Chords

Chord notation


Adding a figured bass above or below the notes

When writing a figured bass, you can place the figures above or below the bass notes, by defining the BassFigureAlignmentPositioning.direction property (exclusively in a Staff context). Choices are #UP (or #1), #CENTER (or #0) and #DOWN (or #-1).

This property can be changed as many times as you wish. Use \once \override if you don’t want the override to apply to the whole score.

bass = {
  \clef bass
  g4 b, c d
  e d8 c d2
}

continuo = \figuremode {
  <_>4 <6>4 <5/>4
  \override Staff.BassFigureAlignmentPositioning.direction = #UP
  %\bassFigureStaffAlignmentUp
  < _+ >4 <6>
  \set Staff.useBassFigureExtenders = ##t
  \override Staff.BassFigureAlignmentPositioning.direction = #DOWN
  %\bassFigureStaffAlignmentDown
  <4>4. <4>8 <_+>4
}

\score {
  <<
    \new Staff = bassStaff \bass
    \context Staff = bassStaff \continuo
  >>
}

[image of music]


Adding bar lines to ChordNames context

To add bar line indications in the ChordNames context, add the Bar_engraver.

\new ChordNames \with {
  \override BarLine.bar-extent = #'(-2 . 2)
  \consists "Bar_engraver"
}

\chordmode {
  f1:maj7 f:7 bes:7
}

[image of music]


Bar chords notation for Guitar (with Text Spanner)

Here is how to print bar chords (or barre chords) or half-bar chords (just uncomment the appropriate line for to select either one).

The syntax is : \bbarre #"fret_number" note(s)

%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%% %%%%%%%  Cut here ----- Start 'bbarred.ly'

%% C with slash -------------------------------
cWithSlash = \markup {
  \combine \roman C \translate #'(0.6 . -0.4) \draw-line #'(0 . 2.0)
}
%% Span -----------------------------------
%% Syntax: \bbarre #"text" { notes } - text = any number of box
bbarre =
#(define-music-function (barre location str music) (string? ly:music?)
   (let ((elts (extract-named-music music '(NoteEvent EventChord))))
     (if (pair? elts)
         (let ((first-element (first elts))
               (last-element (last elts)))
           (set! (ly:music-property first-element 'articulations)
                 (cons (make-music 'TextSpanEvent 'span-direction -1)
                       (ly:music-property first-element 'articulations)))
           (set! (ly:music-property last-element 'articulations)
                 (cons (make-music 'TextSpanEvent 'span-direction 1)
                       (ly:music-property last-element 'articulations))))))
   #{
       \once \override TextSpanner.font-size = #-2
       \once \override TextSpanner.font-shape = #'upright
       \once \override TextSpanner.staff-padding = #3
       \once \override TextSpanner.style = #'line
       \once \override TextSpanner.to-barline = ##f
       \once \override TextSpanner.bound-details =
            #`((left
                (text . ,#{ \markup { \draw-line #'( 0 . -.5) } #})
                (Y . 0)
                (padding . 0.25)
                (attach-dir . -2))
               (right
                (text . ,#{ \markup { \cWithSlash #str } #})
                (Y . 0)
                (padding . 0.25)
                (attach-dir . 2)))
%% uncomment this line for make full barred
      % \once \override TextSpanner.bound-details.left.text = \markup{"B" #str}
      $music
   #})

%% %%%%%%%  Cut here ----- End 'bbarred.ly'
%% Copy and change the last line for full barred. Rename in 'fbarred.ly'
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

%% Syntaxe: \bbarre #"text" { notes } - text = any number of box
\relative c'{ \clef "G_8" \stemUp \bbarre #"III" { <f a'>16[  c' d c d8] } }

[image of music]


Changing chord separator

The separator between different parts of a chord name can be set to any markup.

