
  % by default, \breathe uses the rcomma, just as if saying:
  % \override BreathingSign.text = #(make-musicglyph-markup "scripts.rcomma")
  << { g4 as g } \\ { es4 \breathe bes es } >> |

  % rvarcomma and lvarcomma are variations of the default rcomma and lcomma
  % N.B.: must use Staff context here, since we start a Voice below
  \override Staff.BreathingSign.text =
    \markup { \musicglyph "scripts.rvarcomma" }
  << { g4 as g } \\ { es4 \breathe bes es } >> |

  % vee
  \override BreathingSign.text = \markup { \musicglyph "scripts.upbow" }
  es8[ d es f g] \breathe f |

  % caesura
  \override BreathingSign.text =
    \markup { \musicglyph "scripts.caesura.curved" }
  es8[ d] \breathe es[ f g f] |
  es2 r4 \bar "||"
}

[image of music]


Broken Crescendo Hairpin

In order to make parts of a crescendo hairpin invisible, the following method is used: A white rectangle is drawn on top of the respective part of the crescendo hairpin, making it invisible. The rectangle is defined as postscript code within a text markup.

The markup command with-dimensions tells LilyPond to consider only the bottom edge of the rectangle when spacing it against the hairpin. The property staff-padding prevents the rectangle from fitting between the hairpin and staff.

Make sure the hairpin is in a lower layer than the text markup to draw the rectangle over the hairpin.

\relative c' {
  <<
    {
      \dynamicUp
      r2 r16 c'8.\pp r4
    }
    \\
    {
      \override DynamicLineSpanner.layer = #0
      des,2\mf\< ~
      \override TextScript.layer = #2
      \once\override TextScript.staff-padding = #6
      \once\override TextScript.vertical-skylines = #'()
      des16_\markup \with-dimensions #'(2 . 7) #'(0 . 0)
                    \with-color #white
                    \filled-box #'(2 . 7) #'(0 . 2) #0
      r8. des4 ~ des16->\sff r8.
    }
  >>
}

[image of music]


Caesura ("railtracks") with fermata

A caesura is sometimes denoted by a double „railtracks“ breath mark with a fermata sign positioned above. This snippet shows an optically pleasing combination of railtracks and fermata.

\relative c'' {
  c2.
  % construct the symbol
  \override BreathingSign.text = \markup {
    \override #'(direction . 1)
    \override #'(baseline-skip . 1.8)
    \dir-column {
      \translate #'(0.155 . 0)
        \center-align \musicglyph "scripts.caesura.curved"
      \center-align \musicglyph "scripts.ufermata"
    }
  }
  \breathe c4
  % set the breathe mark back to normal
  \revert BreathingSign.text
  c2. \breathe c4
  \bar "|."
}

[image of music]


Center text below hairpin dynamics

This example provides a function to typeset a hairpin (de)crescendo with some additional text below it, such as „molto“ or „poco“. The added text will change the direction according to the direction of the hairpin. The Hairpin is aligned to DynamicText.

The example also illustrates how to modify the way an object is normally printed, using some Scheme code.

hairpinWithCenteredText =
#(define-music-function (text) (markup?)
  #{
    \once \override Voice.Hairpin.after-line-breaking =
      #(lambda (grob)
        (let* ((stencil (ly:hairpin::print grob))
               (par-y (ly:grob-parent grob Y))
               (dir (ly:grob-property par-y 'direction))
               (new-stencil (ly:stencil-aligned-to
                 (ly:stencil-combine-at-edge
                   (ly:stencil-aligned-to stencil X CENTER)
                   Y dir
                   (ly:stencil-aligned-to
                     (grob-interpret-markup grob text) X CENTER))
                 X LEFT))
               (staff-space (ly:output-def-lookup
                 (ly:grob-layout grob) 'staff-space))
               (staff-line-thickness
                 (ly:output-def-lookup (ly:grob-layout grob) 'line-thickness))
               (par-x (ly:grob-parent grob X))
               (dyn-text (grob::has-interface par-x 'dynamic-text-interface))
               (dyn-text-stencil-x-length
                 (if dyn-text
                   (interval-length
                     (ly:stencil-extent (ly:grob-property par-x 'stencil) X))
                   0))
               (x-shift
                 (if dyn-text
                   (-
                     (+ staff-space dyn-text-stencil-x-length)
                     (* 0.5 staff-line-thickness)) 0)))

        (ly:grob-set-property! grob 'Y-offset 0)
        (ly:grob-set-property! grob 'stencil
           (ly:stencil-translate-axis
            new-stencil
            x-shift X))))
  #})

hairpinMolto =
\hairpinWithCenteredText \markup { \italic molto }

hairpinMore =
\hairpinWithCenteredText \markup { \larger moltissimo }

\layout { ragged-right = ##f }

\relative c' {
  \hairpinMolto
  c2\< c\f
  \hairpinMore
  c2\ppppp\< c\f
  \break
  \hairpinMolto
  c2^\< c\f
  \hairpinMore
  c2\ppppp\< c\f
}

[image of music]


\flageolet-Zeichen verkleinern

Um den \flageolet-Kreis kleiner zu machen, kann diese Scheme-Funktion eingesetzt werden.

smallFlageolet = \tweak font-size -3 \flageolet

\layout { ragged-right = ##f }

\relative c'' {
  d4^\flageolet_\markup { default size } d_\flageolet
  c4^\smallFlageolet_\markup { smaller } c_\smallFlageolet
}

[image of music]


Text und Strecker-Stile für Dynamik-Texte ändern

Der Text, der für Crescendo und Decrescendo gesetzt wird, kann geändert werden, indem man die Eigenschaften crescendoText und decrescendoText verändert. Der Stil des Streckers kann auch geändert werden, indem die 'style-Eigenschaft des DynamicTextSpanner beeinflusst wird. Der Standardwert ist 'hairpin, andere Möglichkeiten sind 'line, 'dashed-line und 'dotted-line.

