# LilyPond — Használat

 Ez a dokumentáció ismerteti, hogyan kell a LilyPond 2.19.54 verziójához tartozó programokat futtatni, valamint tanácsokat ad azok hatékony használatához.
 A teljes dokumentáció a http://lilypond.org/ honlapon található.

# 1. A lilypond használata

Ez a fejezet a LilyPond használatának technikai vonzatait részletezi.

## 1.1 Egyszerű használat

A legtöbb felhasználó grafikus felületről indítja a LilyPondot; ennek módját az Első lecke írja le. Kényelmi szolgáltatásokat nyújtó szövegszerkesztők használatának leírása a saját dokumentációjukban található.

## 1.2 Parancssori használat

Ez a szakasz a LilyPond parancssori futtatásáról tartalmaz plusz információkat, arra az esetre, ha a programnak plusz paramétereket szeretnénk átadni. Ráadásul bizonyos segédprogramok (mint pl. a midi2ly) csak parancssorból érhetőek el.

Parancssor alatt az operációs rendszer megfelelő parancssorát értjük. A Windows-felhasználók ezt „DOS-parancssor” néven, a Mac OS X felhasználok „Terminal” néven ismerhetik.

Az operációs rendszer parancssorának használatának leírása kívül esik a LilyPond dokumentációjának hatáskörén; az ebben kevésbé járatos felhasználók az operációs rendszerhez tartozó dokumentációban olvashatnak erről.

### A lilypond futtatása

A lilypond program a következő módon futtatható parancssorból:

lilypond [opció]… fájlnév…


Ha nem adunk meg kiterjesztést, az alapértelmezett ‘.ly’ kiterjesztéssel próbálkozik a LilyPond. A szabványos bemenetről való beolvasáshoz a - karakter használandó fájlnév gyanánt.

Amikor a ‘fájlnév.ly’ fájl feldolgozásra kerül, egy ‘fájlnév.ps’ és egy ‘fájlnév.pdf’ fájlt kapunk kimenetként. Több fájlt is feldolgoztathatunk egyszerre; ezek egymástól függetlenül kerülnek feldolgozásra. 1

Ha a ‘fájlnév.ly’ több \book blokkot tartalmaz, minden blokkból egy-egy, számozott kimeneti fájl keletkezik, ‘fájlnév.pdf’, ‘fájlnév-1.pdf’, ‘fájlnév-2.pdf’ stb. formában. Az output-suffix változó értéke fog szerepelni a fájlnév és a számozás között. Például a következő bemeneti fájlból:

#(define output-suffix "violino")
\score { … }
#(define output-suffix "cello")
\score { … }


egy ‘fájlnév-violino.pdf’ és egy ‘fájlnév-cello-1.pdf’ nevű fájl keletkezik.

### A lilypond parancssori paraméterei

A következő parancssori opciók támogatottak:

-e, --evaluate=kifejezés

A Scheme kifejezés kiértékelése az ‘.ly’ fájlok beolvasása előtt. Több -e opció is megadható, ezek a megadott sorrendben lesznek végrehajtva.

A kifejezés kiértékelése a guile-user modulban történik, így ha definíciókat kell használni a kifejezésben, a parancssorban a következőt kell megadni:

lilypond -e '(define-public a 42)'


a forrásfájl elejére pedig a következőt kell beszúrni:

#(use-modules (guile-user))

-f, --format=formátum

A kimenet formátuma. Lehetőségek: ps, pdf vagy png.

Példa: lilypond -fpng fájlnév.ly

-d, --define-default=azonosító=érték

Az azonosító nevű belső változó beállítása az érték Scheme értékre. Ha az érték nincs megadva, az alapértelmezett #t lesz a változó értéke. Egy opció kikapcsolásához a no- prefixumot kell az azonosító elé írni, pl.

-dno-point-and-click


ugyanaz, mint

-dpoint-and-click='#f'


Íme pár hasznos opció:

help

A lilypond -dhelp parancs futtatása kilistázza az összes elérhető -d opciót.

paper-size

Az alapértelmezett papírméret beállítása.

-dpaper-size=\"letter\"


Ügyelni kell arra, hogy a méretet \" jelek közé írjuk.

safe

A LilyPond futtatása biztonsági módban, megbízhatatlan bemenet esetén.

Amikor a LilyPond egy webszerveren keresztül érhető el, vagy a -dsafe, vagy a --jail opciót MINDENKÉPPEN KÖTELEZŐ megadni. A -dsafe opcióval megelőzhető, hogy a forrásfájlban szereplő rosszindulatú Scheme kód kárt okozzon. Például:

#(system "rm -rf /")
{
c4^$(ly:gulp-file "/etc/passwd") }  -dsafe módban a Scheme kifejezések kiértékelése egy speciális biztonsági modulban történik. Ez a modul a GUILE ‘safe-r5rs’ modulján alapul, de a LilyPond API néhány függvényének meghívását lehetővé teszi. Ezek a függvények a ‘scm/safe-lily.scm’ fájlban találhatóak. Ezenkívül biztonsági módban tilos az \include parancsok alkalmazása és a \ karakter használata TeX karakterláncokban. Biztonsági módban ezenfelül nem lehetséges LilyPond változók importálása Scheme-be. A -dsafe mód nem figyeli az erőforrások túlzott használatát. Továbbra is elérhető, hogy a program tetszőlegesen hosszú ideig fusson, például ciklikus adatstruktúrák használatával. Így ha a LilyPond publikus webszerveren fut, a folyamat processzor- és memóriafelhasználását korlátozni kell! Biztonsági módban sok hasznos LilyPond kódrészlet nem fog lefordulni. A --jail mód egy több lehetőséget biztosító alternatíva, de előkészítése több munkát igényel. backend A szedés kimeneti formátuma. Lehetőségek: ps PostScript. A PostScript fájlok teljes egészükben tartalmazzák a megjelenítéshez szükséges TTF, Type1 és OTF betűkészleteket. Keleti karakterkészletek használata esetén ez nagy fájlokhoz vezethet. eps Encapsulated PostScript. Minden oldal külön ‘EPS’ fájlba kerül, betűtípusok nélkül, valamint egy összesített ‘EPS’ fájl is létrejön, amely az összes oldalt tartalmazza betűtípusokkal együtt. A lilypond-book alapértelmezetten ezt a formátumot használja. svg SVG (Scalable Vector Graphics). Oldalanként egy SVG fájl keletkezik, beágyazott betűtípusok nélkül. Így megtekintésükhöz érdemes feltelepíteni a Century Schoolbook betűtípusokat. Ezeket tartalmazza a LilyPond. Például UNIX alatt egyszerűen csak be kell másolni ezeket a program könyvtárából (tipikusan ‘/usr/share/lilypond/VERZIÓ/fonts/otf/’) a ‘~/.fonts/’ könyvtárba. Az SVG kimenet szabványos, így bármilyen, ezt a formátumot olvasni képes programmal megnyitható. scm A belső Scheme rajzolóparancsok szó szerinti kiírása. null Nincs kimenet; ugyanaz a hatása, mint a -dno-print-pages opciónak. Példa: lilypond -dbackend=svg fájlnév.ly preview A fejléc és az első szisztéma fog szerepelni a kimenetben. print-pages Teljes oldalak generálása, ez az alapbeállítás. A -dno-print-pages opció a -dpreview opcióval együtt hasznos. -h, --help Összegzés az alkalmazás használatáról. -H, --header=mező A megadott fejlécmező kiírása a ‘fájlnév.mező’ nevű fájlba. --include, -I=könyvtár A könyvtár hozzáadása a bemeneti fájlok keresési útvonalához. -i, --init=fájl Az inicializáló fájl beállítása a megadott fájlra. (Alapértelmezett: ‘init.ly’.) -o, --output=fájl Kimeneti fájl megadása. A megfelelő kiterjesztés automatikusan hozzáfűzésre kerül (pl. .pdf PDF kimenet esetén). --ps PostScript kimenet generálása. --png Oldalanként egy-egy PNG kép létrehozása. Ez a --ps opció hatását vonja maga után. A kép DPI-ben mért felbontása (alapértelmezett értéke 110) a következőképpen állítható be: -dresolution=110  --pdf PDF generálása. A --ps opció hatását vonja maga után. -j, --jail=felhasználó,csoport,börtön,könyvtár A lilypond futtatása ún. börtönben. A --jail opció egy rugalmasabb alternatíva a -dsafe módnál abban az esetben, amikor a LilyPond forrás megbízhatatlan forrásból származik, pl. amikor webszerveren keresztül érhető el a LilyPond szolgáltatásként. A --jail módban a lilypond gyökere a börtön lesz, mielőtt a fordítási folyamat elkezdődne. Ezután a LilyPond átvált a megadott felhasználóra, csoportra és könyvtárba. Ezáltal garantálható, hogy (legalábbis elméletben) lehetetlen kitörni a börtönből. A --jail mód csak akkor működik, ha a lilypond alkalmazást root felhasználóként futtatjuk. Ez általában biztonságosan történik, pl. a sudo parancs használatával. A börtön előkészítése egy bonyolult folyamat, mivel biztosítani kell, hogy a LilyPond a börtönben mindent megtaláljon, ami a fordításhoz szükséges. Egy tipikus előkészítés a következő lépésekből áll: Különálló fájlrendszer létrehozása A LilyPond számára létre kell hozni egy fájlrendszert, amelyet a biztonságos noexec, nodev és nosuid opciókkal tudunk felcsatolni. Így lehetetlen a LilyPondból programokat futtatni vagy közvetlenül eszközökre írni. Ha egy külön partíció létrehozása nem kívánatos, egy elegendően nagy fájl létrehozása és loop eszközként való használata is megfelelő. A külön fájlrendszer azt is megelőzi, hogy a LilyPond többet írjon a lemezre, mint amennyi megengedett. Különálló felhasználó létrehozása Egy, kevés jogosultsággal rendelkező (pl. lily/lily nevű) felhasználó és csoport nevében kell, hogy fusson a LilyPond. Ennek a felhasználónak csak egy könyvtárhoz lehet írási joga, amit a könyvtár paraméterben kell megadni. A börtön előkészítése A LilyPond futásához szükséges összes fájlt be kell másolni a börtönbe, megtartva az eredeti elérési utakat. Az egész LilyPond telepítés (pl. a ‘/usr/share/lilypond’ könyvtár tartalmának) másolása szükséges. Ha mégis probléma lépne fel, a forrását legegyszerűbben az strace paranccsal határolhatjuk be, amellyel meghatározható, hogy mely fájlok hiányoznak. A LilyPond futtatása A noexec kapcsolóval csatolt börtönben lehetetlen külső programot futtatni. Így csak olyan kimeneti formátumok érhetőek el, amelyek ezt nem igénylik. Mint már említettük, superuser privilégiumokkal kell futtatni a LilyPondot (amelyeket természetesen egyből elveszít), lehetőleg sudo használatával. Ajánlott a LilyPond által elfoglalt processzoridő korlátozása (pl. az ulimit -t parancs segítségével), illetve a memóriafoglalásáé is. -v, --version Verzióinformáció kijelzése. -V, --verbose Bőbeszédűség bekapcsolása: az összes beolvasott fájl elérési útjának, futásidőknek és egyéb információknak a kijelzése. -w, --warranty A GNU LilyPond garanciavállalásának kijelzése. (A LilyPond fejlesztői SEMMIFÉLE GARANCIÁT nem vállalnak!) ### Környezeti változók A lilypond a következő környezeti változókat veszi figyelembe: LILYPOND_DATADIR Annak a könyvtárnak a megadására szolgál, ahol a LilyPond üzeneteit és adatfájljait keresni fogja. Tartalmaznia kell a szükséges alkönyvtárakat (‘ly/’, ‘ps/’, ‘tex/’ stb.). LANG A program kimeneti üzeneteinek nyelve. LILYPOND_GC_YIELD A program memóriaigénye és futásideje közötti finomhangolást lehet elvégezni ezzel a változóval. Százalékos érték; minél nagyobb, annál több memóriát használ a program, minél alacsonyabb, annál több processzoridőt. Az alapértelmezett érték 70. ## 1.3 Hibaüzenetek Egy fájl fordítása során különböző hibaüzenetek jelenhetnek meg: Figyelmeztetés Valami gyanúsnak tűnik. A figyelmeztetések azt jelzik, hogy valamit nagy valószínűséggel nem úgy írt le a felhasználó, ahogy azt gondolta. De ha tudatosan valami rendkívülit kérünk, akkor általában figyelmen kívül hagyhatóak. Hiba Valami határozottan helytelen. A feldolgozás aktuális lépése (beolvasás, értelmezés vagy formázás) befejeződik, de a következő lépés ki fog maradni. Végzetes hiba Olyan hiba történt, amitől a LilyPond nem tud tovább futni. Ez ritkán fordul elő. A leggyakoribb ok a rosszul telepített betűtípusok. Scheme hiba A Scheme kód végrehajtása során előforduló hibák, amelyeket a Scheme interpreter kap el. Ha bőbeszédű módban fut a LilyPond, akkor a hibás függvényhez vezető hívások kiírásra kerülnek. Programozási hiba Belső inkonzisztencia lépett fel. Ezek a hibaüzenetek a fejlesztőknek és hibakeresőknek segítenek. Általában figyelmen kívül hagyhatóak. Néha olyan nagy mennyiségben fordulnak elő, hogy nehéz tőlük észrevenni a többi kimeneti üzenetet. A futás megszakadt (core dumped) Kritikus hiba lépett fel, amely a program futását azonnal megszakította. Az ilyen hibákat jelenteni kell a fejlesztőknek. Ha a figyelmeztetések vagy hibák a bemeneti fájl egy konkrét részére vonatkoznak, akkor az üzenet a következő formátummal bír: fájlnév:sorszám:oszlopszám: üzenet hibás sor  A hibás soron belül a hiba helyét sortörés jelzi. Például: test.ly:2:19: error: not a duration: 5 { c'4 e' 5 g' }  A probléma helye csak egy becslés, mely olykor pontatlan lehet, hiszen természetüknél fogva a problémák nem várt bemenetnél lépnek fel. Ha nem található hiba a megadott helyen, érdemes a környékén keresni. A hibákról bővebben a Gyakori hibák c. szakaszban olvashatunk. ## 1.4 Gyakori hibák Az alábbi hibajelenségek gyakran előfordulnak, ugyanakkor az okuk nem mindig egyértelmű vagy könnyen megtalálható. Ha azonban egyszer megértjük a természetüket, gyorsan meg lehet rájuk találni a megoldást. ### A kotta nem fér ki az oldalra Ha a kotta jobb oldalra „lefolyik” az oldalról, vagy rendkívül össze van sűrítve, szinte mindig hibás hanghosszúságról van szó, amely miatt egy ütemben az utolsó hang túlnyúlik az ütemvonalom. Ez nem számít hibának, de ha sok ilyen van egymás után, akkor a sor nem tud megtörni, mert sortörés csak olyan ütemek végén helyezkedhet el, amelyek végén nem nyúlik túl hang. A hibás ritmus könnyen megtalálható ütemhatár-ellenőrzésekkel: ld. a Bar and bar number checks c. szakaszt. Ha sok ilyen rendhagyó ütemre van szükség, akkor láthatatlan ütemvonalat kell oda beszúrni, ahol a sortörés megengedett. Ennek módját a Bar lines c. szakasz írja le. ### Egy kottasorral több van a kelleténél Ha a kontextusokat nem explicite hozzuk létre a \new paranccsal, akkor minden figyelmeztetés nélkül létrejön egy új kontextus ott, ahol olyan parancs fordul elő, amely a létező kontextusban nem alkalmazható. Egyszerű kottákban a kontextusok automatikus létrehozása hasznos, és a legtöbb példa hasznát veszi ennek az egyszerűsítésnek. De olykor ez nem várt kottasorok vagy tételek megjelenését eredményezheti. Például a következő kódtól azt várnánk, hogy a kottasorban minden kottafej piros lesz, miközben valójában az eredmény két kottasor, mely közül az alsóban alapértelmezett színű, fekete kottafejek lesznek. \override Staff.NoteHead.color = #red \new Staff { a }  Ez azért történik, mert a Staff kontextus nem létezik az \override parancs helyén, így létrejön, a finomhangolás pedig az így létrehozott kottasorra fog vonatkozni, nem a \new Staff paranccsal létrehozott kottasorra. A példa helyesen: \new Staff { \override Staff.NoteHead.color = #red a }  Másik példánkban egy \relative blokk szerepel egy \repeat blokkon belül, ami két kottasort eredményez, amely közül a második később kezdődik, mint az első, mert a \repeat parancs hatására két \relative blokk keletkezik, amik implicit módon létrehoznak egy-egy Staff és Voice kontextust. \repeat unfold 2 { \relative { c' d e f } }  A megoldás a \repeat és a \relative parancsok felcserélése, a következő módon: \relative { \repeat unfold 2 { c' d e f } }  ### Hiba a ../ly/init.ly fájlban Különféle rejtélyes hibaüzenetek jelenhetnek meg, melyek a ‘../ly/init.ly’ fájlban található szintaktikai hibára utalnak, ha a forrásfájl nem jól formált, például nem egyezik a nyitó és csukó kapcsos zárójelek vagy idézőjelek száma. A leggyakoribb hiba a hiányzó } karakter egy blokk, pl. \score blokk végén. A megoldás kézenfekvő: ellenőrizni kell, hogy minden kapcsos zárójelnek megvan-e a párja. A Hogyan működnek a LilyPond bemeneti fájlok? lecke írja le a forrásfájlok helyes szerkezetét. Egy olyan szövegszerkesztő használatával, mely kiemeli a zárójelpárokat, elkerülhetőek az ilyen hibák. Egy másik gyakori ok az, hogy nincs szóköz a dalszöveg utolsó szótagja és a dalszöveg blokk záró kapcsos zárójele között. Enélkül az elválasztás nélkül a kapcsos zárójel a szótag részének számít. Emellett minden kapcsos zárójel körül érdemes szóközt vagy sortörést hagyni. A jelenség magyarázata a Lyrics explained c. szakaszban olvasható. A hiba akkor is előfordulhat, amikor egy záró idézőjel (") hiányzik. Ebben az esetben a hiba egy közeli sorban jelentkezik. A pár nélküli idézőjel általában néhány sorral feljebb található. ### Unbound variable % hibaüzenet Ez a hiba akkor fordul elő (egy „GUILE signaled an error ...” hibaüzenettel együtt), amikor a LilyPondba ágyazott Scheme kód LilyPond formátumú megjegyzést tartalmaz Scheme formátumú helyett. A LilyPondban a megjegyzések százalékjellel (%) kezdődnek, és nem használhatóak Scheme kódon belül. A Scheme kódban a megjegyzések pontosvesszővel (;) kezdődnek. ### FT_Get_Glyph_Name hibaüzenet Ez a hiba azt jelzi, hogy a bemeneti fájl egy nem ASCII karaktert tartalmaz, ugyanakkor nem UTF-8 karakterkódolással lett elmentve. Részletekért ld. a Text encoding c. szakaszt. # 2. A convert-ly használata A LilyPond nyelvtana rendszeresen változik, hogy egyszerűsödjön és fejlődjön. Ennek mellékhatásaként a LilyPond olykor nem tudja értelmezni a régebbi forrásfájlokat. Ezt az inkompatibilitást hidalja át a convert-ly segédprogram, mely a verziók közötti nyelvváltozások legtöbbjét lekezeli. ## 2.1 Miért változik a szintaxis? Ahogy a LilyPond maga fejlődik, a szintaxis (azaz a bemenet nyelve) is ennek megfelelően változik. Ezek a változások azért mennek végbe, hogy a bemenetet könnyebb legyen olvasni és írni, vagy a LilyPond új képességeihez igazodnak. Például minden \paper és \layout blokkbeli tulajdonság nevében a szavak konvenció szerint kötőjelekkel kerülnek elválasztásra. A 2.11.60-as verzióban azonban észrevettük, hogy a printallheaders tulajdonság nem követi ezt a konvenciót. Felmerült a kérdés: úgy hagyjuk, ahogy eddig volt (így inkonzisztenciával megzavarva az új felhasználókat), vagy megváltoztassuk (így arra kényszerítve a régi felhasználókat, hogy meglévő kottáikat frissítsék)? Ebben az esetben amellett döntöttünk, hogy megváltoztatjuk print-all-headers-re. Szerencsére ezt a változás automatikusan kezelhető a convert-ly parancssori eszközzel. Sajnos a convert-ly nem képes a nyelvtan minden változását lekezelni. Például a LilyPond 2.4-es és korábbi verzióiban az ékezetes és egyéb, nem angol ábécébe tartozó karaktereket a LaTeX-ben megszokott módszerrel kellett megadni (pl. a francia Noël szót a következőképpen: No\"el). De a LilyPond 2.6-os verziója óta minden ilyen karakter, pl. az ë is közvetlenül beleírható a bemeneti fájlba UTF-8 karakterkódolással. A convert-ly nem képes minden LaTeX szintaxissal megadott speciális karaktert átkonvertálni az UTF-8 megfelelőjébe; ezeket kézzel kell frissíteni. ## 2.2 A convert-ly futtatása A convert-ly a forrásfájlban található \version parancs alapján állapítja meg a fájl verziószámát. A legtöbb esetben a forrásfájl frissítéséhez elegendő kiadni a convert-ly -e fájlnév.ly  parancsot abban a könyvtárban, ahol a fájl található. Ez a parancs helyben frissíti a fájlnév.ly fájlt, az eredetit pedig megőrzi fájlnév.ly~ néven. Figyelem: A convert-ly parancs alapesetben csak arra a verzióra frissít, amelyikben a legutóbbi szintaxisváltozás történt. Így általában a frissített fájl verziószáma kisebb lesz, mint az éppen használt programé. Egy könyvtárban található összes bemeneti fájl frissítéséhez a következő parancs használható: convert-ly -e *.ly  Amennyiben az újabb fájlnak más nevet szeretnénk adni, és az eredeti fájlt változatlanul szeretnénk hagyni, a következő parancsot adjuk ki: convert-ly fájlnév.ly > újfájlnév.ly  Futása során a program kiírja a verziószámokat, amelyekre frissítés történt. Ha egy verziószám sincs kiírva, akkor a fájl teljesen friss. A Mac OS X-felhasználók ezt a parancsot a grafikus felületen is elérhetik a Compile > Update syntax menüpontból. A Windows-felhasználóknak ezeket a parancsokat a DOS parancssorba kell beírni, amit tipikusan a Start menüben a Programok > Kellékek > Parancssor kiválasztásával lehet elindítani. ## 2.3 A convert-ly parancssori paraméterei A program meghívása a következő módon történik: convert-ly [opció]… fájlnév…  A következő opciók adhatóak meg: -e, --edit A fájl helyben frissítése. -f, --from=forrásverzió A forrásfájl verziójának megadása. Ha nincs megadva, a convert-ly a fájlban található \version parancs alapján kitalálja. Példa: --from=2.10.25 -n, --no-version Alapesetben a convert-ly ellátja a kimenetét a megfelelő \version paranccsal. Ez az opció ezt tiltja le. -s, --show-rules Nem történik frissítés, csak a frissítési szabályok kiírása. --to=célverzió Azt adja meg, hogy melyik verzióra frissüljön a fájl. Alapértéke a legfrissebb elérhető verzió. Példa: --to=2.12.2 -h, --help Segítség kiírása az alkalmazás használatához. Texinfo fájlokban található LilyPond részletek frissítéséhez az alábbi parancs használatos: convert-ly --from=... --to=... --no-version *.itely  A LilyPond két verziója közötti, a nyelvtanban bekövetkezett változások megtekintéséhez pedig a következő: convert-ly --from=... --to=... -s  ## 2.4 Problémák a convert-ly futtatása közben Amikor olyan forrásfájlt frissítünk a convert-ly segédprogrammal Windows alatt parancssorból, amelynek elérési útja szóközt tartalmaz, a forrásfájl elérési útját három-három (!) idézőjel közé kell írni: convert-ly """D:/Az én kottáim/Óda.ly""" > "D:/Az én kottáim/Óda - új.ly"  Ha az egyszerű convert-ly -e *.ly parancs futása meghiúsul a fájlok nagy mennyisége miatt, a másik lehetőség a convert-ly futtatása ciklusban. A következő, UNIX alatt használható példa minden .ly fájlt frissít az aktuális könyvtárban: for f in *.ly; do convert-ly -e$f; done;


