2.1.4 Articulations and dynamics

Articulations and dynamics are indicated by adding special codes after the notes to which they apply,


Music Glossary: articulation.

Common articulations can be added to a note using a dash - and a single character:

\relative {
  c''4-^ c-+ c-- c-!
  c4-> c-. c2-_

[image of music]


Music Glossary: fingering.

Similarly, fingering indications can be added to a note using a dash (-) and the digit to be printed:

\relative { c''4-3 e-5 b-2 a-1 }

[image of music]

Articulations and fingerings are usually placed automatically, but you can specify a direction by replacing the dash (-) with ^ (up) or _ (down). You can also use multiple articulations on the same note. However, in most cases it is best to let LilyPond determine the articulation directions.

\relative { c''4_-^1 d^. f^4_2-> e^-_+ }

[image of music]


Music Glossary: dynamics, crescendo, decrescendo.

Dynamic signs are made by adding the markings (with a backslash) to the note:

\relative { c''4\ff c\mf c\p c\pp }

[image of music]

Crescendi and decrescendi are started with the commands \< and \>. The next dynamics sign, for example \f, will end the (de)crescendo, or the command \! can be used:

\relative { c''4\< c\ff\> c c\! }

[image of music]

See also

Notation Reference: Articulations and ornamentations, Fingering instructions, Dynamics.

LilyPond — Learning Manual v2.21.82 (development-branch).