\relative c'' {
  \set crescendoText = \markup { \italic { cresc. poco } }
  \set crescendoSpanner = #'text
  \override DynamicTextSpanner.style = #'dotted-line
  a2\< a
  a2 a
  a2 a
  a2 a\mf
}

[image of music]


Changing the appearance of a slur from solid to dotted or dashed

The appearance of slurs may be changed from solid to dotted or dashed.

\relative c' {
  c4( d e c)
  \slurDotted
  c4( d e c)
  \slurSolid
  c4( d e c)
  \slurDashed
  c4( d e c)
  \slurSolid
  c4( d e c)
}

[image of music]


Das Atemzeichen-Symbol verändern

Das Schriftzeichen für das Atemzeichen kann verändert werden, indem die Text-Eigenschaft des BreathingSign-Layoutobjekts mit einer beliebigen Textbeschriftung definiert wird.

\relative c'' {
  c2
  \override BreathingSign.text =
    \markup { \musicglyph "scripts.rvarcomma" }
  \breathe
  d2
}

[image of music]


Changing the number of augmentation dots per note

The number of augmentation dots on a single note can be changed independently of the dots placed after the note.

\relative c' {
  c4.. a16 r2 |
  \override Dots.dot-count = #4
  c4.. a16 r2 |
  \override Dots.dot-count = #0
  c4.. a16 r2 |
  \revert Dots.dot-count
  c4.. a16 r2 |
}

[image of music]


Combining dynamics with markup texts

Some dynamics may involve text indications (such as „più forte“ or „piano subito“). These can be produced using a \markup block.

piuF = \markup { \italic più \dynamic f }

\layout { ragged-right = ##f }

\relative c'' {
  c2\f c-\piuF
}

[image of music]


Moderne Glissandi

Ein modernes Glissando ohne eine Endnote kann gesetzt werden, indem eine Kadenz eingesetzt wird und die Endnote unsichtbar gemacht wird.

\relative c'' {
  \time 3/4
  \override Glissando.style = #'zigzag
  c4 c
  \cadenzaOn
  c4\glissando
  \hideNotes
  c,,4
  \unHideNotes
  \cadenzaOff
  \bar "|"
}

[image of music]


Controlling spanner visibility after a line break

The visibility of spanners which end on the first note following a line break is controlled by the after-line-breaking callback ly:spanner::kill-zero-spanned-time.

For objects such as glissandos and hairpins, the default behaviour is to hide the spanner after a break; disabling the callback will allow the left-broken span to be shown.

Conversely, spanners which are usually visible, such as text spans, can be hidden by enabling the callback.

\paper { ragged-right = ##t }

\relative c'' {
  \override Hairpin.to-barline = ##f
  \override Glissando.breakable = ##t
  % show hairpin
  \override Hairpin.after-line-breaking = ##t
  % hide text span
  \override TextSpanner.after-line-breaking =
    #ly:spanner::kill-zero-spanned-time
  e2\<\startTextSpan
  % show glissando
  \override Glissando.after-line-breaking = ##t
  f2\glissando
  \break
  f,1\!\stopTextSpan
}

[image of music]


Die vertikale Anordnung von Beschriftungen kontrollieren

Die vertikale Anordnung von Beschriftungen wird mit der 'script-priority-Eigenschaft kontrolliert. Um so kleiner die Zahl, umso näher wird die Beschriftung in Bezug auf die Note gesetzt. In diesem Beispiel hat das TextScript-Objekt (das Kreuz) zuerst die niedrigste Priorität, wird also auch am niedrigsten in dem ersten Beispiel gesetzt. Im zweiten Fall hat der Praller (das Script) die niedrigste Priorität, darum wird er am nächsten zum System gesetzt. Wenn zwei Objekte die gleiche Priorität haben, wird ihre Reihenfolge anhand ihres Auftretens in der Quelldatei entschieden.

\relative c''' {
  \once \override TextScript.script-priority = #-100
  a2^\prall^\markup { \sharp }

  \once \override Script.script-priority = #-100
  a2^\prall^\markup { \sharp }
}

[image of music]


Einen Doppelschlag mit Vorhalt erstellen

Einen Doppelschlag mit Vorhalt zu erstellen, wobei die untere Note das Vorzeichen benutzt, erfordert einige Einstellungsänderungen. Die outside-staff-priority-Eigenschaft muss auf falsch (#f) gesetzt werden, weil sie sonst über die Eigenschaft avoid-slur property dominieren würde. Der Wert von halign wird benutzt, um den Doppelschlag horizontal zu positionieren.