A Windows parancssorában a megfelelő parancs:

for %x in (*.ly) do convert-ly -e """%x"""


A program nem minden változást képes kezelni. A Scheme kód és a LilyPond Scheme felületének frissítése nem történik meg, a Scheme kódrészleteket kézzel kell átírni.

## 2.5 Kézi frissítés

Ideális esetben a convert-ly minden változás kezelésére képes lenne. Elvégre ha a régi verzió képes volt értelmezni a régi nyelvtant, az új verzió pedig az újat, akkor elvileg létezhetne egy másik program, amelyik a kettő közötti konverziót elvégzi2.

A gyakorlatban azonban a LilyPond erőforrásai korlátosak: nem minden konverzió történik meg automatikusan. Íme az ismert problémák listája.

1.6 -> 2.0:
- A számozott basszus frissítése nem tökéletes, főleg a {< >} esetében.
Ez úgy kerülhető meg, hogy a '{<' karakterlánc összes előfordulását egy
ideiglenes másik karakterláncra cseréljük, pl. '{#'-re. Hasonlóképpen a
'>}' előfordulásai '&}'-re cserélendőek. A frissítés után pedig a következő
cseréket kell végrehajtani: '{ #' -> '{ <' és '& }' -> '> }'.
- A formázott szövegek frissítése sem mindig jó. Eddig zárójelekkel
csoportosítani lehetett több formázó parancsot, pl.:
-#'((bold italic) "string")
Ez sajnos helytelenül a következővé alakul:
-\markup{{\bold italic} "string"}
A helyes ez lenne:
-\markup{\bold \italic "string"}

2.0 -> 2.2:
- A \partcombine frissítése nem támogatott.
- Az \addlyrics => \lyricsto frissítés nem történik meg, ez több versszakkal
rendelkező kották esetében problémát okozhat.

2.0 -> 2.4:
A következő konverziók nem támogatottak:
- \magnify #m => \fontsize #f, ahol f = 6ln(m)/ln(2))
- \applyMusic #(remove-tag '...) => \keepWithTag #'...
- first-page-number no => print-first-page-number = ##f
- "Első sor" \\\\ "Második sor" =>
\markup \center-align < "Első sor" "Második sor" >
- \rced => \!
- \rc => \!

2.2 -> 2.4:
A \turnOff parancs (pl. a következő esetben:
\set Staff.VoltaBracket = \turnOff) frissítése helytelen.

2.4.2 -> 2.5.9
A \markup{ \center-align <{ ... }> } parancs a frissítés után
\markup{ \center-align {\line { ... }} } kellene, hogy legyen, de a \line
jelenleg hiányzik.

2.4 -> 2.6
A speciális LaTeX karakterek (pl. $~$) nem alakulnak át az UTF-8
megfelelőjükre.

2.8
A \score{} blokknak innentől kezdve egy zenei kifejezéssel kell kezdődnie.
Minden más (pl. a \header{} blokk) a zene után jöhet csak.


# 3. A lilypond-book használata

Amennyiben egy dokumentumba kottapéldákat szeretnénk beszúrni, megtehetjük, hogy azok képeit egyesével létrehozzuk a LilyPond segítségével PostScript vagy PNG formátumban, és mint bármilyen más képeket, beillesztjük azokat egy LaTeX vagy HTML dokumentumba.

A lilypond-book ennek a folyamatnak az automatizálására szolgál: ez a program kiszedi a LilyPond kódrészleteket egy dokumentumból, lefordítja őket a lilypond segítségével, és az így kapott képeket beilleszti az eredeti kódrészletek helyére. A kottakép méretei igazodnak a dokumentum elrendezéséhez.

A lilypond-book egy különálló parancssori program; a parancssoros programok futtatásának módját a Parancssori használat írja le bővebben.

A lilypond-book jelenleg a LaTeX, HTML, Texinfo és DocBook formátumokat támogatja.

## 3.1 Egy kottapéldákat tartalmazó dokumentum

Bizonyos dokumentumok kottapéldákat tartalmaznak. Ezek között vannak zenetudományi értekezések, énekeskönyvek, vagy ehhez hasonló kézikönyvek. Ezeket úgy is el lehet készíteni, hogy a szövegbe beillesztjük a kottaábrákat. Azonban ahhoz, hogy ne kelljen minden egyes kottarészlet szedését külön elvégezni, a HTML, LaTeX, Texinfo és DocBook formátumú dokumentumok esetén mód nyílik ennek automatizálására.

Egy lilypond-book nevű parancsfájl a LilyPond nyelvén írt kódrészleteket szépen formázott kottapéldákká alakítja át. Íme egy rövid, magyarázatokkal ellátott LaTeX példa.

### Bemenet

\documentclass[a4paper]{article}

\begin{document}

A \verb+lilypond-book+ segítségével feldolgozott dokumentumok
kottapéldákat tartalmazhatnak. Például:

\begin{lilypond}
\relative {
c'2 e2 \tuplet 3/2 { f8 a b } a2 e4
}
\end{lilypond}

A beállításokat szögletes zárójelbe kell tenni:

\begin{lilypond}[fragment,quote,staffsize=26,verbatim]
c'4 f16
\end{lilypond}

A nagyobb kottapéldákat ki lehet emelni külön fájlba, majd beilleszteni
őket a \verb+\lilypondfile+ paranccsal:

\lilypondfile[quote,noindent]{screech-and-boink.ly}

\end{document}


### Feldolgozás

A fenti dokumentumot egy ‘lilybook.lytex’ nevű fájlba mentve futtassuk le a következő parancsokat:

lilypond-book --output=out --pdf lilybook.lytex
lilypond-book (GNU LilyPond) 2.19.54
...
Compiling lilybook.tex...
cd out
pdflatex lilybook
...
xpdf lilybook
(az xpdf helyére értelemszerűen tetszőleges PDF-nézegető
kerülhet)


A lilypond-book és a latex rengeteg ideiglenes fájlt hoznak létre. Annak érdekében, hogy ezek külön alkönyvtárba kerüljenek, a --output=alkönyvtár opciót kell megadni.

Lent látható a fenti LaTeX példa kimenete.3 Ezzel elsajátítottuk a lilypond-book használatának alapjait.

### Kimenet

A lilypond-book segítségével feldolgozott dokumentumok kottapéldákat tartalmazhatnak. Például:

A beállításokat szögletes zárójelbe kell tenni:

c'4 f16


A nagyobb kottapéldákat ki lehet emelni külön fájlba, majd beilleszteni őket a \lilypondfile paranccsal:

## 3.2 Zene és szöveg integrációja

Here we explain how to integrate LilyPond with various output formats.

### 3.2.1 LaTeX

LaTeX is the de-facto standard for publishing layouts in the exact sciences. It is built on top of the TeX typesetting engine, providing the best typography available anywhere.

See The Not So Short Introduction to LaTeX for an overview on how to use LaTeX.

Music is entered using

\begin{lilypond}[options,go,here]
\end{lilypond}


or

\lilypondfile[options,go,here]{filename}


or

\lilypond[options,go,here]{ YOUR LILYPOND CODE }


Additionally, \lilypondversion displays the current version of lilypond. Running lilypond-book yields a file that can be further processed with LaTeX.

We show some examples here. The lilypond environment

\begin{lilypond}[quote,fragment,staffsize=26]
c' d' e' f' g'2 g'2
\end{lilypond}


produces

The short version

\lilypond[quote,fragment,staffsize=11]{<c' e' g'>}


produces

Currently, you cannot include { or } within \lilypond{}, so this command is only useful with the fragment option.

