Percussion

Percussion


ドラム パートを追加する

\drummode のような、予め設定された強力なツールと DrumStaff コンテキストを用いることで、ドラム パートを入力することは非常に簡単になります: ドラム パートは (特殊な音部記号を持つ) 独自の譜として配置され、ドラムに対応した符頭を持ちます。ドラムに記号を追加したり、線の数を制限することも可能です。

drh = \drummode {
        cymc4.^"crash" hhc16^"h.h." hh hhc8 hho hhc8 hh16 hh
        hhc4 r4 r2
      }
drl = \drummode {
        bd4 sn8 bd bd4 << bd ss >>
        bd8 tommh tommh bd toml toml bd tomfh16 tomfh
      }
timb = \drummode {
         timh4 ssh timl8 ssh r timh r4
         ssh8 timl r4 cb8 cb
       }

\score {
  <<
    \new DrumStaff \with {
      instrumentName = "timbales"
      drumStyleTable = #timbales-style
      \override StaffSymbol.line-count = #2
      \override BarLine.bar-extent = #'(-1 . 1)
    }
    <<
      \timb
    >>
    \new DrumStaff \with { instrumentName = "drums" }
    <<
      \new DrumVoice { \stemUp \drh }
      \new DrumVoice { \stemDown \drl }
    >>
  >>
  \layout { }
  \midi { \tempo 4 = 120 }
}

[image of music]


\layout と \midi で drumPitchNames, drumStyleTable, drumPitchTable をカスタマイズする

drum-pitch-names を独自の drum-style に合わせてカスタマイズし、それを \layout\midi で使用できるようにするには、下のコードで示した手順に従ってください。簡潔に説明すると以下の通りです:

* 名前を定義する * 見た目を定義する * \layout で使用できるようにする * ピッチを割り当てる * \midi で使用できるようにする

%% This snippet tries to amend
%% NR 2.5.1 Common notation for percussion - Custom percussion staves
%% http://lilypond.org/doc/v2.18/Documentation/notation/common-notation-for-percussion#custom-percussion-staves

%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%%
%% To use custom drum-pitch-names for your score and midi you need to follow
%% this route:
%%
%%%%%%%%%%%%
%% LAYOUT:
%%%%%%%%%%%%
%%
%% (1) Define a name and put it in `drumPitchNames'
%%     This can be done at toplevel with
%%         drumPitchNames.my-name  = #'my-name
%%     It's possible to add an alias as well.
%% (2) Define how it should be printed
%%     Therefore put them into a toplevel-list, where each entry should look:
%%         (my-name
%%           note-head-style-or-default
%%             articulation-string-or-#f
%%               staff-position)
%%     Example:
%%         #(define my-style
%%           '(
%%             (my-name default "tenuto" -1)
%%             ; ...
%%             ))
%% (3) Tell LilyPond to use this custom-definitions, with
%%         drumStyleTable = #(alist->hash-table my-style)
%%     in a \layout or \with
%%
%%     Now we're done for layout, here a short, but complete example:
%%         \new DrumStaff
%%           \with { drumStyleTable = #(alist->hash-table my-style) }
%%           \drummode { my-name }
%%
%%%%%%%%%%%%
%% MIDI:
%%%%%%%%%%%%
%%
%% (1) Again at toplvel, assign a pitch to your custom-note-name
%%         midiDrumPitches.my-name = ges
%%     Note that you have to use the name, which is in drumPitchNames, no alias
%% (2) Tell LilyPond to use this pitch(es), with
%%         drumPitchTable = #(alist->hash-table midiDrumPitches)
%%
%%     Example:
%%         \score {
%%            \new DrumStaff
%%             \with {
%%               drumStyleTable = #(alist->hash-table my-style)
%%               drumPitchTable = #(alist->hash-table midiDrumPitches)
%%             }
%%             \drummode { my-name4 }
%%           \layout {}
%%           \midi {}
%%         }
%%
%%%%%%%%%%%%
%% TESTING
%%%%%%%%%%%%
%%
%% To test whether all is fine, run the following sequence in terminal:
%%         lilypond my-file.ly
%%         midi2ly my-file.midi
%%         gedit my-file-midi.ly
%%
%% Which will do:
%% 1. create pdf and midi
%% 2. transform the midi back to a .ly-file
%%    (note: midi2ly is not always good in correctly identifying enharmonic pitches)
%% 3. open this file in gedit (or use another editor)
%% Now watch what you've got.
%%
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%% FULL EXAMPLE
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

drumPitchNames.dbass      = #'dbass
drumPitchNames.dba        = #'dbass  % 'db is in use already
drumPitchNames.dbassmute  = #'dbassmute
drumPitchNames.dbm        = #'dbassmute
drumPitchNames.do         = #'dopen
drumPitchNames.dopenmute  = #'dopenmute
drumPitchNames.dom        = #'dopenmute
drumPitchNames.dslap      = #'dslap
drumPitchNames.ds         = #'dslap
drumPitchNames.dslapmute  = #'dslapmute
drumPitchNames.dsm        = #'dslapmute

