Contexts and engravers

Changing defaults

Contexts and engravers


Añadir un bajo cifrado encima o debajo de las notas

Al escribir un bajo cifrado, podemos situar las cifras encima o debajo de las notas del bajo, mediante la definición de la propiedad BassFigureAlignmentPositioning #'direction (exclusivamente dentro de un contexto Staff). Se puede elegir entre #UP (o #1, arriba), #CENTER (o #0, centrado) y #DOWN (o #-1, abajo).

Esta propiedad se puede cambiar tantas veces como queramos. Utilice \once \override si no quiere que la sobreescritura se aplique a toda la partitura.

bass = {
  \clef bass
  g4 b, c d
  e d8 c d2
}

continuo = \figuremode {
  <_>4 <6>4 <5/>4
  \override Staff.BassFigureAlignmentPositioning.direction = #UP
  %\bassFigureStaffAlignmentUp
  < _+ >4 <6>
  \set Staff.useBassFigureExtenders = ##t
  \override Staff.BassFigureAlignmentPositioning.direction = #DOWN
  %\bassFigureStaffAlignmentDown
  <4>4. <4>8 <_+>4
}

\score {
  <<
    \new Staff = bassStaff \bass
    \context Staff = bassStaff \continuo
  >>
}

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Añadir un pentagrama adicional en un salto de línea

Al añadir un pentagrama nuevo en un salto de línea, por desgracia se añade un espacio adicional al final de la línea antes del salto (reservado para hacer sitio a un cambio de armadura que de todas formas no se va a imprimir). La solución alternativa es añadir un ajuste para Staff.explicitKeySignatureVisibility como se muestra en el ejemplo.

\score {
  \new StaffGroup \relative c'' {
    \new Staff
    \key f \major
    c1 c^"Unwanted extra space" \break
    << { c1 | c }
       \new Staff {
         \key f \major
         \once \omit Staff.TimeSignature
         c1 | c
       }
    >>
    c1 | c^"Fixed here" \break
    << { c1 | c }
       \new Staff {
         \once \set Staff.explicitKeySignatureVisibility = #end-of-line-invisible
         \key f \major
         \once \omit Staff.TimeSignature
         c1 | c
       }
    >>
  }
}

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Añadir un pentagrama nuevo

Se puede añadir (posiblemente de forma temporal) un pentagrama nuevo una vez que la pieza ha comenzado.

\score {
  <<
    \new Staff \relative c'' {
      c1 | c | c | c | c
    }
    \new StaffGroup \relative c'' {
      \new Staff {
        c1 | c
        <<
          {
            c1 | d
          }
          \new Staff {
            \once \omit Staff.TimeSignature
            c1 | b
          }
        >>
        c1
      }
    }
  >>
}

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Cambiar la dirección de la plica de las notas de la tercera línea automáticamente, basado en la melodía

LilyPond puede alterar la dirección de la plica de las notas que van en la tercera línea de un pentagrama de forma que siga la melodía, mediante la adición del grabador Melody_engraver al contexto Voice y sobreescribiendo el valor de neutral-direction para el objeto Stem (plica).

\relative c'' {
  \time 3/4
  a8 b g f b g |
  c  b d c b c |
}

\layout {
  \context {
    \Voice
    \consists "Melody_engraver"
    \autoBeamOff
    \override Stem.neutral-direction = #'()
  }
}

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Números de compás centrados

Con frecuencia, las partituras de obras para conjuntos grandes tienen los números de compás debajo del sistema y centrados horizontalmente sobre el ancho del compás. Este fragmento de código muestra cómo puede usarse el grabador Measure_counter_engraver para simular esta práctica notacional. Aquí hemos añadido el grabador a un contexto Dynamics.

\layout {
  \context {
    \Dynamics
    \consists #Measure_counter_engraver
    \override MeasureCounter.direction = #DOWN
    \override MeasureCounter.font-encoding = #'latin1
    \override MeasureCounter.font-shape = #'italic
    % to control the distance of the Dynamics context from the staff:
    \override VerticalAxisGroup.nonstaff-relatedstaff-spacing.padding = #2
  }
  \context {
    \Score
    \remove "Bar_number_engraver"
  }
}

pattern = \repeat unfold 7 { c'4 d' e' f' }

\new StaffGroup <<
  \new Staff {
    \pattern
  }
  \new Staff {
    \pattern
  }
  \new Dynamics {
    \startMeasureCount
    s1*7
    \stopMeasureCount
  }
>>

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Modificar la salida MIDI para que tenga un canal por cada voz

Al producir una salida MIDI, el comportamiento predeterminado es que cada pentagrama representa un canal MIDI, con todas las voces de dicho pentagrama mezcladas. Esto reduce al mínimo el riesgo de que se agote el número de canales MIDI disponibles, pues existe un máximo de 16 canales por cada puerto MIDI, y la mayoría de los dispositivos sólo tiene un puerto.

Sin embargo, cuando se traslada el interpretador Staff_performer al contexto Voice, cada voz de un pentagrama puede tener su propio canal MIDI, como se muestra en el siguiente ejemplo: a pesar de estar sobre el mismo pentagrama, se crean dos canales MIDI, cada uno con un midiInstrument distinto.