The default line width of the music will be adjusted by examining the commands in the document preamble, the part of the document before \begin{document}. The lilypond-book command sends these to LaTeX to find out how wide the text is. The line width for the music fragments is then adjusted to the text width. Note that this heuristic algorithm can fail easily; in such cases it is necessary to use the line-width music fragment option.

Each snippet will call the following macros if they have been defined by the user:

• \preLilyPondExample called before the music,
• \postLilyPondExample called after the music,
• \betweenLilyPondSystem[1] is called between systems if lilypond-book has split the snippet into several PostScript files. It must be defined as taking one parameter and will be passed the number of files already included in this snippet. The default is to simply insert a \linebreak.

#### Válogatott kódrészletek

Sometimes it is useful to display music elements (such as ties and slurs) as if they continued after the end of the fragment. This can be done by breaking the staff and suppressing inclusion of the rest of the LilyPond output.

In LaTeX, define \betweenLilyPondSystem in such a way that inclusion of other systems is terminated once the required number of systems are included. Since \betweenLilyPondSystem is first called after the first system, including only the first system is trivial.

\def\betweenLilyPondSystem#1{\endinput}

\begin{lilypond}[fragment]
c'1$$e'( c'~ \break c' d) e f$$
\end{lilypond}


If a greater number of systems is requested, a TeX conditional must be used before the \endinput. In this example, replace ‘2’ by the number of systems you want in the output.

\def\betweenLilyPondSystem#1{
\ifnum#1<2\else\expandafter\endinput\fi
}


(Since \endinput immediately stops the processing of the current input file we need \expandafter to delay the call of \endinput after executing \fi so that the \if-\fi clause is balanced.)

Remember that the definition of \betweenLilyPondSystem is effective until TeX quits the current group (such as the LaTeX environment) or is overridden by another definition (which is, in most cases, for the rest of the document). To reset your definition, write

\let\betweenLilyPondSystem\undefined


This may be simplified by defining a TeX macro

\def\onlyFirstNSystems#1{
\def\betweenLilyPondSystem##1{%
\ifnum##1<#1\else\expandafter\endinput\fi}
}


and then saying only how many systems you want before each fragment,

\onlyFirstNSystems{3}
\begin{lilypond}...\end{lilypond}
\onlyFirstNSystems{1}
\begin{lilypond}...\end{lilypond}


#### Lásd még

There are specific lilypond-book command line options and other details to know when processing LaTeX documents, see A lilypond-book futtatása.

### 3.2.2 Texinfo

Texinfo is the standard format for documentation of the GNU project. An example of a Texinfo document is this manual. The HTML, PDF, and Info versions of the manual are made from the Texinfo document.

In the input file, music is specified with

@lilypond[options,go,here]
@end lilypond


or

@lilypond[options,go,here]{ YOUR LILYPOND CODE }


or

@lilypondfile[options,go,here]{filename}


Additionally, @lilypondversion displays the current version of lilypond.

When lilypond-book is run on it, this results in a Texinfo file (with extension ‘.texi’) containing @image tags for HTML, Info and printed output. lilypond-book generates images of the music in EPS and PDF formats for use in the printed output, and in PNG format for use in HTML and Info output.

We show two simple examples here. A lilypond environment

@lilypond[fragment]
c' d' e' f' g'2 g'
@end lilypond


produces

The short version

@lilypond[fragment,staffsize=11]{<c' e' g'>}


produces

Contrary to LaTeX, @lilypond{...} does not generate an in-line image. It always gets a paragraph of its own.

### 3.2.3 HTML

Music is entered using

<lilypond fragment relative=2>
\key c \minor c4 es g2
</lilypond>


lilypond-book then produces an HTML file with appropriate image tags for the music fragments:

For inline pictures, use <lilypond ... />, where the options are separated by a colon from the music, for example

Some music in <lilypond relative=2: a b c/> a line of text.


To include separate files, say

<lilypondfile option1 option2 ...>filename</lilypondfile>


For a list of options to use with the lilypond or lilypondfile tags, see Kottapéldák paraméterei.

Additionally, <lilypondversion/> displays the current version of lilypond.

### 3.2.4 DocBook

For inserting LilyPond snippets it is good to keep the conformity of our DocBook document, thus allowing us to use DocBook editors, validation etc. So we don’t use custom tags, only specify a convention based on the standard DocBook elements.

### Common conventions

For inserting all type of snippets we use the mediaobject and inlinemediaobject element, so our snippets can be formatted inline or not inline. The snippet formatting options are always provided in the role property of the innermost element (see in next sections). Tags are chosen to allow DocBook editors format the content gracefully. The DocBook files to be processed with lilypond-book should have the extension ‘.lyxml’.

### Including a LilyPond file

This is the most simple case. We must use the ‘.ly’ extension for the included file, and insert it as a standard imageobject, with the following structure:

<mediaobject>
<imageobject>
<imagedata fileref="music1.ly" role="printfilename" />
</imageobject>
</mediaobject>


Note that you can use mediaobject or inlinemediaobject as the outermost element as you wish.

### Including LilyPond code

Including LilyPond code is possible by using a programlisting, where the language is set to lilypond with the following structure:

<inlinemediaobject>
<textobject>
<programlisting language="lilypond" role="fragment verbatim staffsize=16 ragged-right relative=2">
\context Staff \with {
\remove "Time_signature_engraver"
\remove "Clef_engraver"}
{ c4( fis) }
</programlisting>
</textobject>
</inlinemediaobject>


As you can see, the outermost element is a mediaobject or inlinemediaobject, and there is a textobject containing the programlisting inside.

### Processing the DocBook document

Running lilypond-book on our ‘.lyxml’ file will create a valid DocBook document to be further processed with ‘.xml’ extension. If you use dblatex, it will create a PDF file from this document automatically. For HTML (HTML Help, JavaHelp etc.) generation you can use the official DocBook XSL stylesheets, however, it is possible that you have to make some customization for it.

## 3.3 Kottapéldák paraméterei

In the following, a ‘LilyPond command’ refers to any command described in the previous sections which is handled by lilypond-book to produce a music snippet. For simplicity, LilyPond commands are only shown in LaTeX syntax.

Note that the option string is parsed from left to right; if an option occurs multiple times, the last one is taken.

The following options are available for LilyPond commands:

staffsize=ht

Set staff size to ht, which is measured in points.

ragged-right

Produce ragged-right lines with natural spacing, i.e., ragged-right = ##t is added to the LilyPond snippet. This is the default for the \lilypond{} command if no line-width option is present. It is also the default for the lilypond environment if the fragment option is set, and no line width is explicitly specified.

noragged-right

For single-line snippets, allow the staff length to be stretched to equal that of the line width, i.e., ragged-right = ##f is added to the LilyPond snippet.

line-width
line-width=size\unit

Set line width to size, using unit as units. unit is one of the following strings: cm, mm, in, or pt. This option affects LilyPond output (this is, the staff length of the music snippet), not the text layout.

If used without an argument, set line width to a default value (as computed with a heuristic algorithm).

If no line-width option is given, lilypond-book tries to guess a default for lilypond environments which don’t use the ragged-right option.

notime

Do not print the time signature, and turns off the timing (time signature, bar lines) in the score.

fragment

Make lilypond-book add some boilerplate code so that you can simply enter, say,

c'4


without \layout, \score, etc.

nofragment

Do not add additional code to complete LilyPond code in music snippets. Since this is the default, nofragment is redundant normally.

indent=size\unit

Set indentation of the first music system to size, using unit as units. unit is one of the following strings: cm, mm, in, or pt. This option affects LilyPond, not the text layout.

noindent

Set indentation of the first music system to zero. This option affects LilyPond, not the text layout. Since no indentation is the default, noindent is redundant normally.

quote

Reduce line length of a music snippet by 2*0.4in and put the output into a quotation block. The value ‘0.4in’ can be controlled with the exampleindent option.

exampleindent

Set the amount by which the quote option indents a music snippet.

relative
relative=n

Use relative octave mode. By default, notes are specified relative to middle C. The optional integer argument specifies the octave of the starting note, where the default 1 is middle C. relative option only works when fragment option is set, so fragment is automatically implied by relative, regardless of the presence of any (no)fragment option in the source.

LilyPond also uses lilypond-book to produce its own documentation. To do that, some more obscure music fragment options are available.

verbatim

The argument of a LilyPond command is copied to the output file and enclosed in a verbatim block, followed by any text given with the intertext option (not implemented yet); then the actual music is displayed. This option does not work well with \lilypond{} if it is part of a paragraph.

If verbatim is used in a lilypondfile command, it is possible to enclose verbatim only a part of the source file. If the source file contain a comment containing ‘begin verbatim’ (without quotes), quoting the source in the verbatim block will start after the last occurrence of such a comment; similarly, quoting the source verbatim will stop just before the first occurrence of a comment containing ‘end verbatim’, if there is any. In the following source file example, the music will be interpreted in relative mode, but the verbatim quote will not show the relative block, i.e.

\relative { % begin verbatim
c'4 e2 g4
f2 e % end verbatim
}


will be printed with a verbatim block like

  c4 e2 g4
f2 e


If you would like to translate comments and variable names in verbatim output but not in the sources, you may set the environment variable LYDOC_LOCALEDIR to a directory path; the directory should contain a tree of ‘.mo’ message catalogs with lilypond-doc as a domain.

addversion

(Only for Texinfo output.) Prepend line \version @w{"@version{}"} to verbatim output.

texidoc

(Only for Texinfo output.) If lilypond is called with the ‘--header=texidoc’ option, and the file to be processed is called ‘foo.ly’, it creates a file ‘foo.texidoc’ if there is a texidoc field in the \header. The texidoc option makes lilypond-book include such files, adding its contents as a documentation block right before the music snippet.

Assuming the file ‘foo.ly’ contains

\header {
texidoc = "This file demonstrates a single note."
}
{ c'4 }


and we have this in our Texinfo document ‘test.texinfo

@lilypondfile[texidoc]{foo.ly}


the following command line gives the expected result

lilypond-book --pdf --process="lilypond \


Most LilyPond test documents (in the ‘input’ directory of the distribution) are small ‘.ly’ files which look exactly like this.

For localization purpose, if the Texinfo document contains @documentlanguage LANG and ‘foo.ly’ header contains a texidocLANG field, and if lilypond is called with ‘--header=texidocLANG’, then ‘foo.texidocLANG’ will be included instead of ‘foo.texidoc’.

doctitle

(Only for Texinfo output.) This option works similarly to texidoc option: if lilypond is called with the ‘--header=doctitle’ option, and the file to be processed is called ‘foo.ly’ and contains a doctitle field in the \header, it creates a file ‘foo.doctitle’. When doctitle option is used, the contents of ‘foo.doctitle’, which should be a single line of text, is inserted in the Texinfo document as @lydoctitle text. @lydoctitle should be a macro defined in the Texinfo document. The same remark about texidoc processing with localized languages also applies to doctitle.

nogettext

(Only for Texinfo output.) Do not translate comments and variable names in the snippet quoted verbatim.

printfilename

If a LilyPond input file is included with \lilypondfile, print the file name right before the music snippet. For HTML output, this is a link. Only the base name of the file is printed, i.e. the directory part of the file path is stripped.