\chords {
  c:7sus4
  \set chordNameSeparator
    = \markup { \typewriter | }
  c:7sus4
}

[image of music]


Changing the chord names to German or semi-German notation

The english naming of chords (default) can be changed to german (\germanChords replaces B and Bes with H and B) or semi-german (\semiGermanChords replaces B and Bes with H and Bb).

scm = \chordmode {
  c1/c | cis/cis
  b1/b | bis/bis | bes/bes
}


\layout {
  ragged-right = ##t
  \context {
    \ChordNames
    \consists "Instrument_name_engraver"
  }
}

<<
  \new ChordNames {
    \set instrumentName = #"default"
    \scm
  }
  \new ChordNames {
    \set instrumentName = #"german"
    \germanChords \scm
  }
  \new ChordNames {
    \set instrumentName = #"semi-german"
    \semiGermanChords \scm
  }
  \new ChordNames {
    \set instrumentName = #"italian"
    \italianChords \scm
  }
  \new ChordNames {
    \set instrumentName = #"french"
    \frenchChords \scm
  }
  \context Voice { \scm }
>>

[image of music]


Changing the positions of figured bass alterations

Accidentals and plus signs can appear before or after the numbers, depending on the figuredBassAlterationDirection and figuredBassPlusDirection properties.

\figures {
  <6\+> <5+> <6 4-> r
  \set figuredBassAlterationDirection = #RIGHT
  <6\+> <5+> <6 4-> r
  \set figuredBassPlusDirection = #RIGHT
  <6\+> <5+> <6 4-> r
  \set figuredBassAlterationDirection = #LEFT
  <6\+> <5+> <6 4-> r
}

[image of music]


Chord name exceptions

The property chordNameExceptions can be used to store a list of special notations for specific chords.

% modify maj9 and 6(add9)
% Exception music is chords with markups
chExceptionMusic = {
  <c e g b d'>1-\markup { \super "maj9" }
  <c e g a d'>1-\markup { \super "6(add9)" }
}

% Convert music to list and prepend to existing exceptions.
chExceptions = #(append
  (sequential-music-to-chord-exceptions chExceptionMusic #t)
  ignatzekExceptions)

theMusic = \chordmode {
  g1:maj9 g1:6.9
  \set chordNameExceptions = #chExceptions
  g1:maj9 g1:6.9
}

\layout {
  ragged-right = ##t
}

<<
   \new ChordNames \theMusic
   \new Voice \theMusic
>>

[image of music]


chord name major7

The layout of the major 7 can be tuned with majorSevenSymbol.

\chords {
  c:7+
  \set majorSevenSymbol = \markup { j7 }
  c:7+
}

[image of music]


Chord names alternative

Chord names are generated from a list of pitches. The functions which construct these names can be customised.

Here are shown chords following Ignatzek (pp. 17-18, 1995), used by default since LilyPond 1.7.20, compared with an alternative Jazz chord notation and Harald Banter’s (1987) notation. A smaller font is used in the latter case, as these tend to be overly verbose.

This mirrors the mechanism originally used in early LilyPond versions (pre-1.7); not having been properly maintained, however, some features have been lost (mainly chord exception lists) and bugs have been introduced.

%%%% Legacy chord naming functions (formerly in scm/chord-generic-names.scm)
%%%% Copyright (C) 2003--2015 Jan Nieuwenhuizen <janneke@gnu.org>

#(set-global-staff-size 19.7)

#(define-public (banter-chordnames pitches bass inversion context)
  (old_chord->markup 'banter pitches bass inversion context))

#(define-public (jazz-chordnames pitches bass inversion context)
  (old_chord->markup 'jazz pitches bass inversion context))

#(define (define-translator-property symbol type? description)
  (if (not (and (symbol? symbol)
    (procedure? type?)
    (string? description)))
      (ly:error "error in call of define-translator-property"))
  (if (not (equal? (object-property symbol 'translation-doc) #f))
      (ly:error (_ "symbol ~S redefined") symbol))

  (set-object-property! symbol 'translation-type? type?)
  (set-object-property! symbol 'translation-doc description)
  symbol)

#(for-each
  (lambda (x)
    (apply define-translator-property x))
  `((chordNameExceptionsFull ,list? "An alist of full chord
exceptions.  Contains @code{(@var{chord} . @var{markup})} entries.")
    (chordNameExceptionsPartial ,list? "An alist of partial chord
exceptions.  Contains @code{(@var{chord} . (@var{prefix-markup}
@var{suffix-markup}))} entries.")))