\relative c'' {
  c2*2/3 ( s2*1/3\turn d4) r
  <<
    { c4.( d8) }
    { s4 s\turn }
  >>
  \transpose c d \relative c'' <<
    { c4.( d8) }
    {
      s4
      \once \set suggestAccidentals = ##t
      \once \override AccidentalSuggestion.outside-staff-priority = ##f
      \once \override AccidentalSuggestion.avoid-slur = #'inside
      \once \override AccidentalSuggestion.font-size = -3
      \once \override AccidentalSuggestion.script-priority = -1
      \single \hideNotes
      b8-\turn \noBeam
      s8
    }
  >>
}

[image of music]


Arpeggios zwischen unterschiedlichen Stimmen erzeugen

Ein Arpeggio kann zwischen Noten aus unterschiedlichen Stimmen auf demselben System gezogen werden, wenn der Span_arpeggio_engraver in den Staff-Kontext verschoben wird:

\new Staff \with {
  \consists "Span_arpeggio_engraver"
}
\relative c' {
  \set Staff.connectArpeggios = ##t
  <<
    { <e' g>4\arpeggio <d f> <d f>2 }
    \\
    { <d, f>2\arpeggio <g b>2 }
  >>
}

[image of music]


Arpeggio über mehrere Systeme in anderen Kontexten

Arpeggio über mehrere Systeme können in anderen Kontexten als dem PianoStaff erstellt werden, wenn der Span_arpeggio_engraver in den Score-Kontext eingefügt wird.

\new PianoStaff \relative c'' <<
  \set PianoStaff.connectArpeggios = ##t
  \new Staff {
    <c e g c>4\arpeggio
    <g c e g>4\arpeggio
    <e g c e>4\arpeggio
    <c e g c>4\arpeggio
  }
  \new Staff {
    \clef bass
    \repeat unfold 4 {
      <c,, e g c>4\arpeggio
    }
  }
>>

[image of music]


Arpeggio zwischen Systemen in einem Klaviersystem erstellen

In einem Klaviersystem (PianoStaff) ist es möglich, ein Arpeggio zwischen beiden Systemen zu verbinden, indem die PianoStaff.connectArpeggios-Eigenschaft gesetzt wird.

\score {
  \new ChoirStaff {
    \set Score.connectArpeggios = ##t
    <<
      \new Voice \relative c' {
        <c e>2\arpeggio
        <d f>2\arpeggio
        <c e>1\arpeggio
      }
      \new Voice \relative c {
        \clef bass
        <c g'>2\arpeggio
        <b g'>2\arpeggio
        <c g'>1\arpeggio
      }
    >>
  }
  \layout {
    \context {
      \Score
      \consists "Span_arpeggio_engraver"
    }
  }
}

[image of music]


Creating double-digit fingerings

Creating fingerings larger than 5 is possible.

\relative c' {
  c1-10
  c1-50
  c1-36
  c1-29
}

[image of music]


Creating "real" parenthesized dynamics

Although the easiest way to add parentheses to a dynamic mark is to use a \markup block, this method has a downside: the created objects will behave like text markups, and not like dynamics.

However, it is possible to create a similar object using the equivalent Scheme code (as described in the Notation Reference), combined with the make-dynamic-script function. This way, the markup will be regarded as a dynamic, and therefore will remain compatible with commands such as \dynamicUp or \dynamicDown.

paren =
#(define-event-function (dyn) (ly:event?)
   (make-dynamic-script
    #{ \markup \concat {
         \normal-text \italic \fontsize #2 (
	 \pad-x #0.2 #(ly:music-property dyn 'text)
	 \normal-text \italic \fontsize #2 )
       }
    #}))

\relative c'' {
  c4\paren\f c c \dynamicUp c\paren\p
}

[image of music]


Creating simultaneous rehearsal marks

Unlike text scripts, rehearsal marks cannot be stacked at a particular point in a score: only one RehearsalMark object is created. Using an invisible measure and bar line, an extra rehearsal mark can be added, giving the appearance of two marks in the same column.

This method may also prove useful for placing rehearsal marks at both the end of one system and the start of the following system.

{
  \key a \major
  \set Score.markFormatter = #format-mark-box-letters
  \once \override Score.RehearsalMark.outside-staff-priority = #5000
  \once \override Score.RehearsalMark.self-alignment-X = #LEFT
  \once \override Score.RehearsalMark.break-align-symbols = #'(key-signature)
  \mark \markup { \bold { Senza denti } }

  % the hidden measure and bar line
  % \cadenzaOn turns off automatic calculation of bar numbers
  \cadenzaOn
  \once \override Score.TimeSignature.stencil = ##f
  \time 1/16
  s16 \bar ""
  \cadenzaOff

  \time 4/4
  \once \override Score.RehearsalMark.self-alignment-X = #LEFT
  \mark \markup { \box \bold Intro }
  d'1
  \mark \default
  d'1
}

[image of music]


Creating slurs across voices

In some situations, it may be necessary to create slurs between notes from different voices. The solution is to add invisible notes to one of the voices, using \hideNotes.

This example is measure 235 of the Ciaconna from Bach’s 2nd Partita for solo violin, BWV 1004.

\relative c' {
  <<
    {
      d16( a') s a s a[ s a] s a[ s a]
    }
    \\
    {
      \slurUp
      bes,16[ s e](
      \hideNotes a)
      \unHideNotes f[(
      \hideNotes a)
      \unHideNotes fis](
      \hideNotes a)
      \unHideNotes g[(
      \hideNotes a)
      \unHideNotes gis](
      \hideNotes a)
    }
  >>
}

[image of music]


Creating text spanners

The \startTextSpan and \stopTextSpan commands allow the creation of text spanners as easily as pedal indications or octavations. Override some properties of the TextSpanner object to modify its output.

