World music

World music


Arabic improvisation

For improvisations or taqasim which are temporarily free, the time signature can be omitted and \cadenzaOn can be used. Adjusting the accidental style might be required, since the absence of bar lines will cause the accidental to be marked only once. Here is an example of what could be the start of a hijaz improvisation:

 
\include "arabic.ly"

\relative sol' {
  \key re \kurd
  \accidentalStyle forget
  \cadenzaOn
  sol4 sol sol sol fad mib sol1 fad8 mib re4. r8 mib1 fad sol
}

[image of music]


Makam example

Makam is a type of melody from Turkey using 1/9th-tone microtonal alterations. Consult the initialization file ‘ly/makam.ly’ for details of pitch names and alterations.

 
% Initialize makam settings
\include "makam.ly"

\relative c' {
  \set Staff.keyAlterations = #`((6 . ,(- KOMA)) (3 . ,BAKIYE))
  c4 cc db fk
  gbm4 gfc gfb efk
  fk4 db cc c
}

[image of music]


Non-traditional key signatures

The commonly used \key command sets the keyAlterations property in the Staff context. To create non-standard key signatures, set this property directly.

The format of this command is a list:

\set Staff.keyAlterations = #`(((octave . step) . alter) ((octave . step) . alter) ...)

where, for each element in the list octave specifies the octave (0 being the octave from middle c to the b above), step specifies the note within the octave (0 means c and 6 means b), and alter is ,SHARP ,FLAT ,DOUBLE-SHARP etc.

Alternatively, using the more concise format for each item in the list, (step . alter) specifies the same alteration holds in all octaves. For microtonal scales where a “sharp” is not 100 cents, alter refers to the proportion of a 200-cent whole tone.

 
\include "arabic.ly"
\relative do' {
  \set Staff.keyAlterations = #`((0 . ,SEMI-FLAT)
                                 (1 . ,SEMI-FLAT)
                                 (2 . ,FLAT)
                                 (5 . ,FLAT)
                                 (6 . ,SEMI-FLAT))
%\set Staff.extraNatural = ##f
  re reb \dwn reb resd
  dod dob dosd \dwn dob |
  dobsb dodsd do do |
}

[image of music]


Printing text from right to left

It is possible to print text from right to left in a markup object, as demonstrated here.

 
{
  b1^\markup {
    \line { i n g i r u m i m u s n o c t e }
  }
  f'_\markup {
    \override #'(text-direction . -1)
    \line { i n g i r u m i m u s n o c t e }
  }
}

[image of music]


LilyPond — Snippets v2.19.84 (development-branch).