#(define djembe
  '((dbass      default  #f         -2)
    (dbassmute  default  "stopped"  -2)
    (dopen      default  #f          0)
    (dopenmute  default  "stopped"   0)
    (dslap      default  #f          2)
    (dslapmute  default  "stopped"   2)))

midiDrumPitches.dbass = g
midiDrumPitches.dbassmute = fis
midiDrumPitches.dopen =  a
midiDrumPitches.dopenmute = gis
midiDrumPitches.dslap =  b
midiDrumPitches.dslapmute = ais

one = \drummode { r4 dba4 do ds r dbm dom dsm }

\score {
   \new DrumStaff
    \with {
      \override StaffSymbol.line-count =  #3
      instrumentName = #"Djembe "
      drumStyleTable = #(alist->hash-table djembe)
      drumPitchTable = #(alist->hash-table midiDrumPitches)
    }
    \one
  \layout {}
  \midi {}
}

[image of music]


多拍子記号を大きくカスタマイズする

多拍子を示す記号は必ずしも必要というわけではありませんが、この楽譜では拍を示すために使用しています (これは実際のバルカン音楽のテンプレートになっています!)

melody = \relative c'' {
  \key g \major
  \compoundMeter #'((3 8) (2 8) (2 8) (3 8) (2 8) (2 8)
                    (2 8) (2 8) (3 8) (2 8) (2 8))
  c8 c c d4 c8 c b c b a4 g fis8 e d c b' c d e4-^ fis8 g \break
  c,4. d4 c4 d4. c4 d c2 d4. e4-^ d4
  c4. d4 c4 d4. c4 d c2 d4. e4-^ d4 \break
  c4. d4 c4 d4. c4 d c2 d4. e4-^ d4
  c4. d4 c4 d4. c4 d c2 d4. e4-^ d4 \break
}

drum = \new DrumStaff \drummode {
  \bar ".|:" bd4.^\markup { Drums } sn4 bd \bar ";" sn4.
  bd4 sn \bar ";" bd sn bd4. sn4 bd \bar ":|."
}

  \new Staff \with {
    instrumentName = \markup { \concat { "B" \flat " Sop." } }
  }

{
  \melody
  \drum
}

[image of music]


ジャズ コンボのテンプレート

これはジャズ アンサンブルのための非常に高度なテンプレートです。全ての楽器が \key c \major で記述されています。これはコンサート ピッチでの調を示しており、\transpose セクション内では自動的に移調されます。

\header {
  title = "Song"
  subtitle = "(tune)"
  composer = "Me"
  meter = "moderato"
  piece = "Swing"
  tagline = \markup {
    \column {
      "LilyPond example file by Amelie Zapf,"
      "Berlin 07/07/2003"
    }
  }
}
% To make the example display in the documentation
\paper {
  paper-width = 130
}
%#(set-global-staff-size 16)
\include "english.ly"

%%%%%%%%%%%% Some macros %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

sl = {
  \override NoteHead.style = #'slash
  \hide Stem
}
nsl = {
  \revert NoteHead.style
  \undo \hide Stem
}
crOn = \override NoteHead.style = #'cross
crOff = \revert NoteHead.style

%% insert chord name style stuff here.

jazzChords = { }

%%%%%%%%%%%% Keys'n'thangs %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

global = { \time 4/4 }

Key = { \key c \major }

% ############ Horns ############

% ------ Trumpet ------
trpt = \transpose c d \relative c'' {
  \Key
  c1 | c | c |
}
trpHarmony = \transpose c' d {
  \jazzChords
}
trumpet = {
  \global
  \clef treble
  <<
    \trpt
  >>
}

% ------ Alto Saxophone ------
alto = \transpose c a \relative c' {
  \Key
  c1 | c | c |
}
altoHarmony = \transpose c' a {
  \jazzChords
}
altoSax = {
  \global
  \clef treble
  <<
    \alto
  >>
}

% ------ Baritone Saxophone ------
bari = \transpose c a' \relative c {
  \Key
  c1
  c1
  \sl
  d4^"Solo" d d d
  \nsl
}
bariHarmony = \transpose c' a \chordmode {
  \jazzChords s1 s d2:maj e:m7
}
bariSax = {
  \global
  \clef treble
  <<
    \bari
  >>
}