\paper { ragged-right = ##f }

\relative c'' {
  \override TextSpanner.bound-details.left.text = #"bla"
  \override TextSpanner.bound-details.right.text = #"blu"
  a4 \startTextSpan
  b4 c
  a4 \stopTextSpan

  \override TextSpanner.style = #'line
  \once \override TextSpanner.bound-details.left.stencil-align-dir-y = #CENTER
  a4 \startTextSpan
  b4 c
  a4 \stopTextSpan

  \override TextSpanner.style = #'dashed-line
  \override TextSpanner.bound-details.left.text =
    \markup { \draw-line #'(0 . 1) }
  \override TextSpanner.bound-details.right.text =
    \markup { \draw-line #'(0 . -2) }
  \once \override TextSpanner.bound-details.right.padding = #-2

  a4 \startTextSpan
  b4 c
  a4 \stopTextSpan

  \set Staff.middleCPosition = #-13
  \override TextSpanner.dash-period = #10
  \override TextSpanner.dash-fraction = #0.5
  \override TextSpanner.thickness = #10
  a4 \startTextSpan
  b4 c
  a4 \stopTextSpan
}

[image of music]


Eigene Dynamiktextspanner nachgestellt

Die Nachstellung funktioniert für eigene Crescendo-Textstrecker. Die Strecker sollten an der ersten Note eines Taktes beginnen. Man muss -\mycresc benutzen, sonst wird der Beginn des Streckers der nächsten Note zugewiesen.

% Two functions for (de)crescendo spanners where you can explicitly
% give the spanner text.
mycresc =
#(define-music-function (mymarkup) (markup?)
   (make-music 'CrescendoEvent
               'span-direction START
               'span-type 'text
               'span-text mymarkup))
mydecresc =
#(define-music-function (mymarkup) (markup?)
   (make-music 'DecrescendoEvent
               'span-direction START
               'span-type 'text
               'span-text mymarkup))

\relative c' {
  c4-\mycresc "custom cresc" c4 c4 c4 |
  c4 c4 c4 c4 |
  c4-\mydecresc "custom decresc" c4 c4 c4 |
  c4 c4\! c4 c4
}

[image of music]


Dynamiktextstrecker nachgestellt

Die \cresc, \dim und \decresc Strecker können umdefiniert werden, um nachgestellt zu funktionieren und einen Textstrecker zu produzieren. Eigene Strecker können auch einfach definiert werden. Klammer- und Textcrescendi können einfach vermischt werden. \< und \> erstellen normalerweise Klammern, \cresc usw. dagegen normalerweise Textspanner.

% Some sample text dynamic spanners, to be used as postfix operators
crpoco =
#(make-music 'CrescendoEvent
             'span-direction START
             'span-type 'text
             'span-text "cresc. poco a poco")

\relative c' {
  c4\cresc d4 e4 f4 |
  g4 a4\! b4\crpoco c4 |
  c4 d4 e4 f4 |
  g4 a4\! b4\< c4 |
  g4\dim a4 b4\decresc c4\!
}

[image of music]


Glissando kann Grobs überspringen

NoteColumn-Grobs können bei Glissandos übersprungen werden.

\relative c' {
  a2 \glissando
  \once \override NoteColumn.glissando-skip = ##t
  f''4 d,
}

[image of music]


Hairpins with different line styles

Hairpins can take any style from line-interface - dashed-line, dotted-line, line, trill or zigzag.

\relative c' {
  c2\< c\!
  \override Hairpin.style = #'dashed-line
  c2\< c\!
  \override Hairpin.style = #'dotted-line
  c2\< c\!
  \override Hairpin.style = #'line
  c2\< c\!
  \override Hairpin.style = #'trill
  c2\< c\!
  \override Hairpin.style = #'zigzag
  c2\< c\!
  \revert Hairpin.style
  c2\< c\!
}

[image of music]


Crescendo-Linien von Dynamik-Texten unterdrücken

Dynamik-Texte (wie cresc. und dim.) werden mit einer gestrichelten Linie gesetzt, die ihre Dauer anzeigt. Diese Linie kann auf folgende Weise unterdrückt werden:

\relative c'' {
  \override DynamicTextSpanner.style = #'none
  \crescTextCresc
  c1\< | d | b | c\!
}

[image of music]


Horizontally aligning custom dynamics (e.g. "sempre pp" "piu f" "subito p")

Some dynamic expressions involve additional text, like „sempre pp“. Since dynamics are usually centered under the note, the \pp would be displayed way after the note it applies to.

To correctly align the „sempre pp“ horizontally, so that it is aligned as if it were only the \pp, there are several approaches:

* Simply use \once\override DynamicText.X-offset = #-9.2 before the note with the dynamics to manually shift it to the correct position. Drawback: This has to be done manually each time you use that dynamic markup...

* Add some padding (#:hspace 7.1) into the definition of your custom dynamic mark, so that after lilypond center-aligns it, it is already correctly aligned. Drawback: The padding really takes up that space and does not allow any other markup or dynamics to be shown in that position.

* Shift the dynamic script \once\override ... .X-offset = ... Drawback: \once\override is needed for every invocation!

* Set the dimensions of the additional text to 0 (using #:with-dimensions '(0 . 0) '(0 . 0)). Drawback: To LilyPond „sempre“ has no extent, so it might put other stuff there and create collisions (which are not detected by the collision detection!). Also, there seems to be some spacing, so it’s not exactly the same alignment as without the additional text

* Add an explicit shifting directly inside the scheme function for the dynamic-script.