## 3.4 A lilypond-book futtatása

lilypond-book produces a file with one of the following extensions: ‘.tex’, ‘.texi’, ‘.html’ or ‘.xml’, depending on the output format. All of ‘.tex’, ‘.texi’ and ‘.xml’ files need further processing.

### Format-specific instructions

#### LaTeX

There are two ways of processing your LaTeX document for printing or publishing: getting a PDF file directly with PDFLaTeX, or getting a PostScript file with LaTeX via a DVI to PostScript translator like dvips. The first way is simpler and recommended4, and whichever way you use, you can easily convert between PostScript and PDF with tools, like ps2pdf and pdf2ps included in Ghostscript package.

To produce a PDF file through PDFLaTeX, use

lilypond-book --pdf yourfile.lytex
pdflatex yourfile.tex


To produce PDF output via LaTeX/dvips/ps2pdf, you should do

lilypond-book yourfile.lytex
latex yourfile.tex
dvips -Ppdf yourfile.dvi
ps2pdf yourfile.ps


The ‘.dvi’ file created by this process will not contain note heads. This is normal; if you follow the instructions, they will be included in the ‘.ps’ and ‘.pdf’ files.

Running dvips may produce some warnings about fonts; these are harmless and may be ignored. If you are running latex in twocolumn mode, remember to add -t landscape to the dvips options.

#### Texinfo

To produce a Texinfo document (in any output format), follow the normal procedures for Texinfo; this is, either call texi2pdf or texi2dvi or makeinfo, depending on the output format you want to create. See the documentation of Texinfo for further details.

### Command line options

lilypond-book accepts the following command line options:

-f format
--format=format

Specify the document type to process: html, latex, texi (the default) or docbook. If this option is missing, lilypond-book tries to detect the format automatically, see Fájlkiterjesztések. Currently, texi is the same as texi-html.

-F filter
--filter=filter

Pipe snippets through filter. lilypond-book will not –filter and –process at the same time. For example,

lilypond-book --filter='convert-ly --from=2.0.0 -' my-book.tely

-h
--help

Print a short help message.

-I dir
--include=dir

Add dir to the include path. lilypond-book also looks for already compiled snippets in the include path, and does not write them back to the output directory, so in some cases it is necessary to invoke further processing commands such as makeinfo or latex with the same -I dir options.

-o dir
--output=dir

Place generated files in directory dir. Running lilypond-book generates lots of small files that LilyPond will process. To avoid all that garbage in the source directory, use the ‘--output’ command line option, and change to that directory before running latex or makeinfo.

lilypond-book --output=out yourfile.lytex
cd out
...

--skip-lily-check

Do not fail if no lilypond output is found. It is used for LilyPond Info documentation without images.

--skip-png-check

Do not fail if no PNG images are found for EPS files. It is used for LilyPond Info documentation without images.

--lily-output-dir=dir

Write lily-XXX files to directory dir, link into --output directory. Use this option to save building time for documents in different directories which share a lot of identical snippets.

--info-images-dir=dir

Format Texinfo output so that Info will look for images of music in dir.

--latex-program=prog

Run executable prog instead of latex. This is useful if your document is processed with xelatex, for example.

--left-padding=amount

Pad EPS boxes by this much. amount is measured in millimeters, and is 3.0 by default. This option should be used if the lines of music stick out of the right margin.

The width of a tightly clipped system can vary, due to notation elements that stick into the left margin, such as bar numbers and instrument names. This option will shorten each line and move each line to the right by the same amount.

-P command
--process=command

Process LilyPond snippets using command. The default command is lilypond. lilypond-book will not --filter and --process at the same time.

--pdf

Create PDF files for use with PDFLaTeX.

--use-source-file-names

Write snippet output files with the same base name as their source file. This option works only for snippets included with lilypondfile and only if directories implied by --output-dir and --lily-output-dir options are different.

-V
--verbose

Be verbose.

-v
--version

Print version information.

#### Ismert problémák és figyelmeztetések

The Texinfo command @pagesizes is not interpreted. Similarly, LaTeX commands that change margins and line widths after the preamble are ignored.

Only the first \score of a LilyPond block is processed.

## 3.5 Fájlkiterjesztések

You can use any filename extension for the input file, but if you do not use the recommended extension for a particular format you may need to manually specify the output format; for details, see A lilypond-book futtatása. Otherwise, lilypond-book automatically selects the output format based on the input filename’s extension.

 extension output format ‘.html’ HTML ‘.htmly’ HTML ‘.itely’ Texinfo ‘.latex’ LaTeX ‘.lytex’ LaTeX ‘.lyxml’ DocBook ‘.tely’ Texinfo ‘.tex’ LaTeX ‘.texi’ Texinfo ‘.texinfo’ Texinfo ‘.xml’ HTML

If you use the same filename extension for the input file than the extension lilypond-book uses for the output file, and if the input file is in the same directory as lilypond-book working directory, you must use --output option to make lilypond-book running, otherwise it will exit with an error message like „Output would overwrite input file”.

## 3.6 lilypond-book sablonok

These templates are for use with lilypond-book. If you’re not familiar with this program, please refer to A lilypond-book használata.

### 3.6.1 LaTeX

You can include LilyPond fragments in a LaTeX document.

\documentclass[]{article}

\begin{document}

Normal LaTeX text.

\begin{lilypond}
\relative {
a'4 b c d
}
\end{lilypond}

More LaTeX text, and options in square brackets.

\begin{lilypond}[fragment,relative=2,quote,staffsize=26,verbatim]
d4 c b a
\end{lilypond}
\end{document}


### 3.6.2 Texinfo

You can include LilyPond fragments in Texinfo; in fact, this entire manual is written in Texinfo.

\input texinfo @node Top
@top

Texinfo text

@lilypond
\relative {
a4 b c d
}
@end lilypond

More Texinfo text, and options in brackets.

@lilypond[verbatim,fragment,ragged-right]
d4 c b a
@end lilypond

@bye


### 3.6.3 html

<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN">
<HTML>
<body>

<p>
Documents for lilypond-book may freely mix music and text.  For
example,
<lilypond>
\relative {
a'4 b c d
}
</lilypond>
</p>

<p>
Another bit of lilypond, this time with options:

<lilypond fragment quote staffsize=26 verbatim>
a4 b c d
</lilypond>
</p>

</body>
</html>



### 3.6.4 xelatex

\documentclass{article}
\usepackage{ifxetex}
\ifxetex
%xetex specific stuff
\usepackage{xunicode,fontspec,xltxtra}
\setmainfont[Numbers=OldStyle]{Times New Roman}
\setsansfont{Arial}
\else
%This can be empty if you are not going to use pdftex
\usepackage[T1]{fontenc}
\usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
\usepackage{mathptmx}%Times
\usepackage{helvet}%Helvetica
\fi
%Here you can insert all packages that pdftex also understands
\usepackage[ngerman,finnish,english]{babel}
\usepackage{graphicx}

\begin{document}
\title{A short document with LilyPond and xelatex}
\maketitle

Normal \textbf{font} commands inside the \emph{text} work,
because they \textsf{are supported by \LaTeX{} and XeteX.}
If you want to use specific commands like \verb+\XeTeX+, you
should include them again in a \verb+\ifxetex+ environment.
You can use this to print the \ifxetex \XeTeX{} command \else
XeTeX command \fi which is not known to normal \LaTeX .

In normal text you can easily use LilyPond commands, like this:

\begin{lilypond}
{a2 b c'8 c' c' c'}
\end{lilypond}

\noindent
and so on.

The fonts of snippets set with LilyPond will have to be set from
inside
of the snippet.  For this you should read the AU on how to use
lilypond-book.

\selectlanguage{ngerman}
Auch Umlaute funktionieren ohne die \LaTeX -Befehle, wie auch alle
anderen
seltsamen Zeichen: __ ______, wenn sie von der Schriftart
unterst__tzt werden.
\end{document}


## 3.7 Közös tartalomjegyzék

These functions already exist in the OrchestralLily package:

http://repo.or.cz/w/orchestrallily.git


#### Exporting the ToC from LilyPond

This assumes that your score has multiple movements in the same lilypond output file.

 #(define (oly:create-toc-file layout pages) (let* ((label-table (ly:output-def-lookup layout 'label-page-table))) (if (not (null? label-table)) (let* ((format-line (lambda (toc-item) (let* ((label (car toc-item)) (text (caddr toc-item)) (label-page (and (list? label-table) (assoc label label-table))) (page (and label-page (cdr label-page)))) (format #f "~a, section, 1, {~a}, ~a" page text label)))) (formatted-toc-items (map format-line (toc-items))) (whole-string (string-join formatted-toc-items ",\n")) (output-name (ly:parser-output-name)) (outfilename (format "~a.toc" output-name)) (outfile (open-output-file outfilename))) (if (output-port? outfile) (display whole-string outfile) (ly:warning (_ "Unable to open output file ~a for the TOC information") outfilename)) (close-output-port outfile))))) \paper { #(define (page-post-process layout pages) (oly:create-toc-file layout pages)) } 

#### Importing the ToC into LaTeX

In LaTeX, the header should include:

 \usepackage{pdfpages} \includescore{nameofthescore} 

where \includescore is defined as:

 %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% % \includescore{PossibleExtension} %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% % Read in the TOC entries for a PDF file from the corresponding .toc file. % This requires some heave latex tweaking, since reading in things from a file % and inserting it into the arguments of a macro is not (easily) possible % Solution by Patrick Fimml on #latex on April 18, 2009: % \readfile{filename}{\variable} % reads in the contents of the file into \variable (undefined if file % doesn't exist) \newread\readfile@f \def\readfile@line#1{% {\catcode\^^M=10\global\read\readfile@f to \readfile@tmp}% \edef\do{\noexpand\g@addto@macro{\noexpand#1}{\readfile@tmp}}\do% \ifeof\readfile@f\else% \readfile@line{#1}% \fi% } \def\readfile#1#2{% \openin\readfile@f=#1 % \ifeof\readfile@f% \typeout{No TOC file #1 available!}% \else% \gdef#2{}% \readfile@line{#2}% \fi \closein\readfile@f% }% \newcommand{\includescore}[1]{ \def\oly@fname{\oly@basename\@ifmtarg{#1}{}{_#1}} \let\oly@addtotoc\undefined \readfile{\oly@xxxxxxxxx}{\oly@addtotoc} \ifx\oly@addtotoc\undefined \includepdf[pages=-]{\oly@fname} \else \edef\includeit{\noexpand\includepdf[pages=-,addtotoc={\oly@addtotoc}] {\oly@fname}}\includeit \fi } 

## 3.8 További módszerek zene és szöveg kombinálására

Other means of mixing text and music (without lilypond-book) are discussed in LilyPond output in other programs.