#(define-public (old_chord->markup
                style pitches bass inversion context)
  "Entry point for @code{Chord_name_engraver}.
@var{pitches}, @var{bass}, and @var{inversion} are lily pitches."
  (define (default-note-namer pitch)
    (note-name->markup pitch #f))

  (define (markup-or-empty-markup markup)
    "Return MARKUP if markup, else empty-markup"
    (if (markup? markup) markup empty-markup))

  (define (accidental->markup alteration)
    "Return accidental markup for ALTERATION."
    (if (= alteration 0)
        (make-line-markup (list empty-markup))
        (conditional-kern-before
         (alteration->text-accidental-markup alteration)
         (= alteration FLAT) 0.094725)))

  (define (list-minus a b)
    "Return list of elements in A that are not in B."
    (lset-difference eq? a b))

  (define (markup-join markups sep)
    "Return line-markup of MARKUPS, joining them with markup SEP"
    (if (pair? markups)
        (make-line-markup (list-insert-separator markups sep))
        empty-markup))

  (define (conditional-kern-before markup bool amount)
    "Add AMOUNT of space before MARKUP if BOOL is true."
    (if bool
        (make-line-markup
         (list (make-hspace-markup amount)
           markup))
        markup))

  (define (step-nr pitch)
    (let* ((pitch-nr (+ (* 7 (ly:pitch-octave pitch))
                        (ly:pitch-notename pitch)))
           (root-nr (+ (* 7 (ly:pitch-octave (car pitches)))
                       (ly:pitch-notename (car pitches)))))
      (+ 1 (- pitch-nr root-nr))))

  (define (next-third pitch)
    (ly:pitch-transpose pitch
                        (ly:make-pitch 0 2 (if (or (= (step-nr pitch) 3)
                                                   (= (step-nr pitch) 5))
                                               FLAT 0))))

  (define (step-alteration pitch)
    (let* ((diff (ly:pitch-diff (ly:make-pitch 0 0 0) (car pitches)))
           (normalized-pitch (ly:pitch-transpose pitch diff))
           (alteration (ly:pitch-alteration normalized-pitch)))
      (if (= (step-nr pitch) 7) (+ alteration SEMI-TONE) alteration)))

  (define (pitch-unalter pitch)
    (let ((alteration (step-alteration pitch)))
      (if (= alteration 0)
          pitch
          (ly:make-pitch (ly:pitch-octave pitch) (ly:pitch-notename pitch)
                         (- (ly:pitch-alteration pitch) alteration)))))

  (define (step-even-or-altered? pitch)
    (let ((nr (step-nr pitch)))
      (if (!= (modulo nr 2) 0)
          (!= (step-alteration pitch) 0)
          #t)))

  (define (step->markup-plusminus pitch)
    (let ((alt (step-alteration pitch)))
      (make-line-markup
       (list
        (number->string (step-nr pitch))
        (cond
         ((= alt DOUBLE-FLAT) "--")
         ((= alt FLAT) "-")
         ((= alt NATURAL) "")
         ((= alt SHARP) "+")
         ((= alt DOUBLE-SHARP) "++"))))))

  (define (step->markup-accidental pitch)
    (make-line-markup
     (list (accidental->markup (step-alteration pitch))
           (make-simple-markup (number->string (step-nr pitch))))))

  (define (step->markup-ignatzek pitch)
    (make-line-markup
     (if (and (= (step-nr pitch) 7)
              (= (step-alteration pitch) 1))
         (list (ly:context-property context 'majorSevenSymbol))
         (list (accidental->markup (step-alteration pitch))
               (make-simple-markup (number->string (step-nr pitch)))))))

  ;; tja, kennok
  (define (make-sub->markup step->markup)
    (lambda (pitch)
      (make-line-markup (list (make-simple-markup "no")
                              (step->markup pitch)))))

  (define (step-based-sub->markup step->markup pitch)
    (make-line-markup (list (make-simple-markup "no") (step->markup pitch))))

  (define (get-full-list pitch)
    (if (<= (step-nr pitch) (step-nr (last pitches)))
        (cons pitch (get-full-list (next-third pitch)))
        '()))

  (define (get-consecutive nr pitches)
    (if (pair? pitches)
        (let* ((pitch-nr (step-nr (car pitches)))
               (next-nr (if (!= (modulo pitch-nr 2) 0) (+ pitch-nr 2) nr)))
          (if (<= pitch-nr nr)
              (cons (car pitches) (get-consecutive next-nr (cdr pitches)))
              '()))
        '()))

  ;;; FIXME -- exceptions no longer work. -vv

  (define (full-match exceptions)
    (if (pair? exceptions)
        (let* ((e (car exceptions))
               (e-pitches (car e)))
          (if (equal? e-pitches pitches)
              e
              (full-match (cdr exceptions))))
        #f))