* Set an explicit alignment inside the dynamic-script. By default, this won’t have any effect, only if one sets X-offset! Drawback: One needs to set DynamicText.X-offset, which will apply to all dynamic texts! Also, it is aligned at the right edge of the additional text, not at the center of pp.

\paper {
  ragged-right = ##f
  indent = 2.5\cm
}

% Solution 1: Using a simple markup with a particular halign value
% Drawback: It's a markup, not a dynamic command, so \dynamicDown
%           etc. will have no effect
semppMarkup = \markup { \halign #1.4 \italic "sempre" \dynamic "pp" }

% Solution 2: Using a dynamic script & shifting with
%             \once \override ...X-offset = ..
% Drawback: \once \override needed for every invocation
semppK =
#(make-dynamic-script
  (markup #:line
          (#:normal-text
           #:italic "sempre"
           #:dynamic "pp")))

% Solution 3: Padding the dynamic script so the center-alignment
%             puts it at the correct position
% Drawback: the padding really reserves the space, nothing else can be there
semppT =
#(make-dynamic-script
  (markup #:line
          (#:normal-text
           #:italic "sempre"
           #:dynamic "pp"
           #:hspace 7.1)))

% Solution 4: Dynamic, setting the dimensions of the additional text to 0
% Drawback: To lilypond "sempre" has no extent, so it might put
%           other stuff there => collisions
% Drawback: Also, there seems to be some spacing, so it's not exactly the
%           same alignment as without the additional text
semppM =
#(make-dynamic-script
  (markup #:line
          (#:with-dimensions '(0 . 0) '(0 . 0)
                             #:right-align
                             #:normal-text
                             #:italic "sempre"
                             #:dynamic "pp")))

% Solution 5: Dynamic with explicit shifting inside the scheme function
semppG =
#(make-dynamic-script
  (markup #:hspace 0
          #:translate '(-18.85 . 0)
          #:line (#:normal-text
                  #:italic "sempre"
                  #:dynamic "pp")))

% Solution 6: Dynamic with explicit alignment. This has only effect
%             if one sets X-offset!
% Drawback: One needs to set DynamicText.X-offset!
% Drawback: Aligned at the right edge of the additional text,
%           not at the center of pp
semppMII =
#(make-dynamic-script
  (markup #:line (#:right-align
                  #:normal-text
                  #:italic "sempre"
                  #:dynamic "pp")))

\new StaffGroup <<
  \new Staff = "s" \with { instrumentName = \markup \column { Normal } }
  <<
    \relative c'' {
      \key es \major
      c4\pp c\p c c | c\ff c c\pp c
    }
  >>
  \new Staff = "sMarkup" \with {
    instrumentName = \markup \column { Normal markup }
  }
  <<
    \relative c'' {
      \key es \major
      c4-\semppMarkup c\p c c | c\ff c c-\semppMarkup c
    }
  >>
  \new Staff = "sK" \with {
    instrumentName = \markup \column { Explicit shifting }
  }
  <<
    \relative c'' {
      \key es \major
      \once \override DynamicText.X-offset = #-9.2
      c4\semppK c\p c c
      c4\ff c
      \once \override DynamicText.X-offset = #-9.2
      c4\semppK c
    }
  >>
  \new Staff = "sT" \with {
    instrumentName = \markup \column { Right padding }
  }
  <<
    \relative c'' {
      \key es \major
      c4\semppT c\p c c | c\ff c c\semppT c
    }
  >>
  \new Staff = "sM" \with {
    instrumentName = \markup \column { Set dimension "to zero" }
  }
  <<
    \relative c'' {
      \key es \major
      c4\semppM c\p c c | c\ff c c\semppM c
    }
  >>
  \new Staff = "sG" \with {
    instrumentName = \markup \column { Shift inside dynamics}
  }
  <<
    \relative c'' {
      \key es \major
      c4\semppG c\p c c | c\ff c c\semppG c
    }
  >>
  \new Staff = "sMII" \with {
    instrumentName = \markup \column { Alignment inside dynamics }
  }
  <<
    \relative c'' {
      \key es \major
      % Setting to ##f (false) gives the same result
      \override DynamicText.X-offset = #0
      c4\semppMII c\p c c | c\ff c c\semppMII c
    }
  >>
>>

\layout { \override Staff.InstrumentName.self-alignment-X = #LEFT }

[image of music]


How to print two rehearsal marks above and below the same barline (method 1)

This method prints two ’rehearsal marks’, one on top of the other. It shifts the lower rehearsal mark below the staff and then adds padding above it in order to place the upper rehearsal mark above the staff.

By adjusting the extra-offset and baseline-skip values you can increase or decrease the overall space between the rehearsal mark and the staff.

Because nearly every type of glyph or string can be made to behave like a rehearsal mark it is possible to centre those above and below a bar line.

Adding the appropriate ’break visibility’ as shown in snippet 1 will allow you to position two marks at the end of a line as well.

Note: Method 1 is less complex than Method 2 but does not really allow for fine tuning of placement of one of the rehearsal marks without affecting the other. It may also give some problems with vertical spacing, since using extra-offset does not change the bounding box of the mark from its original value.