\score {
  \new Staff <<
    \new Voice \relative c''' {
      \set midiInstrument = #"flute"
      \voiceOne
      \key g \major
      \time 2/2
      r2 g-"Flute" ~
      g fis ~
      fis4 g8 fis e2 ~
      e4 d8 cis d2
    }
    \new Voice \relative c'' {
      \set midiInstrument = #"clarinet"
      \voiceTwo
      b1-"Clarinet"
      a2. b8 a
      g2. fis8 e
      fis2 r
    }
  >>
  \layout { }
  \midi {
    \context {
      \Staff
      \remove "Staff_performer"
    }
    \context {
      \Voice
      \consists "Staff_performer"
    }
    \tempo 2 = 72
  }
}

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Modificar el compás dentro de una sección polimétrica utilizando \scaleDurations

La propiedad measureLength, junto con measurePosition, determina cuándo es necesario dibujar una línea divisoria. Sin embargo, al utilizar \scaleDurations, el escalado proporcional de las duraciones hace difícil introducir cambios de compás. En este caso se debe establecer manualmente el valor de measureLength utilizando la función ly:make-moment. El segundo argumento debe ser el mismo que el segundo argumento de \scaleDurations.

\layout {
  \context {
    \Score
    \remove "Timing_translator"
    \remove "Default_bar_line_engraver"
  }
  \context {
    \Staff
    \consists "Timing_translator"
    \consists "Default_bar_line_engraver"
  }
}

<<
  \new Staff {
    \scaleDurations 8/5 {
      \time 6/8
      \set Timing.measureLength = #(ly:make-moment 6/5)
      b8 b b b b b
      \time 2/4
      \set Timing.measureLength = #(ly:make-moment 4/5)
      b4 b
    }
  }
  \new Staff {
    \clef bass
    \time 2/4
    c2 d e f
  }
>>

[image of music]


Notación de responsos o salmos

Este tipo de notación se utiliza para los cantos salmódicos, en que las estrofas no siempre tienen la misma longitud.

stemOff = \hide Staff.Stem
stemOn  = \undo \stemOff

\score {
  \new Staff \with { \remove "Time_signature_engraver" }
  {
    \key g \minor
    \cadenzaOn
    \stemOff a'\breve bes'4 g'4
    \stemOn a'2 \bar "||"
    \stemOff a'\breve g'4 a'4
    \stemOn f'2 \bar "||"
    \stemOff a'\breve^\markup { \italic flexe }
    \stemOn g'2 \bar "||"
  }
}

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Crear pentagramas en blanco

Para crear pentagramas en blanco, genere compases vacíos y después elimine el grabador de números de compás Bar_number_engraver del contexto Score, y los grabadores de la indicación de compás Time_signature_engraver, de la clave Clef_engraver y de los compases Bar_engraver del contexto de Staff.

#(set-global-staff-size 20)

\score {
  {
    \repeat unfold 12 { s1 \break }
  }
  \layout {
    indent = 0\in
    \context {
      \Staff
      \remove "Time_signature_engraver"
      \remove "Clef_engraver"
      \remove "Bar_engraver"
    }
    \context {
      \Score
      \remove "Bar_number_engraver"
    }
  }
}

% uncomment these lines for "letter" size
%{
\paper {
  #(set-paper-size "letter")
  ragged-last-bottom = ##f
  line-width = 7.5\in
  left-margin = 0.5\in
  bottom-margin = 0.25\in
  top-margin = 0.25\in
}
%}

% uncomment these lines for "A4" size
%{
\paper {
  #(set-paper-size "a4")
  ragged-last-bottom = ##f
  line-width = 180
  left-margin = 15
  bottom-margin = 10
  top-margin = 10
}
%}

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Creating custom key signatures

LilyPond supports custom key signatures. In this example, print for D minor with an extended range of printed flats.

\new Staff \with {
  \override StaffSymbol.line-count = #8
  \override KeySignature.flat-positions = #'((-7 . 6))
  \override KeyCancellation.flat-positions = #'((-7 . 6))
  % presumably sharps are also printed in both octaves
  \override KeySignature.sharp-positions = #'((-6 . 7))
  \override KeyCancellation.sharp-positions = #'((-6 . 7))

  \override Clef.stencil = #
  (lambda (grob)(grob-interpret-markup grob
  #{ \markup\combine
    \musicglyph "clefs.C"
    \translate #'(-3 . -2)
    \musicglyph "clefs.F"
   #}))
    clefPosition = #3
    middleCPosition = #3
    middleCClefPosition = #3
}

{
  \key d\minor
  f bes, f bes,
}

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Plicas de pentagrama cruzado

Este fragmento de código muestra el uso del grabador Span_stem_engraver y de \crossStaff para conectar automáticamente plicas de un pentagrama a otro. No es necesario especificar la longitud de la plica porque la distancia variable entre las cabezas de las notas y los pentagramas se calcula automáticamente.

\layout {
  \context {
    \PianoStaff
    \consists #Span_stem_engraver
  }
}

{
  \new PianoStaff <<
    \new Staff {
      <b d'>4 r d'16\> e'8. g8 r\!
      e'8 f' g'4 e'2
    }
    \new Staff {
      \clef bass
      \voiceOne
      \autoBeamOff
      \crossStaff { <e g>4 e, g16 a8. c8} d
      \autoBeamOn
      g8 f g4 c2
    }
  >>
}

[image of music]


Definir un grabador en Scheme: grabador de ámbito o tesitura

Este ejemplo muestra cómo puede definirse el grabador de ámbito o tesitura en el espacio del usuario, con un grabador de Scheme.

Esto es básicamente una reescritura en Scheme del código de ‘lily/ambitus-engraver.cc’.