  (define (partial-match exceptions)
    (if (pair? exceptions)
        (let* ((e (car exceptions))
               (e-pitches (car e)))
          (if (equal? e-pitches (take pitches (length e-pitches)))
              e
              (partial-match (cdr exceptions))))
        #f))

  ;; FIXME: exceptions don’t work anyway.
  (if #f (begin
           (write-me "pitches: " pitches)))
  (let* ((full-exceptions
          (ly:context-property context 'chordNameExceptionsFull))
         (full-exception (full-match full-exceptions))
         (full-markup (if full-exception (cadr full-exception) '()))
         (partial-exceptions
          (ly:context-property context 'chordNameExceptionsPartial))
         (partial-exception (partial-match partial-exceptions))
         (partial-pitches (if partial-exception (car partial-exception) '()))
         (partial-markup-prefix
          (if partial-exception (markup-or-empty-markup
                                 (cadr partial-exception)) empty-markup))
         (partial-markup-suffix
          (if (and partial-exception (pair? (cddr partial-exception)))
              (markup-or-empty-markup (caddr partial-exception)) empty-markup))
         (root (car pitches))
         (full (get-full-list root))
         ;; kludge alert: replace partial matched lower part of all with
         ;; 'normal' pitches from full
         ;; (all pitches)
         (all (append (take full (length partial-pitches))
                      (drop pitches (length partial-pitches))))

         (highest (last all))
         (missing (list-minus full (map pitch-unalter all)))
         (consecutive (get-consecutive 1 all))
         (rest (list-minus all consecutive))
         (altered (filter step-even-or-altered? all))
         (cons-alt (filter step-even-or-altered? consecutive))
         (base (list-minus consecutive altered)))


    (if #f (begin
             (write-me "full:" full)
             ;; (write-me "partial-pitches:" partial-pitches)
             (write-me "full-markup:" full-markup)
             (write-me "partial-markup-perfix:" partial-markup-prefix)
             (write-me "partial-markup-suffix:" partial-markup-suffix)
             (write-me "all:" all)
             (write-me "altered:" altered)
             (write-me "missing:" missing)
             (write-me "consecutive:" consecutive)
             (write-me "rest:" rest)
             (write-me "base:" base)))

    (case style
      ((banter)
       ;;    root
       ;;    + steps:altered + (highest all -- if not altered)
       ;;    + subs:missing

       (let* ((root->markup default-note-namer)
              (step->markup step->markup-plusminus)
              (sub->markup (lambda (x)
                              (step-based-sub->markup step->markup x)))
              (sep (make-simple-markup "/")))

         (if
          (pair? full-markup)
          (make-line-markup (list (root->markup root) full-markup))

          (make-line-markup
           (list
            (root->markup root)
            partial-markup-prefix
            (make-super-markup
             (markup-join
              (append
               (map step->markup
                    (append altered
                            (if (and (> (step-nr highest) 5)
                                     (not
                                      (step-even-or-altered? highest)))
                                (list highest) '())))
               (list partial-markup-suffix)
               (map sub->markup missing))
              sep)))))))


      ((jazz)
       ;;    root
       ;;    + steps:(highest base) + cons-alt
       ;;    + 'add'
       ;;    + steps:rest
       (let* ((root->markup default-note-namer)
              (step->markup step->markup-ignatzek)
              (sep (make-simple-markup " "))
              (add-prefix (make-simple-markup " add")))

         (if
          (pair? full-markup)
          (make-line-markup (list (root->markup root) full-markup))

          (make-line-markup
           (list
            (root->markup root)
            partial-markup-prefix
            (make-super-markup
             (make-line-markup
              (list

               ;; kludge alert: omit <= 5
               ;;(markup-join (map step->markup
               ;;                        (cons (last base) cons-alt)) sep)

               ;; This fixes:
               ;;  c     C5       -> C
               ;;  c:2   C5 2     -> C2
               ;;  c:3-  Cm5      -> Cm
               ;;  c:6.9 C5 6add9 -> C6 add 9 (add?)
               ;;  ch = \chords { c c:2 c:3- c:6.9^7 }
               (markup-join (map step->markup
                                 (let ((tb (last base)))
                                   (if (> (step-nr tb) 5)
                                       (cons tb cons-alt)
                                       cons-alt))) sep)

               (if (pair? rest)
                   add-prefix
                   empty-markup)
               (markup-join (map step->markup rest) sep)
               partial-markup-suffix))))))))