# 4. External programs

LilyPond can interact with other programs in various ways.

## 4.1 Point and click

Point and click lets you find notes in the input by clicking on them in the PDF viewer. This makes it easier to find input that causes some error in the sheet music.

### 4.1.1 Configuring the system

When this functionality is active, LilyPond adds hyperlinks to PDF and SVG files. These hyperlinks are sent to a ‘URI helper’ or a web-browser, which opens a text-editor with the cursor in the right place.

To make this chain work, you should configure your PDF viewer to follow hyperlinks using the ‘lilypond-invoke-editor’ script supplied with LilyPond.

The program ‘lilypond-invoke-editor’ is a small helper program. It will invoke an editor for the special textedit URIs, and run a web browser for others. It tests the environment variable EDITOR for the following patterns,

emacs

this will invoke

emacsclient --no-wait +line:column file

gvim

this will invoke

gvim --remote +:line:normcolumn file

nedit

this will invoke

  nc -noask +line file'


The environment variable LYEDITOR is used to override this. It contains the command line to start the editor, where %(file)s, %(column)s, %(line)s is replaced with the file, column and line respectively. The setting

emacsclient --no-wait +%(line)s:%(column)s %(file)s


for LYEDITOR is equivalent to the standard emacsclient invocation.

For Xpdf on UNIX, the following should be present in ‘xpdfrc’. On UNIX, this file is found either in ‘/etc/xpdfrc’ or as ‘$HOME/.xpdfrc’. urlCommand "lilypond-invoke-editor %s"  If you are using Ubuntu, it is likely that the version of Xpdf installed with your system crashes on every PDF file: this state has been persisting for several years and is due to library mismatches. Your best bet is to install a current ‘xpdf’ package and the corresponding ‘libpoppler’ package from Debian instead. Once you have tested that this works, you might want to use sudo apt-mark hold xpdf  in order to keep Ubuntu from overwriting it with the next ‘update’ of its crashing package. #### Using GNOME 2 For using GNOME 2 (and PDF viewers integrated with it), the magic invocation for telling the system about the ‘textedit:’ URI is;  gconftool-2 -t string -s /desktop/gnome/url-handlers/textedit/command "lilypond-invoke-editor %s" gconftool-2 -s /desktop/gnome/url-handlers/textedit/needs_terminal false -t bool gconftool-2 -t bool -s /desktop/gnome/url-handlers/textedit/enabled true  After that invocation; gnome-open textedit:///etc/issue:1:0:0  should call ‘lilypond-invoke-editor’ for opening files. #### Using GNOME 3 In GNOME 3, URIs are handled by the ‘gvfs’ layer rather than by ‘gconf’. Create a file in a local directory such as ‘/tmp’ that is called ‘lilypond-invoke-editor.desktop’ and has the contents; [Desktop Entry] Version=1.0 Name=lilypond-invoke-editor GenericName=Textedit URI handler Comment=URI handler for textedit: Exec=lilypond-invoke-editor %u Terminal=false Type=Application MimeType=x-scheme-handler/textedit; Categories=Editor NoDisplay=true  and then execute the commands xdg-desktop-menu install ./lilypond-invoke-editor.desktop xdg-mime default lilypond-invoke-editor.desktop x-scheme-handler/textedit  After that invocation; gnome-open textedit:///etc/issue:1:0:0  should call ‘lilypond-invoke-editor’ for opening files. #### Extra configuration for Evince If gnome-open works, but Evince still refuses to open point and click links due to denied permissions, you might need to change the Apparmor profile of Evince which controls the kind of actions Evince is allowed to perform. For Ubuntu, the process is to edit the file ‘/etc/apparmor.d/local/usr.bin.evince’ and append the following lines: # For Textedit links /usr/local/bin/lilypond-invoke-editor Cx -> sanitized_helper,  After adding these lines, call sudo apparmor_parser -r -T -W /etc/apparmor.d/usr.bin.evince  Now Evince should be able to open point and click links. It is likely that similar configurations will work for other viewers. ### Enabling point and click Point and click functionality is enabled by default when creating PDF or SVG files. The point and click links enlarge the output files significantly. For reducing the size of these (and PS) files, point and click may be switched off by issuing \pointAndClickOff  in a ‘.ly’ file. Point and click may be explicitly enabled with \pointAndClickOn  Alternately, you may disable point and click with a command-line option: lilypond -dno-point-and-click file.ly  Figyelem: You should always turn off point and click in any LilyPond files to be distributed to avoid including path information about your computer in the PDF file, which can pose a security risk. ### Selective point-and-click For some interactive applications, it may be desirable to only include certain point-and-click items. For example, if somebody wanted to create an application which played audio or video starting from a particular note, it would be awkward if clicking on the note produced the point-and-click location for an accidental or slur which occurred over that note. This may be controlled by indicating which events to include: • Hard-coded in the ‘.ly’ file: \pointAndClickTypes #'note-event \relative { c'2\f( f) }  or #(ly:set-option 'point-and-click 'note-event) \relative { c'2\f( f) }  • Command-line: lilypond -dpoint-and-click=note-event example.ly  Multiple events can be included: • Hard-coded in the ‘.ly’ file: \pointAndClickTypes #'(note-event dynamic-event) \relative { c'2\f( f) }  or #(ly:set-option 'point-and-click '(note-event dynamic-event)) \relative { c'2\f( f) }  • Command-line:  lilypond \ -e"(ly:set-option 'point-and-click '(note-event dynamic-event))" \ example.ly  ## 4.2 Text editor support There is support for different text editors for LilyPond. ### Emacs mode Emacs has a ‘lilypond-mode’, which provides keyword autocompletion, indentation, LilyPond specific parenthesis matching and syntax coloring, handy compile short-cuts and reading LilyPond manuals using Info. If ‘lilypond-mode’ is not installed on your platform, see below. An Emacs mode for entering music and running LilyPond is contained in the source archive in the ‘elisp’ directory. Do make install to install it to elispdir. The file ‘lilypond-init.el’ should be placed to load-path/site-start.d/’ or appended to your ‘~/.emacs’ or ‘~/.emacs.el’. As a user, you may want add your source path (e.g. ‘~/site-lisp/’) to your load-path by appending the following line (as modified) to your ‘~/.emacs (setq load-path (append (list (expand-file-name "~/site-lisp")) load-path))  ### Vim mode For Vim, a filetype plugin, indent mode, and syntax-highlighting mode are available to use with LilyPond. To enable all of these features, create (or modify) your ‘$HOME/.vimrc’ to contain these three lines, in order:

filetype off
set runtimepath+=/usr/local/share/lilypond/current/vim/
filetype on
syntax on


If LilyPond is not installed in the ‘/usr/local/’ directory, change the path appropriately. This topic is discussed in Other sources of information.

### Other editors

Other editors (both text and graphical) support LilyPond, but their special configuration files are not distributed with LilyPond. Consult their documentation for more information. Such editors are listed in Easier editing.

## 4.3 Converting from other formats

Music can be entered also by importing it from other formats. This chapter documents the tools included in the distribution to do so. There are other tools that produce LilyPond input, for example GUI sequencers and XML converters. Refer to the website for more details.

These are separate programs from lilypond itself, and are run on the command line; see Parancssori használat for more information. If you have MacOS 10.3 or 10.4 and you have trouble running some of these scripts, e.g. convert-ly, see MacOS X.

#### Ismert problémák és figyelmeztetések

We unfortunately do not have the resources to maintain these programs; please consider them „as-is”. Patches are appreciated, but bug reports will almost certainly not be resolved.

### 4.3.1 Invoking midi2ly

midi2ly translates a Type 1 MIDI file to a LilyPond source file.

MIDI (Music Instrument Digital Interface) is a standard for digital instruments: it specifies cabling, a serial protocol and a file format. The MIDI file format is a de facto standard format for exporting music from other programs, so this capability may come in useful when importing files from a program that has a converter for a direct format.

midi2ly converts tracks into Staff and channels into Voice contexts. Relative mode is used for pitches, durations are only written when necessary.

It is possible to record a MIDI file using a digital keyboard, and then convert it to ‘.ly’. However, human players are not rhythmically exact enough to make a MIDI to LY conversion trivial. When invoked with quantizing (‘-s’ and ‘-d’ options) midi2ly tries to compensate for these timing errors, but is not very good at this. It is therefore not recommended to use midi2ly for human-generated midi files.

It is invoked from the command-line as follows,

midi2ly [option]… midi-file


The following options are supported by midi2ly.

-a, --absolute-pitches

Print absolute pitches.

-d, --duration-quant=DUR

Quantize note durations on DUR.

-e, --explicit-durations

Print explicit durations.

-h, --help

Show summary of usage.

-k, --key=acc[:minor]

Set default key. acc > 0 sets number of sharps; acc < 0 sets number of flats. A minor key is indicated by :1.

-o, --output=file

Write output to file.

-s, --start-quant=DUR

Quantize note starts on DUR.

-t, --allow-tuplet=DUR*NUM/DEN

Allow tuplet durations DUR*NUM/DEN.

-v, --verbose

Be verbose.

-V, --version

Print version number.

-w, --warranty

-x, --text-lyrics

Treat every text as a lyric.

#### Ismert problémák és figyelmeztetések

Overlapping notes in an arpeggio will not be correctly rendered. The first note will be read and the others will be ignored. Set them all to a single duration and add phrase markings or pedal indicators.

### 4.3.2 Invoking musicxml2ly

MusicXML is an XML dialect for representing music notation.

musicxml2ly extracts the notes, articulations, score structure, lyrics, etc. from part-wise MusicXML files, and writes them to a ‘.ly’ file and is invoked from the command-line as follows;

musicxml2ly [option]… xml-file


If the given filename is ‘-’, musicxml2ly reads input from the command line.

The following options are supported by musicxml2ly:

-a, --absolute

convert pitches in absolute mode.

-h, --help

print usage and option summary.

-l, --language=LANG

use LANG for pitch names, e.g. ’deutsch’ for note names in German.

--loglevel=loglevel

Set the output verbosity to loglevel. Possible values are NONE, ERROR, WARNING, PROGRESS (default) and DEBUG.

--lxml

use the lxml.etree Python package for XML-parsing; uses less memory and cpu time.

-m, --midi

activate midi-block.