% ------ Trombone ------
tbone = \relative c {
  \Key
  c1 | c | c
}
tboneHarmony = \chordmode {
  \jazzChords
}
trombone = {
  \global
  \clef bass
  <<
    \tbone
  >>
}

% ############ Rhythm Section #############

% ------ Guitar ------
gtr = \relative c'' {
  \Key
  c1
  \sl
  b4 b b b
  \nsl
  c1
}
gtrHarmony = \chordmode {
  \jazzChords
  s1 c2:min7+ d2:maj9
}
guitar = {
  \global
  \clef treble
  <<
    \gtr
  >>
}

%% ------ Piano ------
rhUpper = \relative c'' {
  \voiceOne
  \Key
  c1 | c | c
}
rhLower = \relative c' {
  \voiceTwo
  \Key
  e1 | e | e
}

lhUpper = \relative c' {
  \voiceOne
  \Key
  g1 | g | g
}
lhLower = \relative c {
  \voiceTwo
  \Key
  c1 | c | c
}

PianoRH = {
  \clef treble
  \global
  <<
    \new Voice = "one" \rhUpper
    \new Voice = "two" \rhLower
  >>
}
PianoLH = {
  \clef bass
  \global
  <<
    \new Voice = "one" \lhUpper
    \new Voice = "two" \lhLower
  >>
}

piano = {
  <<
    \new Staff = "upper" \PianoRH
    \new Staff = "lower" \PianoLH
  >>
}

% ------ Bass Guitar ------
Bass = \relative c {
  \Key
  c1 | c | c
}
bass = {
  \global
  \clef bass
  <<
    \Bass
  >>
}

% ------ Drums ------
up = \drummode {
  \voiceOne
  hh4 <hh sn> hh <hh sn>
  hh4 <hh sn> hh <hh sn>
  hh4 <hh sn> hh <hh sn>
}
down = \drummode {
  \voiceTwo
  bd4 s bd s
  bd4 s bd s
  bd4 s bd s
}

drumContents = {
  \global
  <<
    \new DrumVoice \up
    \new DrumVoice \down
  >>
}

%%%%%%%%% It All Goes Together Here %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

\score {
  <<
    \new StaffGroup = "horns" <<
      \new Staff = "trumpet" \with { instrumentName = "Trumpet" }
      \trumpet
      \new Staff = "altosax" \with { instrumentName = "Alto Sax" }
      \altoSax
      \new ChordNames = "barichords" \with { instrumentName = "Trumpet" }
      \bariHarmony
      \new Staff = "barisax" \with { instrumentName = "Bari Sax" }
      \bariSax
      \new Staff = "trombone" \with { instrumentName = "Trombone" }
      \trombone
    >>

    \new StaffGroup = "rhythm" <<
      \new ChordNames = "chords" \gtrHarmony
      \new Staff = "guitar" \with { instrumentName = "Guitar" }
      \guitar
      \new PianoStaff = "piano" \with {
        instrumentName = "Piano"
        midiInstrument = "acoustic grand"
      }
      \piano
      \new Staff = "bass" \with { instrumentName = "Bass" }
      \bass
      \new DrumStaff \with { instrumentName = "Drums" }
      \drumContents
    >>
  >>
  \layout {
    \context { \Staff \RemoveEmptyStaves }
    \context {
      \Score
      \override BarNumber.padding = #3
      \override RehearsalMark.padding = #2
      skipBars = ##t
    }
  }
  \midi { }
}

[image of music]


パーカッションのマレットを表示する

パーカッションの楽器に対する画像は LilyPond に含まれていません。しかしながら、そのような画像を外部の EPS ファイルから取り込んで表示したり、この例のようにマークアップの内部に PostScript コードを埋め込むことで表示することができます。