      (else empty-markup))))


%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%%%%
%%%% Here begins the actual snippet:

chs = \transpose c' c' {
  <c e g>1
  <c es g>  % m = minor triad
  <c e gis>
  <c es ges> \break
  <c e g bes>
  <c es g bes>
  <c e g b>  % triangle = maj
  <c es ges beses>
  <c es ges b> \break
  <c e gis bes>
  <c es g b>
  <c e gis b>
  <c es ges bes> \break
  <c e g a>  % 6 = major triad with added sixth
  <c es g a>  % m6 = minor triad with added sixth
  <c e g bes d'>
  <c es g bes d'> \break
  <c es g bes d' f' a' >
  <c es g bes d' f' >
  <c es ges bes d' >
  <c e g bes des' > \break
  <c e g bes dis'>
  <c e g bes d' f'>
  <c e g bes d' fis'>
  <c e g bes d' f' a'> \break
  <c e g bes d' fis' as'>
  <c e gis bes dis'>
  <c e g bes dis' fis'>
  <c e g bes d' f' as'> \break
  <c e g bes des' f' as'>
  <c e g bes d' fis'>
  <c e g b d'>
  <c e g bes d' f' as'> \break
  <c e g bes des' f' as'>
  <c e g bes des' f' a'>
  <c e g b d'>
  <c e g b d' f' a'> \break
  <c e g b d' fis'>
  <c e g bes des' f ' a'>
  <c f g>
  <c f g bes> \break
  <c f g bes d'>
  <c e g d'>  % add9
  <c es g f'>
  <c e g b fis'>  % Lydian
  <c e g bes des' ees' fis' aes'>  % altered chord
}


%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
% alternate Jazz notation

efullmusicJazzAlt = {
  <c e gis>1-\markup { "+" }
  <c e g b>-\markup {
    \normal-size-super
    % \override #'(font-family . math) "N"
    \override #'(font-family . math) "M"
  }
  %%c:3.5.7 = \markup { \override #'(font-family . math) "M" }
  %%c:3.5.7 = \markup { \normal-size-super "maj7" }

  <c es ges>-\markup { \super "o" }  % should be $\circ$ ?
  <c es ges bes>-\markup { \super \combine "o" "/" }
  <c es ges beses>-\markup { \super  "o7" }
}

efullJazzAlt = #(sequential-music-to-chord-exceptions efullmusicJazzAlt #f)

epartialmusicJazzAlt = {
  <c d>1-\markup { \normal-size-super "2" }
  <c es>-\markup { "m" }
  <c f>-\markup { \normal-size-super "sus4" }
  <c g>-\markup { \normal-size-super "5" }
  %% TODO, partial exceptions
  <c es f>-\markup { "m" }-\markup { \normal-size-super "sus4" }
  <c d es>-\markup { "m" }-\markup { \normal-size-super "sus2" }
}

epartialJazzAlt = #(sequential-music-to-chord-exceptions epartialmusicJazzAlt #f)

%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

\score {
  <<
    \new ChordNames {
      %% Already set by default:
      %\set chordNameFunction = #ignatzek-chord-names
      \set instrumentName = "Ignatzek"
      \set shortInstrumentName = "Def"
      \chs
    }

    \new ChordNames {
      \set chordNameFunction = #jazz-chordnames
      \set majorSevenSymbol = \whiteTriangleMarkup
      \set chordNameSeparator = "/"
      \set chordNameExceptionsFull = \efullJazzAlt
      \set chordNameExceptionsPartial = \epartialJazzAlt
      \set instrumentName = "Alternative"
      \set shortInstrumentName = "Alt"
      \chs
    }

    %% This is the Banter (1987) style.  It gives exceedingly
    %% verbose (wide) names, making the output file take up to 4 pages.

    \new ChordNames {
      \set chordNameFunction = #banter-chordnames
      \override ChordName.font-size = #-3
      \set instrumentName = "Banter"
      \set shortInstrumentName = "Ban"
      \chs
    }

  \new Staff \transpose c c' { \chs }
  >>
  \layout {
    #(layout-set-staff-size 16)
    system-system-spacing.basic-distance = #0
    \context {
      \ChordNames
      \consists "Instrument_name_engraver"
    }
    \context {
      \Score
      \remove "Bar_number_engraver"
    }
  }
}

[image of music]


Chords with stretched fingering for FretBoards and TabVoice

Sometimes chords with a stretched fingering are required. If not otherwise specified the context-property maximumFretStretch is set to 4, though. Resulting in a warning about "No string for pitch ..." and the note is omitted. You may set maximumFretStretch to an approppriate value or explecitely assign string-numbers to all notes of a chord.