#(use-modules (oop goops))

%%%
%%% Grob utilities
%%%
%%% These are literal rewrites of some C++ methods used by the ambitus engraver.

#(define (ly:separation-item::add-conditional-item grob grob-item)
   "Add @var{grob-item} to the array of conditional elements of @var{grob}.
Rewrite of @code{Separation_item::add_conditional_item} from @file{lily/separation-item.cc}."
   (ly:pointer-group-interface::add-grob grob 'conditional-elements grob-item))

#(define (ly:accidental-placement::accidental-pitch accidental-grob)
   "Get the pitch from the grob cause of @var{accidental-grob}.
Rewrite of @code{accidental_pitch} from @file{lily/accidental-placement.cc}."
   (ly:event-property (ly:grob-property (ly:grob-parent accidental-grob Y) 'cause)
                      'pitch))

#(define (ly:accidental-placement::add-accidental grob accidental-grob)
   "Add @var{accidental-grob}, an @code{Accidental} grob, to the
list of the accidental grobs of @var{grob}, an @code{AccidentalPlacement}
grob.
Rewrite of @code{Accidental_placement::add_accidental} from @file{lily/accidental-placement.cc}."
   (let ((pitch (ly:accidental-placement::accidental-pitch accidental-grob)))
     (set! (ly:grob-parent accidental-grob X) grob)
     (let* ((accidentals (ly:grob-object grob 'accidental-grobs))
            (handle (assq (ly:pitch-notename pitch) accidentals))
            (entry (if handle (cdr handle) '())))
       (set! (ly:grob-object grob 'accidental-grobs)
             (assq-set! accidentals
                        (ly:pitch-notename pitch)
                        (cons accidental-grob entry))))))

%%%
%%% Ambitus data structure
%%%

%%% The <ambitus> class holds the various grobs that are created
%%% to print an ambitus:
%%% - ambitus-group: the grob that groups all the components of an ambitus
%%% (Ambitus grob);
%%% - ambitus-line: the vertical line between the upper and lower ambitus
%%% notes (AmbitusLine grob);
%%% - ambitus-up-note and ambitus-down-note: the note head and accidental
%%% for the lower and upper note of the ambitus (see <ambitus-note> class
%%% below).
%%% The other slots define the key and clef context of the engraver:
%%% - start-c0: position of middle c at the beginning of the piece.  It
%%% is used to place the ambitus notes according to their pitch;
%%% - start-key-sig: the key signature at the beginning of the piece.  It
%%% is used to determine if accidentals shall be printed next to ambitus
%%% notes.

#(define-class <ambitus> ()
   (ambitus-group #:accessor ambitus-group)
   (ambitus-line #:accessor ambitus-line)
   (ambitus-up-note #:getter ambitus-up-note
                    #:init-form (make <ambitus-note>))
   (ambitus-down-note #:getter ambitus-down-note
                      #:init-form (make <ambitus-note>))
   (start-c0 #:accessor ambitus-start-c0
             #:init-value #f)
   (start-key-sig #:accessor ambitus-start-key-sig
                  #:init-value '()))

%%% Accessor for the lower and upper note data of an ambitus
#(define-method (ambitus-note (ambitus <ambitus>) direction)
   "If @var{direction} is @code{UP}, then return the upper ambitus note
of @var{ambitus}, otherwise return the lower ambitus note."
   (if (= direction UP)
       (ambitus-up-note ambitus)
       (ambitus-down-note ambitus)))

%%% The <ambitus-note> class holds the grobs that are specific to ambitus
%%% (lower and upper) notes:
%%% - head: an AmbitusNoteHead grob;
%%% - accidental: an AmbitusAccidental grob, to be possibly printed next
%%% to the ambitus note head.
%%% Moreover:
%%% - pitch is the absolute pitch of the note
%%% - cause is the note event that causes this ambitus note, i.e. the lower
%%% or upper note of the considered music sequence.

#(define-class <ambitus-note> ()
   (head #:accessor ambitus-note-head
         #:init-value #f)
   (accidental #:accessor ambitus-note-accidental
               #:init-value #f)
   (cause #:accessor ambitus-note-cause
          #:init-value #f)
   (pitch #:accessor ambitus-note-pitch
          #:init-value #f))

%%%
%%% Ambitus engraving logics
%%%
%%% Rewrite of the code from @file{lily/ambitus-engraver.cc}.

#(define (make-ambitus translator)
   "Build an ambitus object: initialize all the grobs and their relations.

The Ambitus grob contain all other grobs:
 Ambitus
  |- AmbitusLine
  |- AmbitusNoteHead   for upper note
  |- AmbitusAccidental for upper note
  |- AmbitusNoteHead   for lower note
  |- AmbitusAccidental for lower note