-nd, --no-articulation-directions

do not convert directions (^, _ or -) for articulations, dynamics, etc.

--no-beaming

do not convert beaming information, use LilyPond’s automatic beaming instead.

-o, --output=file

set output filename to file. If file is ‘-’, the output will be printed on stdout. If not given, xml-file.ly’ will be used.

-r, --relative

convert pitches in relative mode (default).

-v, --verbose

be verbose.

--version

print version information.

-z, --compressed

input file is a zip-compressed MusicXML file.

### 4.3.3 Invoking abc2ly

Figyelem: This is not currently supported and may eventually be removed from future versions of LilyPond.

ABC is a fairly simple ASCII based format. It is described at the ABC site:

abc2ly translates from ABC to LilyPond. It is invoked as follows:

abc2ly [option]… abc-file


The following options are supported by abc2ly:

-b, --beams=None

preserve ABC’s notion of beams

-h, --help

this help

-o, --output=file

set output filename to file.

-s, --strict

--version

print version information.

There is a rudimentary facility for adding LilyPond code to the ABC source file. For example;

%%LY voices \set autoBeaming = ##f


This will cause the text following the keyword ‘voices’ to be inserted into the current voice of the LilyPond output file.

Similarly,

%%LY slyrics more words


will cause the text following the ‘slyrics’ keyword to be inserted into the current line of lyrics.

#### Ismert problémák és figyelmeztetések

The ABC standard is not very ‘standard’. For extended features (e.g., polyphonic music) different conventions exist.

Multiple tunes in one file cannot be converted.

ABC synchronizes words and notes at the beginning of a line; abc2ly does not.

abc2ly ignores the ABC beaming.

### 4.3.4 Invoking etf2ly

Figyelem: This is not currently supported and may eventually be removed from future versions of LilyPond.

ETF (Enigma Transport Format) is a format used by Coda Music Technology’s Finale product. etf2ly will convert part of an ETF file to a ready-to-use LilyPond file.

It is invoked from the command-line as follows;

etf2ly [option]… etf-file


The following options are supported by etf2ly:

-h, --help

this help

-o, --output=FILE

set output filename to FILE

--version

version information

#### Ismert problémák és figyelmeztetések

The list of articulation scripts is incomplete. Empty measures confuse etf2ly. Sequences of grace notes are ended improperly.

### 4.3.5 Other formats

LilyPond itself does not come with support for any other formats, but some external tools can also generate LilyPond files. These are listed in Easier editing.

## 4.4 LilyPond output in other programs

This section shows methods to integrate text and music, different than the automated method with lilypond-book.

### 4.4.1 LuaTex

As well as lilypond-book to integrate LilyPond output, there is an alternative program that can be used when using LuaTex called lyluatex.

### 4.4.2 OpenOffice and LibreOffice

LilyPond notation can be added to OpenOffice.org and LibreOffice with OOoLilyPond, an OpenOffice.org extension that converts LilyPond files into images within OpenOffice.org documents. Although this is no longer being developed, it appears to still work with version 4.

### 4.4.3 Other programs

Other programs that can handle ‘PNG’, ‘EPS’, or ‘PDF’ formats should use lilypond instead of lilypond-book. Each LilyPond output file must be created and inserted separately. Consult the program’s own documentation on how to insert files from other sources.

To help reduce the white space around your LilyPond score, use the following options;

\paper{
indent=0\mm
line-width=120\mm
oddFooterMarkup=##f
bookTitleMarkup = ##f
scoreTitleMarkup = ##f
}

… music …


To produce ‘EPS’ images;

lilypond -dbackend=eps -dno-gs-load-fonts -dinclude-eps-fonts myfile.ly


To produce ‘PNG’ images;

lilypond -dbackend=eps -dno-gs-load-fonts -dinclude-eps-fonts --png myfile.ly


For transparent ‘PNG’ images

 lilypond -dbackend=eps -dno-gs-load-fonts -dinclude-eps-fonts -dpixmap-format=pngalpha --png myfile.ly 

If you need to quote many fragments from a large score, you can also use the clip systems feature, see Extracting fragments of music.

## 4.5 Independent includes

Some users have produced files that can be \included with LilyPond to produce certain effects and those listed below are part of the LilyPond distribution. Also see Working with input files.

### 4.5.1 MIDI articulation

The Articulate project is an attempt to enhance LilyPond’s MIDI output and works by adjusting note lengths (that are not under slurs) according to the articulation markings attached to them. For example, a ‘staccato’ halves the note value, ‘tenuto’ gives a note its full duration and so on. See Enhancing MIDI output.

# 5. Suggestions for writing files

Now you’re ready to begin writing larger LilyPond input files – not just the little examples in the tutorial, but whole pieces. But how should you go about doing it?

As long as LilyPond can understand your input files and produce the output that you want, it doesn’t matter what your input files look like. However, there are a few other things to consider when writing LilyPond input files.

• What if you make a mistake? The structure of a LilyPond file can make certain errors easier (or harder) to find.
• What if you want to share your input files with somebody else? In fact, what if you want to alter your own input files in a few years? Some LilyPond input files are understandable at first glance; others may leave you scratching your head for an hour.
• What if you want to upgrade your LilyPond file for use with a later version of LilyPond? The input syntax changes occasionally as LilyPond improves. Most changes can be done automatically with convert-ly, but some changes might require manual assistance. LilyPond input files can be structured in order to be easier (or harder) to update.

## 5.1 General suggestions

Here are a few suggestions that can help to avoid (and fix) the most common problems when typesetting:

• Always include a \version number in your input files no matter how small they are. This prevents having to remember which version of LilyPond the file was created with and is especially relevant when A convert-ly használata command (which requires the \version statement to be present); or if sending your input files to other users (e.g. when asking for help on the mail lists). Note that all of the LilyPond templates contain \version numbers.
• For each line in your input file, write one bar of music. This will make debugging any problems in your input files much simpler.
• Include Bar and bar number checks as well as Octave checks. Including ‘checks’ of this type in your input files will help pinpoint mistakes more quickly. How often checks are added will depend on the complexity of the music being typeset. For simple compositions, checks added at a few at strategic points within the music can be enough but for more complex music, with many voices and/or staves, checks may be better placed after every bar.
• Add comments within input files. References to musical themes (i.e. ‘second theme in violins’, ‘fourth variation,’ etc.), or simply including bar numbers as comments, will make navigating the input file much simpler especically if something needs to be altered later on or if passing on LilyPond input files to another person.
• Add explicit note durations at the start of ‘sections’. For example, c4 d e f instead of just c d e f can make rearranging the music later on simpler.
• Learn to indent and align braces and parallel music. Many problems are often caused by either ‘missing’ braces. Clearly indenting ‘opening’ and ‘closing’ braces (or << and >> indicators) will help avoid such problems. For example;
\new Staff {
\relative {
r4 g'8 g c8 c4 d |
e4 r8 |
% Ossia section
<<
{ f8 c c | }
\new Staff {
f8 f c |
}
>>
r4 |
}
}


is much easier to follow than;

\new Staff { \relative { r4 g'8 g c4 c8 d | e4 r8
% Ossia section
<< { f8 c c } \new Staff { f8 f c } >> r4 | } }

• Keep music and style separate by putting overrides in the \layout block;
\score {
…music…
\layout {
\override TabStaff.Stemstencil = ##f
}
}


This will not create a new context but it will apply when one is created. Also see Saving typing with variables and functions, and Style sheets.

## 5.2 Typesetting existing music

If you are entering music from an existing score (i.e., typesetting a piece of existing sheet music),

• Enter the manuscript (the physical copy of the music) into LilyPond one system at a time (but still only one bar per line of text), and check each system when you finish it. You may use the showLastLength or showFirstLength properties to speed up processing – see Skipping corrected music.
• Define mBreak = { \break } and insert \mBreak in the input file whenever the manuscript has a line break. This makes it much easier to compare the LilyPond music to the original music. When you are finished proofreading your score, you may define mBreak = { } to remove all those line breaks. This will allow LilyPond to place line breaks wherever it feels are best.
• When entering a part for a transposing instrument into a variable, it is recommended that the notes are wrapped in
\transpose c natural-pitch {…}


(where natural-pitch is the open pitch of the instrument) so that the music in the variable is effectively in C. You can transpose it back again when the variable is used, if required, but you might not want to (e.g., when printing a score in concert pitch, converting a trombone part from treble to bass clef, etc.) Mistakes in transpositions are less likely if all the music in variables is at a consistent pitch.

Also, only ever transpose to/from C. That means that the only other keys you will use are the natural pitches of the instruments - bes for a B-flat trumpet, aes for an A-flat clarinet, etc.

## 5.3 Large projects

When working on a large project, having a clear structure to your lilypond input files becomes vital.

• Use a variable for each voice, with a minimum of structure inside the definition. The structure of the \score section is the most likely thing to change; the violin definition is extremely unlikely to change in a new version of LilyPond.
violin = \relative {
g'4 c'8. e16
}
…
\score {
\new GrandStaff {
\new Staff {
\violin
}
}
}

• Separate tweaks from music definitions. This point was made previously, but for large projects it is absolutely vital. We might need to change the definition of fthenp, but then we only need to do this once, and we can still avoid touching anything inside violin.
fthenp = _\markup{
\dynamic f \italic \small { 2nd } \hspace #0.1 \dynamic p }
violin = \relative {
g'4\fthenp c'8. e16
}


## 5.4 Troubleshooting

Sooner or later, you will write a file that LilyPond cannot compile. The messages that LilyPond gives may help you find the error, but in many cases you need to do some investigation to determine the source of the problem.

The most powerful tools for this purpose are the single line comment (indicated by %) and the block comment (indicated by %{…%}). If you don’t know where a problem is, start commenting out huge portions of your input file. After you comment out a section, try compiling the file again. If it works, then the problem must exist in the portion you just commented. If it doesn’t work, then keep on commenting out material until you have something that works.

In an extreme case, you might end up with only

\score {
<<
% \melody
% \harmony
% \bass
>>
\layout{}
}


(in other words, a file without any music)

If that happens, don’t give up. Uncomment a bit – say, the bass part – and see if it works. If it doesn’t work, then comment out all of the bass music (but leave \bass in the \score uncommented.

bass = \relative {
%{
c'4 c c c
d d d d
%}
}


Now start slowly uncommenting more and more of the bass part until you find the problem line.

Another very useful debugging technique is constructing Tiny examples.

## 5.5 Make and Makefiles

Pretty well all the platforms LilyPond can run on support a software facility called make. This software reads a special file called a Makefile that defines what files depend on what others and what commands you need to give the operating system to produce one file from another. For example the makefile would spell out how to produce ‘ballad.pdf’ and ‘ballad.midi’ from ‘ballad.ly’ by running LilyPond.