%% The code below will print two warnings, which may be omitted by uncommenting:
%#(for-each (lambda (x) (ly:expect-warning "No string for pitch")) (iota 2))

mus = {
  <c' bes'>
  <c'\2 bes'>
  \set maximumFretStretch = 5
  <c' bes'>
  <c'\2 bes'\1>
}

<<
  \new FretBoards \mus
  \new TabVoice \mus
>>

[image of music]


Clusters

Clusters are a device to denote that a complete range of notes is to be played.

fragment = \relative c' {
  c4 f <e d'>4
  <g a>8 <e a> a4 c2 <d b>4
  e2 c
}

<<
  \new Staff \fragment
  \new Staff \makeClusters \fragment
>>

[image of music]


Controlling the placement of chord fingerings

The placement of fingering numbers can be controlled precisely. For fingering orientation to apply, it must be used within a chord construct <>, even for single notes. Orientation for string numbers and right-hand fingerings may be set in a similar way.

\relative c' {
  \set fingeringOrientations = #'(left)
  <c-1 e-3 a-5>4
  \set fingeringOrientations = #'(down)
  <c-1 e-3 a-5>4
  \set fingeringOrientations = #'(down right up)
  <c-1 e-3 a-5>4
  \set fingeringOrientations = #'(up)
  <c-1 e-3 a-5>4
  \set fingeringOrientations = #'(left)
  <c-1>2
  \set fingeringOrientations = #'(down)
  <e-3>2
  \set stringNumberOrientations = #'(up left down)
  <f\3 a\2 c\1>1
  \set strokeFingerOrientations = #'(down right up)
  <c\rightHandFinger #1 e\rightHandFinger #2 c'\rightHandFinger #4 >
}

[image of music]


Cross-staff chords - beaming problems workaround

Sometimes it is better to use stems from the upper staff for creating cross-staff chords, because no problems with automatic beam collision avoidance then arise. If the stems from the lower staff were used in the following example, it would be necessary to change the automatic beam collision avoidance settings so that it doesn’t detect collisions between staves using \override Staff.Beam.collision-voice-only = ##t

\new PianoStaff <<
  \new Staff = up
    \relative c' {
      <<
        { r4
          \override Stem.cross-staff = ##t
          \override Stem.length = #19 % this is in half-spaces,
              % so it makes stems 9.5 staffspaces long
          \override Stem.Y-offset = #-6 % stems are normally lengthened
              % upwards, so here we must lower the stem by the amount
              % equal to the lengthening - in this case (19 - 7) / 2
              % (7 is default stem length)
          e e e }
        { s4
          \change Staff = "bottom"
          \override NoteColumn.ignore-collision = ##t
          c, c c
        }
      >>
    }
  \new Staff = bottom
    \relative c' {
      \clef bass
      \voiceOne
      g8 a g a g a g a
    }
>>

[image of music]


Displaying complex chords

Here is a way to display a chord where the same note is played twice with different accidentals.

fixA = {
  \once \override Stem.length = #11
}

fixB = {
  \once \override NoteHead.X-offset = #1.7
  \once \override Stem.length = #7
  \once \override Stem.rotation = #'(45 0 0)
  \once \override Stem.extra-offset = #'(-0.1 . -0.2)
  \once \override Flag.style = #'no-flag
  \once \override Accidental.extra-offset = #'(4 . -.1)
}


\relative c' {
  << { \fixA <b d!>8 } \\ { \voiceThree \fixB dis } >> s
}

[image of music]


Manually break figured bass extenders for only some numbers

Figured bass often uses extenders to indicate continuation of the corresponding step. However, in this case lilypond is in greedy-mode and uses extenders whenever possible. To break individual extenders, one can simply use a modifier \! to a number, which breaks any extender attributed to that number right before the number.

bassfigures = \figuremode {
  \set useBassFigureExtenders = ##t
  <6 4>4 <6 4\!> <6 4\!> <6 4\!> |  <6\! 4\!>  <6 4> <6 4\!> <6 4>
}

<<
  \new Staff \relative c'' { c1 c1 }
  \new FiguredBass \bassfigures
>>

[image of music]