stick = \markup {
  \with-dimensions #'(0 . 5) #'(0 . 5)
  \postscript "
    0 6 translate
    0.8 -0.8 scale
    0 0 0 setrgbcolor
    [] 0 setdash
    1 setlinewidth
    0 setlinejoin
    0 setlinecap
    gsave [1 0 0 1 0 0] concat
    gsave [1 0 0 1 -3.5406095 -199.29342] concat
    gsave
    0 0 0 setrgbcolor
    newpath
    7.1434065 200.94354 moveto
    7.2109628 200.90454 7.2785188 200.86554 7.3460747 200.82654 curveto
    8.2056347 202.31535 9.0651946 203.80414 9.9247546 205.29295 curveto
    9.8571989 205.33195 9.7896429 205.37095 9.7220864 205.40996 curveto
    8.8625264 203.92115 8.0029664 202.43233 7.1434065 200.94354 curveto
    closepath
    eofill
    grestore
    gsave
    0 0 0 setrgbcolor
    newpath
    4.9646672 203.10444 moveto
    5.0036707 203.03688 5.0426744 202.96933 5.0816777 202.90176 curveto
    6.5704792 203.76133 8.0592809 204.6209 9.5480824 205.48045 curveto
    9.5090791 205.54801 9.4700754 205.61556 9.4310717 205.68311 curveto
    7.94227 204.82356 6.4534687 203.96399 4.9646672 203.10444 curveto
    closepath
    eofill
    grestore
    gsave
    <<
    /ShadingType 3
    /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB
    /Coords [113.13708 207.87465 0 113.13708 207.87465 16.162441]
    /Extend [true true]
    /Domain [0 1]
    /Function <<
    /FunctionType 3
    /Functions
    [
    <<
    /FunctionType 2
    /Domain [0 1]
    /C0 [1 1 1]
    /C1 [0.72941178 0.72941178 0.72941178]
    /N 1
    >>
    ]
    /Domain [0 1]
    /Bounds [ ]
    /Encode [ 0 1 ]
    >>
    >>
    newpath
    7.6422017 200.76488 moveto
    7.6505696 201.02554 7.3905363 201.24867 7.1341335 201.20075 curveto
    6.8759501 201.16916 6.6949602 200.87978 6.7801462 200.63381 curveto
    6.8480773 200.39155 7.1438307 200.25377 7.3728389 200.35861 curveto
    7.5332399 200.42458 7.6444521 200.59122 7.6422017 200.76488 curveto
    closepath
    clip
    gsave [
      0.052859054 0.063089841 -0.020912282 0.017521108 5.7334261 189.76443
    ] concat
    shfill
    grestore
    grestore
    0 0 0 setrgbcolor
    [] 0 setdash
    0.027282091 setlinewidth
    0 setlinejoin
    0 setlinecap
    newpath
    7.6422017 200.76488 moveto
    7.6505696 201.02554 7.3905363 201.24867 7.1341335 201.20075 curveto
    6.8759501 201.16916 6.6949602 200.87978 6.7801462 200.63381 curveto
    6.8480773 200.39155 7.1438307 200.25377 7.3728389 200.35861 curveto
    7.5332399 200.42458 7.6444521 200.59122 7.6422017 200.76488 curveto
    closepath
    stroke
    gsave
    <<
    /ShadingType 3
    /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB
    /Coords [113.13708 207.87465 0 113.13708 207.87465 16.162441]
    /Extend [true true]
    /Domain [0 1]
    /Function <<
    /FunctionType 3
    /Functions
    [
    <<
    /FunctionType 2
    /Domain [0 1]
    /C0 [1 1 1]
    /C1 [0.72941178 0.72941178 0.72941178]
    /N 1
    >>
    ]
    /Domain [0 1]
    /Bounds [ ]
    /Encode [ 0 1 ]
    >>
    >>
    newpath
    5.2721217 202.83181 moveto
    5.2804896 203.09247 5.0204563 203.3156 4.7640539 203.26768 curveto
    4.5058701 203.23609 4.3248803 202.94671 4.4100662 202.70074 curveto
    4.4779975 202.45848 4.7737511 202.3207 5.0027593 202.42554 curveto
    5.1631598 202.49149 5.2743721 202.65813 5.2721217 202.83181 curveto
    closepath
    clip
    gsave [
      0.052859054 0.063089841 -0.020912282 0.017521108 3.363346 191.83136
    ] concat
    shfill
    grestore
    grestore
    0 0 0 setrgbcolor
    [] 0 setdash
    0.027282091 setlinewidth
    0 setlinejoin
    0 setlinecap
    newpath
    5.2721217 202.83181 moveto
    5.2804896 203.09247 5.0204563 203.3156 4.7640539 203.26768 curveto
    4.5058701 203.23609 4.3248803 202.94671 4.4100662 202.70074 curveto
    4.4779975 202.45848 4.7737511 202.3207 5.0027593 202.42554 curveto
    5.1631598 202.49149 5.2743721 202.65813 5.2721217 202.83181 curveto
    closepath
    stroke
    grestore
    grestore
  "
}

\score {
  b1^\stick
}

[image of music]


Percussion example

A short example taken from Stravinsky’s L’histoire du Soldat.