The parent of an accidental is the corresponding note head,
and the accidental is set as the 'accidental-grob of the note head
so that is printed by the function that prints notes."
   ;; make the ambitus object
   (let ((ambitus (make <ambitus>)))
     ;; build the Ambitus grob, which will contain all other grobs
     (set! (ambitus-group ambitus) (ly:engraver-make-grob translator 'Ambitus '()))
     ;; build the AmbitusLine grob (line between lower and upper note)
     (set! (ambitus-line ambitus) (ly:engraver-make-grob translator 'AmbitusLine '()))
     ;; build the upper and lower AmbitusNoteHead and AmbitusAccidental
     (for-each (lambda (direction)
                 (let ((head (ly:engraver-make-grob translator 'AmbitusNoteHead '()))
                       (accidental (ly:engraver-make-grob translator 'AmbitusAccidental '()))
                       (group (ambitus-group ambitus)))
                   ;; The parent of the AmbitusAccidental grob is the
                   ;; AmbitusNoteHead grob
                   (set! (ly:grob-parent accidental Y) head)
                   ;; The AmbitusAccidental grob is set as the accidental-grob
                   ;; object of the AmbitusNoteHead.  This is later used by the
                   ;; function that prints notes.
                   (set! (ly:grob-object head 'accidental-grob) accidental)
                   ;; both the note head and the accidental grobs are added
                   ;; to the main ambitus grob.
                   (ly:axis-group-interface::add-element group head)
                   (ly:axis-group-interface::add-element group accidental)
                   ;; the note head and the accidental grobs are added to the
                   ;; ambitus object
                   (set! (ambitus-note-head (ambitus-note ambitus direction))
                         head)
                   (set! (ambitus-note-accidental (ambitus-note ambitus direction))
                         accidental)))
               (list DOWN UP))
     ;; The parent of the ambitus line is the lower ambitus note head
     (set! (ly:grob-parent (ambitus-line ambitus) X)
           (ambitus-note-head (ambitus-note ambitus DOWN)))
     ;; the ambitus line is added to the ambitus main grob
     (ly:axis-group-interface::add-element (ambitus-group ambitus) (ambitus-line ambitus))
     ambitus))

#(define-method (initialize-ambitus-state (ambitus <ambitus>) translator)
   "Initialize the state of @var{ambitus}, by getting the starting
position of middle C and key signature from @var{translator}'s context."
   (if (not (ambitus-start-c0 ambitus))
       (begin
         (set! (ambitus-start-c0 ambitus)
               (ly:context-property (ly:translator-context translator)
                                    'middleCPosition
                                    0))
         (set! (ambitus-start-key-sig ambitus)
               (ly:context-property (ly:translator-context translator)
                                    'keyAlterations)))))

#(define-method (update-ambitus-notes (ambitus <ambitus>) note-grob)
   "Update the upper and lower ambitus pithes of @var{ambitus}, using
@var{note-grob}."
   ;; Get the event that caused the note-grob creation
   ;; and check that it is a note-event.
   (let ((note-event (ly:grob-property note-grob 'cause)))
     (if (ly:in-event-class? note-event 'note-event)
         ;; get the pitch from the note event
         (let ((pitch (ly:event-property note-event 'pitch)))
           ;; if this pitch is lower than the current ambitus lower
           ;; note pitch (or it has not been initialized yet),
           ;; then this pitch is the new ambitus lower pitch,
           ;; and conversely for upper pitch.
           (for-each (lambda (direction pitch-compare)
                       (if (or (not (ambitus-note-pitch (ambitus-note ambitus direction)))
                               (pitch-compare pitch
                                              (ambitus-note-pitch (ambitus-note ambitus direction))))
                           (begin
                             (set! (ambitus-note-pitch (ambitus-note ambitus direction))
                                   pitch)
                             (set! (ambitus-note-cause (ambitus-note ambitus direction))
                                   note-event))))
                     (list DOWN UP)
                     (list ly:pitch<? (lambda (p1 p2)
                                        (ly:pitch<? p2 p1))))))))

#(define-method (typeset-ambitus (ambitus <ambitus>) translator)
   "Typeset the ambitus:
- place the lower and upper ambitus notes according to their pitch and
  the position of the middle C;
- typeset or delete the note accidentals, according to the key signature.
  An accidental, if it is to be printed, is added to an AccidentalPlacement
  grob (a grob dedicated to the placement of accidentals near a chord);
- both note heads are added to the ambitus line grob, so that a line should
  be printed between them."
   ;; check if there are lower and upper pitches
   (if (and (ambitus-note-pitch (ambitus-note ambitus UP))
            (ambitus-note-pitch (ambitus-note ambitus DOWN)))
       ;; make an AccidentalPlacement grob, for placement of note accidentals
       (let ((accidental-placement (ly:engraver-make-grob
                                    translator
                                    'AccidentalPlacement
                                    (ambitus-note-accidental (ambitus-note ambitus DOWN)))))
         ;; For lower and upper ambitus notes:
         (for-each (lambda (direction)
                     (let ((pitch (ambitus-note-pitch (ambitus-note ambitus direction))))
                       ;; set the cause and the staff position of the ambitus note
                       ;; according to the associated pitch
                       (set! (ly:grob-property (ambitus-note-head (ambitus-note ambitus direction))
                                               'cause)
                             (ambitus-note-cause (ambitus-note ambitus direction)))
                       (set! (ly:grob-property (ambitus-note-head (ambitus-note ambitus direction))
                                               'staff-position)
                             (+ (ambitus-start-c0 ambitus)
                                (ly:pitch-steps pitch)))
                       ;; determine if an accidental shall be printed for this note,
                       ;; according to the key signature
                       (let* ((handle (or (assoc (cons (ly:pitch-octave pitch)
                                                       (ly:pitch-notename pitch))
                                                 (ambitus-start-key-sig ambitus))
                                          (assoc (ly:pitch-notename pitch)
                                                 (ambitus-start-key-sig ambitus))))
                              (sig-alter (if handle (cdr handle) 0)))
                         (cond ((= (ly:pitch-alteration pitch) sig-alter)
                                ;; the note alteration is in the key signature
                                ;; => it does not have to be printed
                                (ly:grob-suicide!
                                 (ambitus-note-accidental (ambitus-note ambitus direction)))
                                (set! (ly:grob-object (ambitus-note-head (ambitus-note ambitus direction))
                                                      'accidental-grob)
                                      '()))
                               (else
                                ;; otherwise, the accidental shall be printed
                                (set! (ly:grob-property (ambitus-note-accidental
                                                         (ambitus-note ambitus direction))
                                                        'alteration)
                                      (ly:pitch-alteration pitch)))))
                       ;; add the AccidentalPlacement grob to the
                       ;; conditional items of the AmbitusNoteHead
                       (ly:separation-item::add-conditional-item
                        (ambitus-note-head (ambitus-note ambitus direction))
                        accidental-placement)
                       ;; add the AmbitusAccidental to the list of the
                       ;; AccidentalPlacement grob accidentals
                       (ly:accidental-placement::add-accidental
                        accidental-placement
                        (ambitus-note-accidental (ambitus-note ambitus direction)))
                       ;; add the AmbitusNoteHead grob to the AmbitusLine grob
                       (ly:pointer-group-interface::add-grob
                        (ambitus-line ambitus)
                        'note-heads
                        (ambitus-note-head (ambitus-note ambitus direction)))))
                   (list DOWN UP))
         ;; add the AccidentalPlacement grob to the main Ambitus grob
         (ly:axis-group-interface::add-element (ambitus-group ambitus) accidental-placement))
       ;; no notes ==> suicide the grobs
       (begin
         (for-each (lambda (direction)
                     (ly:grob-suicide! (ambitus-note-accidental (ambitus-note ambitus direction)))
                     (ly:grob-suicide! (ambitus-note-head (ambitus-note ambitus direction))))
                   (list DOWN UP))
         (ly:grob-suicide! ambitus-line))))