Showing chords at changes

By default, every chord entered is printed; this behavior can be modified so that chord names are printed only at the start of lines and when the chord changes.

harmonies = \chordmode {
  c1:m c:m \break c:m c:m d
}

<<
  \new ChordNames {
    \set chordChanges = ##t
    \harmonies
  }
  \new Staff {
    \relative c' { \harmonies }
  }
>>

[image of music]


Simple lead sheet

When put together, chord names, a melody, and lyrics form a lead sheet:

<<
  \chords { c2 g:sus4 f e }
  \new Staff \relative c'' {
    a4 e c8 e r4
    b2 c4( d)
  }
  \addlyrics { One day this shall be free __ }
>>

[image of music]


Single staff template with notes, lyrics, and chords

This template allows the preparation of a song with melody, words, and chords.

melody = \relative c' {
  \clef treble
  \key c \major
  \time 4/4

  a4 b c d
}

text = \lyricmode {
  Aaa Bee Cee Dee
}

harmonies = \chordmode {
  a2 c
}

\score {
  <<
    \new ChordNames {
      \set chordChanges = ##t
      \harmonies
    }
    \new Voice = "one" { \autoBeamOff \melody }
    \new Lyrics \lyricsto "one" \text
  >>
  \layout { }
  \midi { }
}

[image of music]


Single staff template with notes, lyrics, chords and frets

Here is a simple lead sheet template with melody, lyrics, chords and fret diagrams.

verseI = \lyricmode {
  \set stanza = #"1."
  This is the first verse
}

verseII = \lyricmode {
  \set stanza = #"2."
  This is the second verse.
}

theChords = \chordmode {
  % insert chords for chordnames and fretboards here
  c2 g4 c
}

staffMelody = \relative c' {
   \key c \major
   \clef treble
   % Type notes for melody here
   c4 d8 e f4 g
   \bar "|."
}

\score {
  <<
    \context ChordNames { \theChords }
    \context FretBoards { \theChords }
    \new Staff {
      \context Voice = "voiceMelody" { \staffMelody }
    }
    \new Lyrics = "lyricsI" {
      \lyricsto "voiceMelody" \verseI
    }
    \new Lyrics = "lyricsII" {
      \lyricsto "voiceMelody" \verseII
    }
  >>
  \layout { }
  \midi { }
}

[image of music]


Single staff template with notes and chords

Want to prepare a lead sheet with a melody and chords? Look no further!

melody = \relative c' {
  \clef treble
  \key c \major
  \time 4/4

  f4 e8[ c] d4 g
  a2 ~ a
}

harmonies = \chordmode {
  c4:m f:min7 g:maj c:aug
  d2:dim b4:5 e:sus
}

\score {
  <<
    \new ChordNames {
      \set chordChanges = ##t
      \harmonies
    }
    \new Staff \melody
  >>
  \layout{ }
  \midi { }
}

[image of music]


Vertically centering paired figured bass extenders

Where figured bass extender lines are being used by setting useBassFigureExtenders to true, pairs of congruent figured bass extender lines are vertically centered if figuredBassCenterContinuations is set to true.

<<
  \relative c' {
    c8 c b b a a c16 c b b
    c8 c b b a a c16 c b b
    c8 c b b a a c c b b
  }
  \figures {
    \set useBassFigureExtenders = ##t
    <6+ 4 3>4 <6 4 3>8 r
    <6+ 4 3>4 <6 4 3>8 <4 3+>16 r
    \set figuredBassCenterContinuations = ##t
    <6+ 4 3>4 <6 4 3>8 r
    <6+ 4 3>4 <6 4 3>8 <4 3+>16 r
    \set figuredBassCenterContinuations = ##f
    <6+ 4 3>4 <6 4 3>8 r
    <6+ 4 3>4 <6 4 3>8 <4 3+>8
  }
>>

[image of music]


Volta below chords

By adding the Volta_engraver to the relevant staff, volte can be put under chords.

\score {
  <<
    \chords {
      c1
      c1
    }
    \new Staff \with {
      \consists "Volta_engraver"
    }
    {
      \repeat volta 2 { c'1 }
      \alternative { c' }
    }
  >>
  \layout {
    \context {
      \Score
      \remove "Volta_engraver"
    }
  }
}

[image of music]


LilyPond — Snippets v2.21.82 (development-branch).