\relative c'{
  c d e f |
  \once \override Score.RehearsalMark.extra-offset = #'(0 . -8.5)
  \once \override Score.RehearsalMark.baseline-skip = #9
  \mark \markup \center-column { \circle 1 \box A }
  g f e d |
  \once \override Score.RehearsalMark.extra-offset = #'(0 . -8.5)
  \once \override Score.RehearsalMark.baseline-skip = #9
  \mark \markup \center-column { \flat { \bold \small \italic Fine. } }
  g f e d |
  \once \override Score.RehearsalMark.extra-offset = #'(0 . -8.5)
  \once \override Score.RehearsalMark.baseline-skip = #9
  \override Score.RehearsalMark.break-visibility = #begin-of-line-invisible
  \mark \markup \center-column { \fermata \box z }
}

[image of music]


How to print two rehearsal marks above and below the same barline (method 2)

This method prints two ’rehearsal marks’ - one above the stave and one below, by creating two voices, adding the Rehearsal Mark engraver to each voice - without this no rehearsal mark is printed - and then placing each rehearsal mark UP and DOWN in each voice respectively.

This method (as opposed to method 1) is more complex, but allows for more flexibility, should it be needed to tweak each rehearsal mark independently of the other.

\score {
  \relative c'
  <<
    \new Staff {
      <<
        \new Voice \with {
          \consists Mark_engraver
          \consists "Staff_collecting_engraver"
        }
        { c4 d e f
          \mark \markup { \box A }
          c4 d e f
        }
        \new Voice \with {
          \consists Mark_engraver
          \consists "Staff_collecting_engraver"
          \override RehearsalMark.direction = #DOWN
        }
        { s4 s s s
          \mark \markup { \circle 1 }
          s4 s s s
        }
      >>
    }
  >>
  \layout {
    \context {
      \Score
      \remove "Mark_engraver"
      \remove "Staff_collecting_engraver"
    }
  }
}

[image of music]


Eine Zäsur einfügen

Zäsurzeichen können erstellt werden, indem die 'text-Eigenschaft des BreathingSign-Objektes verändert wird. Ein gekrümmtes Zäsurzeichen ist auch möglich.

\relative c'' {
  \override BreathingSign.text = \markup {
    \musicglyph "scripts.caesura.straight"
  }
  c8 e4. \breathe g8. e16 c4

  \override BreathingSign.text = \markup {
    \musicglyph "scripts.caesura.curved"
  }
  g8 e'4. \breathe g8. e16 c4
}

[image of music]


Laissez vibrer ties

Laissez vibrer ties have a fixed size. Their formatting can be tuned using 'tie-configuration.

\relative c' {
  <c e g>4\laissezVibrer r <c f g>\laissezVibrer r
  <c d f g>4\laissezVibrer r <c d f g>4.\laissezVibrer r8

  <c d e f>4\laissezVibrer r
  \override LaissezVibrerTieColumn.tie-configuration
     = #`((-7 . ,DOWN)
          (-5 . ,DOWN)
          (-3 . ,UP)
          (-1 . ,UP))
  <c d e f>4\laissezVibrer r
}

[image of music]


Line arrows

Arrows can be applied to text-spanners and line-spanners (such as the Glissando).

\relative c'' {
  \override TextSpanner.bound-padding = #1.0
  \override TextSpanner.style = #'line
  \override TextSpanner.bound-details.right.arrow = ##t
  \override TextSpanner.bound-details.left.text = #"fof"
  \override TextSpanner.bound-details.right.text = #"gag"
  \override TextSpanner.bound-details.right.padding = #0.6

  \override TextSpanner.bound-details.right.stencil-align-dir-y = #CENTER
  \override TextSpanner.bound-details.left.stencil-align-dir-y = #CENTER

  \override Glissando.bound-details.right.arrow = ##t
  \override Glissando.arrow-length = #0.5
  \override Glissando.arrow-width = #0.25

  a8\startTextSpan gis a4 b\glissando b,
  g'4 c\stopTextSpan c2
}

[image of music]


Legatobögen mit kompliziertem Strichelmuster

definieren

Legatobögen können mit einem komplizierten Strichelmuster gesetzt werden, indem die dash-definition-Eigenschaft definiert wird. dash-definition ist eine Liste bestehend aus dash-elements-Elementen. Ein dash-element ist eine Liste an Parametern, die das Strichverhalten für einen Abschnitt des Legatobogens definieren.

Der Bogen wird nach dem Bezierparameter t definiert, welcher von 0 am linken Ende des Bogens zu 1 am rechten Ende des Bogens reicht. dash-element ist eine Liste (start-t stop-t dash-Unterbrechung dash-Abschnitt). Die Region des Bogens von start-t bis stop-t hat eine Unterbrechung von dash-Unterbrechung von jedem dash-Abschnitt-Schwarzabschnitt. dash-Abschnitt ist in Notenlinienzwischenräumen definiert. dash-Abschnitt ist auf 1 für einen durchgehenden Bogen gesetzt.

\relative c' {
  \once \override
    Slur.dash-definition = #'((0 0.3 0.1 0.75)
                                (0.3 0.6 1 1)
                                (0.65 1.0 0.4 0.75))
  c4( d e f)
  \once \override
    Slur.dash-definition = #'((0 0.25 1 1)
                                (0.3 0.7 0.4 0.75)
                                (0.75 1.0 1 1))
  c4( d e f)
}

[image of music]


Die Standardwerte der Abkürzungen von Artikulationen verändern

Die Abkürzungen sind in der Datei ‘ly/script-init.ly’ definiert, wo den Variablen dashHat, dashPlus, dashDash, dashBar, dashLarger, dashDot und dashUnderscore Standardwerte zugewiesen werden. Diese Standardwerte können verändert werden. Um zum Beispiel die Abkürzung -+ (dashPlus) mit dem Triller anstatt mit dem +-Symbol zu assoziieren, muss der Wert trill der Variable dashPlus zugewiesen werden:

\relative c'' { c1-+ }

dashPlus = "trill"

\relative c'' { c1-+ }

[image of music]


Moving slur positions vertically

The vertical position of a slur can be adjusted using the positions property of Slur. The property has 2 parameters, the first referring to the left end of the slur and the second to the right. The values of the parameters are not used by LilyPond to make an exact movement of the slur - instead it selects what placement of the slur looks best, taking into account the parameter values. Positive values move the slur up, and are appropriate for notes with stems down. Negative values move downward slurs further down.