%%%
%%% Ambitus engraver definition
%%%
#(define ambitus-engraver
   (lambda (context)
     (let ((ambitus #f))
       ;; when music is processed: make the ambitus object, if not already built
       (make-engraver
    ((process-music translator)
     (if (not ambitus)
         (set! ambitus (make-ambitus translator))))
    ;; set the ambitus clef and key signature state
    ((stop-translation-timestep translator)
     (if ambitus
         (initialize-ambitus-state ambitus translator)))
    ;; when a note-head grob is built, update the ambitus notes
    (acknowledgers
          ((note-head-interface engraver grob source-engraver)
       (if ambitus
           (update-ambitus-notes ambitus grob))))
    ;; finally, typeset the ambitus according to its upper and lower notes
    ;; (if any).
    ((finalize translator)
     (if ambitus
         (typeset-ambitus ambitus translator)))))))

%%%
%%% Example
%%%

\score {
  \new StaffGroup <<
    \new Staff { c'4 des' e' fis' gis' }
    \new Staff { \clef "bass" c4 des ~ des ees b, }
  >>
  \layout { \context { \Staff \consists #ambitus-engraver } }
}

[image of music]


Mostrar un sistema GrandStaff completo si sigue con vida uno solo de sus pentagramas

A veces, en las partituras orquestales se dejan en silencio instrumentos individuales o grupos de ellos durante un período de tiempo, y sus pentagramas correspondientes se pueden suprimir durante ese tiempo (con \removeEmptyStaves).

Cuando vuelven a sonar, con frecuencia se prefiere mostrar todos los instrumentos del grupo. Esto se puede hacer añadiendo el grabador Keep_alive_together_engraver en el contexto agrupador (p.ej.: un GrandStaff o un StaffGroup)

En este ejemplo, los violines están en silencio durante los sistemas segundo y tercero. Solo el violín primero suena en el último compás, pero se muestra también el pentagrama del violín segundo.

\score {
  <<
    \new StaffGroup = "StaffGroup_woodwinds"
    <<
      \new Staff = "Staff_flute" \with {
        instrumentName = "Flute"
        shortInstrumentName = "Fl"
      }
      \relative c' {
        \repeat unfold 3 { c'4 c c c | c c c c | c c c c | \break }
      }
    >>
    \new StaffGroup = "StaffGroup_Strings"
    <<
      \new GrandStaff = "GrandStaff_violins"
      <<
        \new Staff = "StaffViolinI" \with {
          instrumentName = "Violin I"
          shortInstrumentName = "Vi I"
        }
        \relative c'' {
          a1 \repeat unfold 7 { s1 } \repeat unfold 12 a16  a4
        }
        \new Staff = "StaffViolinII" \with {
          instrumentName = "Violin II"
          shortInstrumentName = "Vi II"
        }
        \relative c' { e1 \repeat unfold 8 { s1 } }
      >>
      \new Staff = "Staff_cello" \with {
        instrumentName = "Cello"
        shortInstrumentName = "Ce"
      }
      \relative c { \clef bass \repeat unfold 9 { c1 }}
    >>
  >>
}
\layout {
  indent = 3.0\cm
  short-indent = 1.5\cm
  \context {
    \GrandStaff
    \consists Keep_alive_together_engraver
  }
  \context {
    \Staff
    \RemoveEmptyStaves
  }
}

[image of music]


Los grabadores, uno por uno

Del problema central de la notación, esto es, crear un determinado símbolo, se encargan los «plugins» o complementos añadidos. Cada uno de los complementos se conoce como un grabador. En este ejemplo, los grabadores se van activando uno por uno, en el orden siguiente:

- cabeza de las notas,

- el símbolo del pentagrama,

- clave,

- plicas,

- barras, ligaduras de expresión, acentos,

- alteraciones, líneas divisorias, indicación del compás, y armadura.