#(define mydrums '((bassdrum   default #t  4)
                   (snare      default #t -4)
                   (tambourine default #t  0)))

global = {
  \time 3/8 s4.
  \time 2/4 s2*2
  \time 3/8 s4.
  \time 2/4 s2
}

drumsA = {
  \context DrumVoice <<
    { \global }
    { \drummode {
        \autoBeamOff
        \stemDown sn8 \stemUp tamb s8 |
        sn4 \stemDown sn4 |
        \stemUp tamb8 \stemDown sn8 \stemUp sn16 \stemDown sn \stemUp sn8 |
        \stemDown sn8 \stemUp tamb s8 |
        \stemUp sn4 s8 \stemUp tamb
      }
    }
  >>
}

drumsB = {
  \drummode {
    s4 bd8 s2*2 s4 bd8 s4 bd8 s8
  }
}

\layout {
  indent = #40
}

\score {
  \new StaffGroup <<
    \new DrumStaff \with {
      instrumentName = \markup {
        \center-column {
          "Tambourine"
          "et"
          "caisse claire s. timbre"
        }
      }
    drumStyleTable = #(alist->hash-table mydrums)
  }
  \drumsA
  \new DrumStaff \with {
    instrumentName = #"Grosse Caisse"
    drumStyleTable = #(alist->hash-table mydrums)
  }
  \drumsB
  >>
}

[image of music]


音楽を異なる拍子記号で表示する

次のスニペットでは、2 つのパートが完全に異なる拍子記号を持っていますが、タイミングは揃っています。小節線はパート毎に独立して表示するため Score のレベルでは表示されず、Timing_translatorScore コンテキストから Staff コンテキストに移動しています。

小節番号が必要な場合、Bar_number_engraver も移動する必要があります。このエングラーバは Timing_translator によってセットされるプロパティに依存するためです。小節番号を表示したい譜に \with を用いることができます。

\paper {
  indent = #0
  ragged-right = ##t
}

global = { \time 3/4 { s2.*3 } \bar "" \break { s2.*3 } }

\layout {
  \context {
    \Score
    \remove "Timing_translator"
    \remove "Default_bar_line_engraver"
    \remove "Bar_number_engraver"
    \override SpacingSpanner.uniform-stretching = ##t
    \override SpacingSpanner.strict-note-spacing = ##t
    proportionalNotationDuration = #(ly:make-moment 1/64)
  }
  \context {
    \Staff
    \consists "Timing_translator"
    \consists "Default_bar_line_engraver"
  }
  \context {
    \Voice
    \remove "Forbid_line_break_engraver"
    tupletFullLength = ##t
  }
}

Bassklarinette = \new Staff \with {
  \consists "Bar_number_engraver"
  barNumberVisibility = #(every-nth-bar-number-visible 2)
  \override BarNumber.break-visibility = #end-of-line-invisible
} <<
  \global {
    \bar "|"
    \clef treble
    \time 3/8
    d''4.

    \bar "|"
    \time 3/4
    r8 des''2( c''8)

    \bar "|"
    \time 7/8
    r4. ees''2 ~

    \bar "|"
    \time 2/4
    \tupletUp
    \tuplet 3/2 { ees''4 r4 d''4 ~ }

    \bar "|"
    \time 3/8
    \tupletUp
    \tuplet 4/3 { d''4 r4 }

    \bar "|"
    \time 2/4
    e''2

    \bar "|"
    \time 3/8
    es''4.

    \bar "|"
    \time 3/4
    r8 d''2 r8
    \bar "|"
  }
>>

Perkussion = \new StaffGroup <<
  \new Staff <<
    \global {
      \bar "|"
      \clef percussion
      \time 3/4
      r4 c'2 ~

      \bar "|"
      c'2.

      \bar "|"
      R2.

      \bar "|"
      r2 g'4 ~

      \bar "|"
      g'2. ~

      \bar "|"
      g'2.
    }
  >>
  \new Staff <<
    \global {
      \bar "|"
      \clef percussion
      \time 3/4
      R2.

      \bar "|"
      g'2. ~

      \bar "|"
      g'2.

      \bar "|"
      r4 g'2 ~

      \bar "|"
      g'2 r4

      \bar "|"
      g'2.
    }
  >>
>>

\score {
  <<
    \Bassklarinette
    \Perkussion
  >>
}

[image of music]


Tam-tam example

A tam-tam example, entered with ’tt’

#(define mydrums '((tamtam default #t 0)))

\new DrumStaff \with { instrumentName = #"Tamtam" }

\drummode {
  \set DrumStaff.drumStyleTable = #(alist->hash-table mydrums)
  \override Staff.StaffSymbol.line-positions = #'( 0 )
  \override Staff.BarLine.bar-extent = #'(-1.5 . 1.5)

  tt 1 \pp \laissezVibrer
}

[image of music]


LilyPond — Snippets v2.22.1 (安定版).