\relative c' {
  \stemDown
  e4( a)
  \override Slur.positions = #'(1 . 1)
  e4( a)
  \override Slur.positions = #'(2 . 2)
  e4( a)
  \override Slur.positions = #'(3 . 3)
  e4( a)
  \override Slur.positions = #'(4 . 4)
  e4( a)
  \override Slur.positions = #'(5 . 5)
  e4( a)
  \override Slur.positions = #'(0 . 5)
  e4( a)
  \override Slur.positions = #'(5 . 0)
  e4( a)
  \stemUp
  \override Slur.positions = #'(-5 . -5)
  e4( a)
  \stemDown
  \revert Slur.positions
  e4( a)
}

[image of music]


Moving the ends of hairpins

The ends of hairpins may be offset by setting the shorten-pair property of the Hairpin object. Positive values move endpoints to the right, negative to the left. Unlike the minimum-length property, this property only affects the appearance of the hairpin; it does not adjust horizontal spacing (including the position of bounding dynamics). This method is thus suitable for fine-tuning a hairpin within its allotted space.

{
  c'1~\<
  c'2~ c'\!
  \once \override Hairpin.shorten-pair = #'(2 . 2)
  c'1~\<
  c'2~ c'\!
  \once \override Hairpin.shorten-pair = #'(-2 . -2)
  c'1~\<
  c'2~ c'\!
  c'1~\p-\tweak shorten-pair #'(2 . 0)\<
  c'2~ c'\ffff
}

[image of music]


Positioning arpeggios

If you need to extend or shorten an arpeggio, you can modify the upper and lower start positions independently.

\relative c' {
  <c e g b>1\arpeggio
  \once \override Arpeggio.positions = #'(-5 . 0)
  <c e g b>1\arpeggio
  \once \override Arpeggio.positions = #'(0 . 5)
  <c e g b>1\arpeggio
  \once \override Arpeggio.positions = #'(-5 . 5)
  <c e g b>1\arpeggio
}

[image of music]


Textbeschriftung innerhalb von Bögen positionieren

Textbeschriftung kann innerhalb von Bögen gesetzt werden, wenn die outside-staff-priority-Eigenschaft auf falsch gesetzt wird.

\relative c'' {
  \override TextScript.avoid-slur = #'inside
  \override TextScript.outside-staff-priority = ##f
  c2(^\markup { \halign #-10 \natural } d4.) c8
}

[image of music]


Printing hairpins in various styles

Hairpin dynamics may be created in a variety of styles.

\relative c'' {
  \override Hairpin.stencil = #flared-hairpin
  a4\< a a a\f
  a4\p\< a a a\ff
  a4\sfz\< a a a\!
  \override Hairpin.stencil = #constante-hairpin
  a4\< a a a\f
  a4\p\< a a a\ff
  a4\sfz\< a a a\!
  \override Hairpin.stencil = #flared-hairpin
  a4\> a a a\f
  a4\p\> a a a\ff
  a4\sfz\> a a a\!
  \override Hairpin.stencil = #constante-hairpin
  a4\> a a a\f
  a4\p\> a a a\ff
  a4\sfz\> a a a\!
}

[image of music]


Crescendo Klammern al niente schreiben

Crescendo-Klammern können mit einem kleinen Kreis vor der Spitze notiert werden (al niente = bis zum Nichts), indem die circled-tip-Eigenschaft des Hairpin-Objekts auf #t gesetzt wird.

\relative c'' {
  \override Hairpin.circled-tip = ##t
  c2\< c\!
  c4\> c\< c2\!
}

[image of music]


Metronom- und Übungszeichen unter das System setzen

Normalerweise werden Metronom- und Übungszeichen über dem Notensystem ausgegeben. Um sie unter das System zu setzen, muss die direction-Eigenschaft von MetronomeMark oder RehearsalMark entsprechend verändert werden.

\layout {
  indent = 0
  ragged-right = ##f
}

{
  % Metronome marks below the staff
  \override Score.MetronomeMark.direction = #DOWN
  \tempo 8. = 120
  c''1

  % Rehearsal marks below the staff
  \override Score.RehearsalMark.direction = #DOWN
  \mark \default
  c''1
}

[image of music]


Das Verhalten von Crescendo-Klammern an Taktlinien beeinflussen

Wenn die Note, an welcher eine Crescendo-Klammer endet, die erste Note eines Taktes ist, wird die Klammer an der vorhergehenden Taktlinie beendet. Dieses Verhalten kann auch mit der Eigenschaft 'to-barline geändert werden:

\relative c'' {
  e4\< e2.
  e1\!
  \override Hairpin.to-barline = ##f
  e4\< e2.
  e1\!
}

[image of music]


Die Mindestlänge von Crescendo-Klammern bestimmen

Wenn Crescendo-Klammern zu kurz sind, können sie verlängert werden, indem die minimum-length-Eigenschaft des Hairpin-Objektes verändert wird.