Los grabadores se encuentran agrupados. Por ejemplo, las cabezas de nota, ligaduras de expresión, barras de corchea, etc. forman un contexto de voz, Voice. Los grabadores de la armadura, alteraciones, líneas de compás, etc. forman un contexto de pentagrama, Staff.

%% sample music
topVoice = \relative c' {
  \key d \major
  es8([ g] a[ fis])
  b4
  b16[-. b-. b-. cis-.]
  d4->
}

botVoice = \relative c' {
  \key d \major
  c8[( f] b[ a)]
  es4
  es16[-. es-. es-. fis-.]
  b4->
}

hoom = \relative c {
  \key d \major
  \clef bass
  g8-. r
  r4
  fis8-.
  r8
  r4
  b'4->
}

pah = \relative c' {
  r8 b-.
  r4
  r8 g8-.
  r16 g-. r8
  \clef treble
  fis'4->
}

%
% setup for Request->Element conversion. Guru-only
%

MyStaff = \context {
  \type "Engraver_group"
  \name Staff

  \description "Handles clefs, bar lines, keys, accidentals.  It can contain
@code{Voice} contexts."

  \consists "Output_property_engraver"

  \consists "Font_size_engraver"

  \consists "Volta_engraver"
  \consists "Separating_line_group_engraver"
  \consists "Dot_column_engraver"

  \consists "Ottava_spanner_engraver"
  \consists "Rest_collision_engraver"
  \consists "Piano_pedal_engraver"
  \consists "Piano_pedal_align_engraver"
  \consists "Instrument_name_engraver"
  \consists "Grob_pq_engraver"
  \consists "Forbid_line_break_engraver"
  \consists "Axis_group_engraver"

  \consists "Pitch_squash_engraver"

  localAlterations = #'()

  % explicitly set instrumentName, so we don't get
  % weird effects when doing instrument names for
  % piano staves

  instrumentName = #'()
  shortInstrumentName = #'()

  \accepts "Voice"
  \defaultchild "Voice"
}


MyVoice = \context {
  \type "Engraver_group"
  \name Voice

  \description "
    Corresponds to a voice on a staff.  This context handles the
    conversion of dynamic signs, stems, beams, super- and subscripts,
    slurs, ties, and rests.

    You have to instantiate this explicitly if you want to have
    multiple voices on the same staff."

  localAlterations = #'()
  \consists "Font_size_engraver"

  % must come before all
  \consists "Output_property_engraver"
  \consists "Arpeggio_engraver"
  \consists "Multi_measure_rest_engraver"
  \consists "Text_spanner_engraver"
  \consists "Grob_pq_engraver"
  \consists "Note_head_line_engraver"
  \consists "Glissando_engraver"
  \consists "Ligature_bracket_engraver"
  \consists "Breathing_sign_engraver"
  % \consists "Rest_engraver"
  \consists "Grace_beam_engraver"
  \consists "New_fingering_engraver"
  \consists "Chord_tremolo_engraver"
  \consists "Percent_repeat_engraver"
  \consists "Slash_repeat_engraver"

  %{
    Must come before text_engraver, but after note_column engraver.
  %}
  \consists "Text_engraver"
  \consists "Dynamic_engraver"
  \consists "Dynamic_align_engraver"
  \consists "Fingering_engraver"

  \consists "Script_column_engraver"
  \consists "Rhythmic_column_engraver"
  \consists "Cluster_spanner_engraver"
  \consists "Tie_engraver"
  \consists "Tie_engraver"
  \consists "Tuplet_engraver"
  \consists "Note_heads_engraver"
  \consists "Rest_engraver"
}


\score {
  \topVoice
  \layout {
    \context { \MyStaff }
    \context { \MyVoice }
  }
}


MyStaff = \context {
  \MyStaff
  \consists "Staff_symbol_engraver"
}

\score {
  \topVoice
  \layout {
    \context { \MyStaff }
    \context { \MyVoice }
  }
}

MyStaff = \context {
  \MyStaff
  \consists "Clef_engraver"
  \remove "Pitch_squash_engraver"
}

\score {
  \topVoice
  \layout {
    \context { \MyStaff }
    \context { \MyVoice }
  }
}

MyVoice = \context {
  \MyVoice
  \consists "Stem_engraver"
}

\score {
  \topVoice
  \layout {
    \context { \MyStaff }
    \context { \MyVoice }
  }
}

MyVoice = \context {
  \MyVoice
  \consists "Beam_engraver"
}

\score {
  \topVoice
  \layout {
    \context { \MyStaff }
    \context { \MyVoice }
  }
}

MyVoice = \context {
  \MyVoice
  \consists "Phrasing_slur_engraver"
  \consists "Slur_engraver"
  \consists "Script_engraver"
}


\score {
  \topVoice
  \layout {
    \context { \MyStaff }
    \context { \MyVoice }
  }
}

MyStaff = \context {
  \MyStaff
  \consists "Bar_engraver"
  \consists "Time_signature_engraver"
}

\score {
  \topVoice
  \layout {
    \context { \MyStaff }
    \context { \MyVoice }
  }
}

MyStaff = \context {
  \MyStaff
  \consists "Accidental_engraver"
  \consists "Key_engraver"
}
\score {
  \topVoice
  \layout {
    \context { \MyStaff }
    \context { \MyVoice }
  }
}

[image of music]


Disposición Mensurstriche (líneas divisorias entre pentagramas)

La disposición «mensurstriche» en que las líneas divisorias no están dibujadas sobre los pentagramas, sino entre ellos, se puede conseguir con un StaffGroup en vez de un ChoirStaff. La línea divisoria sobre los pentagramas se borra usando \hide.

global = {
  \hide Staff.BarLine
  s1 s
  % the final bar line is not interrupted
  \undo \hide Staff.BarLine
  \bar "|."
}

\new StaffGroup \relative c'' {
  <<
    \new Staff { << \global { c1 c } >> }
    \new Staff { << \global { c c } >> }
  >>
}

[image of music]


Anidado de grupos de pentagramas

Se puede utilizar la propiedad systemStartDelimiterHierarchy para crear grupos de pentagramas anidados de forma más compleja. La instrucción \set StaffGroup.systemStartDelimiterHierarchy toma una lista alfabética del número de pentagramas producidos. Se puede proporcionar antes de cada pentagrama un delimitador de comienzo de sistema. Se debe encerrar entre corchetes y admite tantos pentagramas como encierren las llaves. Se pueden omitir los elementos de la lista, pero el primer corchete siempre abarca todos los pentagramas. Las posibilidades son SystemStartBar, SystemStartBracket, SystemStartBrace y SystemStartSquare.

\new StaffGroup
\relative c'' <<
  \override StaffGroup.SystemStartSquare.collapse-height = #4
  \set StaffGroup.systemStartDelimiterHierarchy
    = #'(SystemStartSquare (SystemStartBrace (SystemStartBracket a
                             (SystemStartSquare b)  ) c ) d)
  \new Staff { c1 }
  \new Staff { c1 }
  \new Staff { c1 }
  \new Staff { c1 }
  \new Staff { c1 }
>>

[image of music]


Numerar grupos de compases

Este fragmento de código muestra el uso del grabador Measure_counter_engraver para numerar grupos de compases sucesivos. Se puede numerar cualquier período de compases tanto si tiene repeticiones como si no.

Se debe añadir el grabador al contexto adecuado. Aquí se usa un contexto Staff; otra posibilidad sería un contexto Dynamics.

El contador se inicia con \startMeasureCount y finaliza con \stopMeasureCount. La numeración comienza con 1, de forma predeterminada, pero se puede modificar este comportamiento sobreescribiendo la propiedad count-from.

Cuando un compás se extiende más allá de un salto de línea, el número aparece dos veces, la segunda vez entre paréntesis.

\layout {
  \context {
    \Staff
    \consists #Measure_counter_engraver
  }
}

\new Staff {
  \startMeasureCount
  \repeat unfold 7 {
    c'4 d' e' f'
  }
  \stopMeasureCount
  \bar "||"
  g'4 f' e' d'
  \override Staff.MeasureCounter.count-from = #2
  \startMeasureCount
  \repeat unfold 5 {
    g'4 f' e' d'
  }
  g'4 f'
  \bar ""
  \break
  e'4 d'
  \repeat unfold 7 {
    g'4 f' e' d'
  }
  \stopMeasureCount
}

[image of music]


Suprimir los números de compás de toda la partitura

Se pueden eliminar completamente los números de compás quitando el grabador Bar_number_engraver del contexto de Score.

\layout {
  \context {
    \Score
    \omit BarNumber
    % or:
    %\remove "Bar_number_engraver"
  }
}

\relative c'' {
  c4 c c c \break
  c4 c c c
}

[image of music]


Uso del corchete recto al comienzo de un grupo de pentagramas

Se puede usar el delimitador de comienzo de un sistema SystemStartSquare estableciéndolo explícitamente dentro de un contexto StaffGroup o ChoirStaffGroup.

\score {
  \new StaffGroup { <<
  \set StaffGroup.systemStartDelimiter = #'SystemStartSquare
    \new Staff { c'4 d' e' f' }
    \new Staff { c'4 d' e' f' }
  >> }
}

[image of music]


Using marklines in a Frenched score

Using MarkLine contexts (such as in LSR1010) in a Frenched score can be problematic if all the staves between two MarkLines are removed in one system. The Keep_alive_together_engraver can be used within each StaffGroup to keep the MarkLine alive only as long as the other staves in the group stay alive.

bars = {
  \tempo "Allegro" 4=120
  s1*2
  \repeat unfold 5 { \mark \default s1*2 }
  \bar "||"
  \tempo "Adagio" 4=40
  s1*2
  \repeat unfold 8 { \mark \default s1*2 }
  \bar "|."
}
winds = \repeat unfold 120 { c''4 }
trumpet = { \repeat unfold 8 g'2 R1*16 \repeat unfold 4 g'2 R1*8 }
trombone = { \repeat unfold 4 c'1 R1*8 d'1 R1*17 }
strings = \repeat unfold 240 { c''8 }

#(set-global-staff-size 16)
\paper {
  systems-per-page = 5
  ragged-last-bottom = ##f
}