\relative c'' {
  c4\< c\! d\> e\!
  << f1 { s4 s\< s\> s\! } >>
  \override Hairpin.minimum-length = #5
  << f1 { s4 s\< s\> s\! } >>
}

[image of music]


Showing the same articulation above and below a note or chord

By default, LilyPond does not allow the same articulation (e.g., an accent, a fermata, a flageolet, etc.) to be displayed above and below a note. For example, c4_\fermata^\fermata will only show a fermata below. The fermata above will simply be ignored.

However, one can stick scripts (just like fingerings) inside a chord, which means it is possible to have as many articulations as desired. This approach has the advantage that it ignores the stem and positions the articulation relative to the note head. This can be seen in the case of the flageolets in the snippet. To mimic the behaviour of scripts outside a chord, ’add-stem-support would be required.

So, the solution is to write the note as a chord and add the articulations inside the <...>. The direction will always be above, but one can tweak this via a \tweak: <c-\tweak direction #DOWN-\fermata^\fermata>

% The same as \flageolet, just a little smaller
smallFlageolet = \tweak font-size #-2 \flageolet

\relative c' {
  s4^"Wrong:"
  c4_\fermata^\fermata % The second fermata is ignored!
  <e d'>4^\smallFlageolet_\smallFlageolet

  s4^"Works if written inside a chord:"
  <e_\smallFlageolet d'^\smallFlageolet>4
  <e_\flageolet d'^\flageolet>4
  <e_\smallFlageolet^\smallFlageolet>4
  <e_\fermata^\fermata>4
}

[image of music]


Snap-pizzicato or Bartok pizzicato

A snap-pizzicato (also known as „Bartok pizzicato“) is a „strong pizzicato where the string is plucked vertically by snapping and rebounds off the fingerboard of the instrument“ (Wikipedia). It is denoted by a circle with a vertical line going from the center upwards outside the circle.

\relative c' {
  c4\snappizzicato
  <c' e g>4\snappizzicato
  <c' e g>4^\snappizzicato
  <c, e g>4_\snappizzicato
}

[image of music]


Using a tick as the breath mark symbol

Vocal and wind music frequently uses a tick mark as a breathing sign. This indicates a breath that subtracts a little time from the previous note rather than causing a short pause, which is indicated by the comma breath mark. The mark can be moved up a little to take it away from the stave.

\relative c'' {
  c2
  \breathe
  d2
  \override BreathingSign.Y-offset = #2.6
  \override BreathingSign.text =
    \markup { \musicglyph "scripts.tickmark" }
  c2
  \breathe
  d2
}

[image of music]


Arpeggio-Klammern benutzen, um geteilte Stimmen besser sichtbar zu machen

Das arpeggioBracket-Klammerobjekt kann benutzt werden, um geteilte Stimmen anzuzeigen, wenn keine Hälse diese Information bieten. Das sieht man oft in Chormusik.

\include "english.ly"

\score {
  \relative c'' {
    \key a \major
    \time 2/2
    <<
      \new Voice = "upper"
      <<
        { \voiceOne \arpeggioBracket
          a2( b2
          <b d>1\arpeggio)
          <cs e>\arpeggio ~
          <cs e>4
        }
        \addlyrics { \lyricmode { A -- men. } }
      >>
      \new Voice = "lower"
      { \voiceTwo
        a1 ~
        a
        a ~
        a4 \bar "|."
      }
    >>
  }
  \layout { ragged-right = ##t }
}

[image of music]


Doppelte Bögen für Legato-Akkorde benutzen

Einige Komponisten schreiben doppelte Bögen, wenn Legato-Akkorde notiert werden. Das kann mit der Eigenschaft doubleSlurs erreicht werden.

\relative c' {
  \set doubleSlurs = ##t
  <c e>4( <d f> <c e> <d f>)
}

[image of music]


Using the whiteout property

Any graphical object can be printed over a white background to mask parts of objects that lie beneath. This can be useful to improve the appearance of collisions in complex situations when repositioning objects is impractical. It is necessary to explicitly set the layer property to control which objects are masked by the white background.

In this example the collision of the tie with the time signature is improved by masking out the part of the tie that crosses the time signature by setting the whiteout property of TimeSignature. To do this TimeSignature is moved to a layer above Tie, which is left in the default layer of 1, and StaffSymbol is moved to a layer above TimeSignature so it is not masked.

{
  \override Score.StaffSymbol.layer = #4
  \override Staff.TimeSignature.layer = #3
  b'2 b'~
  \once \override Staff.TimeSignature.whiteout = ##t
  \time 3/4
  b' r4
}

[image of music]


Vertical line as a baroque articulation mark

This short vertical line placed above the note is commonly used in baroque music. Its meaning can vary, but generally indicates notes that should be played with more „weight“. The following example demonstrates how to achieve such a notation.

upline =
\tweak stencil
  #(lambda (grob)
    (grob-interpret-markup grob #{ \markup \draw-line #'(0 . 1) #}))
  \stopped

\relative c' {
  a'4^\upline a( c d')_\upline
}

[image of music]


Vertically aligning dynamics across multiple notes

Dynamics that occur at, begin on, or end on the same note will be vertically aligned. To ensure that dynamics are aligned when they do not occur on the same note, increase the staff-padding property of the DynamicLineSpanner object.

\relative c' {
  \override DynamicLineSpanner.staff-padding = #4
  c2\p f\mf
  g2\< b4\> c\!
}

[image of music]


LilyPond – Snippets v2.21.82 (Entwicklungszweig).