\layout {
  indent = 15\mm
  short-indent = 5\mm
  \context {
    \name MarkLine
    \type Engraver_group
    \consists Output_property_engraver
    \consists Axis_group_engraver
    \consists Mark_engraver
    \consists Metronome_mark_engraver
    \override VerticalAxisGroup.remove-empty = ##t
    \override VerticalAxisGroup.remove-layer = #'any
    \override VerticalAxisGroup.staff-affinity = #DOWN
    \override VerticalAxisGroup.nonstaff-relatedstaff-spacing.basic-distance = 1
    keepAliveInterfaces = #'()
  }
  \context {
    \Staff
    \override VerticalAxisGroup.remove-empty = ##t
    \override VerticalAxisGroup.remove-layer = ##f
  }
  \context {
    \StaffGroup
    \accepts MarkLine
    \consists Keep_alive_together_engraver
  }
  \context {
    \Score
    \remove Mark_engraver
    \remove Metronome_mark_engraver
  }
}

\score {
  <<
    \new StaffGroup = "winds" \with {
      instrumentName = "Winds"
      shortInstrumentName = "Winds"
    } <<
      \new MarkLine \bars
      \new Staff \winds
    >>
    \new StaffGroup = "brass" <<
      \new MarkLine \bars
      \new Staff = "trumpet" \with {
        instrumentName = "Trumpet"
        shortInstrumentName = "Tpt"
      } \trumpet
      \new Staff = "trombone" \with {
        instrumentName = "Trombone"
        shortInstrumentName = "Tbn"
      } \trombone
    >>
    \new StaffGroup = "strings" \with {
      instrumentName = "Strings"
      shortInstrumentName = "Strings"
    } <<
      \new MarkLine \bars
      \new Staff = "strings" { \strings }
    >>
  >>
}

[image of music]


Plantilla para conjunto vocal con letras alineadas encima y debajo de los pentagramas

Esta plantilla es, básicamente, la misma que la sencilla plantilla “Conjunto vocal”, excepto que aquí todas las líneas de letra se colocan utilizando alignAboveContext y alignBelowContext.

global = {
  \key c \major
  \time 4/4
}

sopMusic = \relative c'' {
  c4 c c8[( b)] c4
}
sopWords = \lyricmode {
  hi hi hi hi
}

altoMusic = \relative c' {
  e4 f d e
}
altoWords = \lyricmode {
  ha ha ha ha
}

tenorMusic = \relative c' {
  g4 a f g
}
tenorWords = \lyricmode {
  hu hu hu hu
}

bassMusic = \relative c {
  c4 c g c
}
bassWords = \lyricmode {
  ho ho ho ho
}

\score {
  \new ChoirStaff <<
    \new Staff = "women" <<
      \new Voice = "sopranos" { \voiceOne << \global \sopMusic >> }
      \new Voice = "altos" { \voiceTwo << \global \altoMusic >> }
    >>
    \new Lyrics \with { alignAboveContext = #"women" }
      \lyricsto "sopranos" \sopWords
    \new Lyrics \with { alignBelowContext = #"women" }
      \lyricsto "altos" \altoWords
    % we could remove the line about this with the line below, since
    % we want the alto lyrics to be below the alto Voice anyway.
    % \new Lyrics \lyricsto "altos" \altoWords

    \new Staff = "men" <<
      \clef bass
      \new Voice = "tenors" { \voiceOne << \global \tenorMusic >> }
      \new Voice = "basses" { \voiceTwo << \global \bassMusic >> }
    >>
    \new Lyrics \with { alignAboveContext = #"men" }
      \lyricsto "tenors" \tenorWords
    \new Lyrics \with { alignBelowContext = #"men" }
      \lyricsto "basses" \bassWords
    % again, we could replace the line above this with the line below.
    % \new Lyrics \lyricsto "basses" \bassWords
  >>
}

[image of music]


Estrofa para solista y estribillo a dos voces

Esta plantilla crea una partitura que comienza con una estrofa para solista y continúa con un estribillo a dos voces. también muestra el uso de silencios de separación dentro de la variable \global para definir cambios de compás (y otros elementos que son comunes a todas las partes) a lo largo de toda la partitura.

global = {
  \key g \major

  % verse
  \time 3/4
  s2.*2
  \break

  % refrain
  \time 2/4
  s2*2
  \bar "|."
}

SoloNotes = \relative g' {
  \clef "treble"

  % verse
  g4 g g |
  b4 b b |

  % refrain
  R2*2 |
}

SoloLyrics = \lyricmode {
  One two three |
  four five six |
}

SopranoNotes = \relative c'' {
  \clef "treble"

  % verse
  R2.*2 |

  % refrain
  c4 c |
  g4 g |
}

SopranoLyrics = \lyricmode {
  la la |
  la la |
}

BassNotes = \relative c {
  \clef "bass"

  % verse
  R2.*2 |

  % refrain
  c4 e |
  d4 d |
}

BassLyrics = \lyricmode {
  dum dum |
  dum dum |
}

\score {
  <<
    \new Voice = "SoloVoice" << \global \SoloNotes >>
    \new Lyrics \lyricsto "SoloVoice" \SoloLyrics

    \new ChoirStaff <<
      \new Voice = "SopranoVoice" << \global \SopranoNotes >>
      \new Lyrics \lyricsto "SopranoVoice" \SopranoLyrics

      \new Voice = "BassVoice" << \global \BassNotes >>
      \new Lyrics \lyricsto "BassVoice" \BassLyrics
    >>
  >>
  \layout {
    ragged-right = ##t
    \context { \Staff
      % these lines prevent empty staves from being printed
      \RemoveEmptyStaves
      \override VerticalAxisGroup.remove-first = ##t
    }
  }
}

[image of music]


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