There are times when it is a good idea to create a Makefile for your project, either for your own convenience or as a courtesy to others who might have access to your source files. This is true for very large projects with many included files and different output options (e.g. full score, parts, conductor’s score, piano reduction, etc.), or for projects that require difficult commands to build them (such as lilypond-book projects). Makefiles vary greatly in complexity and flexibility, according to the needs and skills of the authors. The program GNU Make comes installed on GNU/Linux distributions and on MacOS X, and it is also available for Windows.

See the GNU Make Manual for full details on using make, as what follows here gives only a glimpse of what it can do.

The commands to define rules in a makefile differ according to platform; for instance the various forms of GNU/Linux and MacOS use bash, while Windows uses cmd. Note that on MacOS X, you need to configure the system to use the command-line interpreter. Here are some example makefiles, with versions for both GNU/Linux/MacOS and Windows.

The first example is for an orchestral work in four movements with a directory structure as follows:

Symphony/
|-- MIDI/
|-- Makefile
|-- Notes/
|   |-- cello.ily
|   |-- figures.ily
|   |-- horn.ily
|   |-- oboe.ily
|   |-- trioString.ily
|   |-- viola.ily
|   |-- violinOne.ily
|   -- violinTwo.ily
|-- PDF/
|-- Parts/
|   |-- symphony-cello.ly
|   |-- symphony-horn.ly
|   |-- symphony-oboes.ly
|   |-- symphony-viola.ly
|   |-- symphony-violinOne.ly
|   -- symphony-violinTwo.ly
|-- Scores/
|   |-- symphony.ly
|   |-- symphonyI.ly
|   |-- symphonyII.ly
|   |-- symphonyIII.ly
|   -- symphonyIV.ly
-- symphonyDefs.ily


The ‘.ly’ files in the ‘Scores’ and ‘Parts’ directories get their notes from ‘.ily’ files in the ‘Notes’ directory:

%%% top of file "symphony-cello.ly"
\include ../symphonyDefs.ily
\include ../Notes/cello.ily


The makefile will have targets of score (entire piece in full score), movements (individual movements in full score), and parts (individual parts for performers). There is also a target archive that will create a tarball of the source files, suitable for sharing via web or email. Here is the makefile for GNU/Linux or MacOS X. It should be saved with the name Makefile in the top directory of the project:

Figyelem: When a target or pattern rule is defined, the subsequent lines must begin with tabs, not spaces.

# the name stem of the output files
piece = symphony
# determine how many processors are present
CPU_CORES=cat /proc/cpuinfo | grep -m1 "cpu cores" | sed s/".*: "//
# The command to run lilypond
LILY_CMD = lilypond -ddelete-intermediate-files \
-dno-point-and-click -djob-count=$(CPU_CORES) # The suffixes used in this Makefile. .SUFFIXES: .ly .ily .pdf .midi # Input and output files are searched in the directories listed in # the VPATH variable. All of them are subdirectories of the current # directory (given by the GNU make variable CURDIR'). VPATH = \$(CURDIR)/Scores \
$(CURDIR)/PDF \$(CURDIR)/Parts \
$(CURDIR)/Notes # The pattern rule to create PDF and MIDI files from a LY input file. # The .pdf output files are put into the PDF' subdirectory, and the # .midi files go into the MIDI' subdirectory. %.pdf %.midi: %.ly$(LILY_CMD) $<; \ # this line begins with a tab if test -f "$*.pdf"; then \
mv "$*.pdf" PDF/; \ fi; \ if test -f "$*.midi"; then \
mv "$*.midi" MIDI/; \ fi notes = \ cello.ily \ horn.ily \ oboe.ily \ viola.ily \ violinOne.ily \ violinTwo.ily # The dependencies of the movements.$(piece)I.pdf: $(piece)I.ly$(notes)
$(piece)II.pdf:$(piece)II.ly $(notes)$(piece)III.pdf: $(piece)III.ly$(notes)
$(piece)IV.pdf:$(piece)IV.ly $(notes) # The dependencies of the full score.$(piece).pdf: $(piece).ly$(notes)

# The dependencies of the parts.
$(piece)-cello.pdf:$(piece)-cello.ly cello.ily
$(piece)-horn.pdf:$(piece)-horn.ly horn.ily
$(piece)-oboes.pdf:$(piece)-oboes.ly oboe.ily
$(piece)-viola.pdf:$(piece)-viola.ly viola.ily
$(piece)-violinOne.pdf:$(piece)-violinOne.ly violinOne.ily
$(piece)-violinTwo.pdf:$(piece)-violinTwo.ly violinTwo.ily

# Type make score' to generate the full score of all four
# movements as one file.
.PHONY: score
score: $(piece).pdf # Type make parts' to generate all parts. # Type make foo.pdf' to generate the part for instrument foo'. # Example: make symphony-cello.pdf'. .PHONY: parts parts:$(piece)-cello.pdf \
$(piece)-violinOne.pdf \$(piece)-violinTwo.pdf \
$(piece)-viola.pdf \$(piece)-oboes.pdf \
$(piece)-horn.pdf # Type make movements' to generate files for the # four movements separately. .PHONY: movements movements:$(piece)I.pdf \
$(piece)II.pdf \$(piece)III.pdf \
$(piece)IV.pdf all: score parts movements archive: tar -cvvf stamitz.tar \ # this line begins with a tab --exclude=*pdf --exclude=*~ \ --exclude=*midi --exclude=*.tar \ ../Stamitz/*  There are special complications on the Windows platform. After downloading and installing GNU Make for Windows, you must set the correct path in the system’s environment variables so that the DOS shell can find the Make program. To do this, right-click on "My Computer," then choose Properties and Advanced. Click Environment Variables, and then in the System Variables pane, highlight Path, click edit, and add the path to the GNU Make executable file, which will look something like this: C:\Program Files\GnuWin32\bin  The makefile itself has to be altered to handle different shell commands and to deal with spaces that are present in some default system directories. The archive target is eliminated since Windows does not have the tar command, and Windows also has a different default extension for midi files. ## WINDOWS VERSION ## piece = symphony LILY_CMD = lilypond -ddelete-intermediate-files \ -dno-point-and-click \ -djob-count=$(NUMBER_OF_PROCESSORS)

#get the 8.3 name of CURDIR (workaround for spaces in PATH)
workdir = $(shell for /f "tokens=*" %%b in ("$(CURDIR)") \
do @echo %%~sb)

.SUFFIXES: .ly .ily .pdf .mid

VPATH = \
$(workdir)/Scores \$(workdir)/PDF \
$(workdir)/Parts \$(workdir)/Notes

%.pdf %.mid: %.ly
$(LILY_CMD)$<      # this line begins with a tab
if exist "$*.pdf" move /Y "$*.pdf"  PDF/ # begin with tab
if exist "$*.mid" move /Y "$*.mid" MIDI/  # begin with tab

notes = \
cello.ily \
figures.ily \
horn.ily \
oboe.ily \
trioString.ily \
viola.ily \
violinOne.ily \
violinTwo.ily

$(piece)I.pdf:$(piece)I.ly $(notes)$(piece)II.pdf: $(piece)II.ly$(notes)
$(piece)III.pdf:$(piece)III.ly $(notes)$(piece)IV.pdf: $(piece)IV.ly$(notes)

$(piece).pdf:$(piece).ly $(notes)$(piece)-cello.pdf: $(piece)-cello.ly cello.ily$(piece)-horn.pdf: $(piece)-horn.ly horn.ily$(piece)-oboes.pdf: $(piece)-oboes.ly oboe.ily$(piece)-viola.pdf: $(piece)-viola.ly viola.ily$(piece)-violinOne.pdf: $(piece)-violinOne.ly violinOne.ily$(piece)-violinTwo.pdf: $(piece)-violinTwo.ly violinTwo.ily .PHONY: score score:$(piece).pdf

.PHONY: parts
parts: $(piece)-cello.pdf \$(piece)-violinOne.pdf \
$(piece)-violinTwo.pdf \$(piece)-viola.pdf \
$(piece)-oboes.pdf \$(piece)-horn.pdf

.PHONY: movements
movements: $(piece)I.pdf \$(piece)II.pdf \
$(piece)III.pdf \$(piece)IV.pdf

all: score parts movements


The next Makefile is for a lilypond-book document done in LaTeX. This project has an index, which requires that the latex command be run twice to update links. Output files are all stored in the out directory for .pdf output and in the htmlout directory for the html output.

SHELL=/bin/sh
FILE=myproject
OUTDIR=out
WEBDIR=htmlout
BROWSER=firefox
LILYBOOK_PDF=lilypond-book --output=$(OUTDIR) --pdf$(FILE).lytex
LILYBOOK_HTML=lilypond-book --output=$(WEBDIR)$(FILE).lytex
PDF=cd $(OUTDIR) && pdflatex$(FILE)
HTML=cd $(WEBDIR) && latex2html$(FILE)
INDEX=cd $(OUTDIR) && makeindex$(FILE)
PREVIEW=$(VIEWER)$(OUTDIR)/$(FILE).pdf & all: pdf web keep pdf:$(LILYBOOK_PDF)  # begin with tab
$(PDF) # begin with tab$(INDEX)         # begin with tab
$(PDF) # begin with tab$(PREVIEW)       # begin with tab

web:
$(LILYBOOK_HTML) # begin with tab$(HTML)          # begin with tab
cp -R $(WEBDIR)/$(FILE)/ ./  # begin with tab
$(BROWSER)$(FILE)/$(FILE).html & # begin with tab keep: pdf cp$(OUTDIR)/$(FILE).pdf$(FILE).pdf  # begin with tab

clean:
rm -rf $(OUTDIR) # begin with tab web-clean: rm -rf$(WEBDIR) # begin with tab

archive:
tar -cvvf myproject.tar \ # begin this line with tab
--exclude=out/* \
--exclude=htmlout/* \
--exclude=myproject/* \
--exclude=*midi \
--exclude=*pdf \
--exclude=*~ \
../MyProject/*


TODO: make this thing work on Windows

The previous makefile does not work on Windows. An alternative for Windows users would be to create a simple batch file containing the build commands. This will not keep track of dependencies the way a makefile does, but it at least reduces the build process to a single command. Save the following code as build.bat or build.cmd. The batch file can be run at the DOS prompt or by simply double-clicking its icon.

lilypond-book --output=out --pdf myproject.lytex
cd out
pdflatex myproject
makeindex myproject
pdflatex myproject
cd ..
copy out\myproject.pdf MyProject.pdf


# A. GNU Free Documentation License

Version 1.3, 3 November 2008

 Copyright © 2000, 2001, 2002, 2007, 2008 Free Software Foundation, Inc. http://fsf.org/ Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document, but changing it is not allowed. 
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6. COMBINING DOCUMENTS

You may combine the Document with other documents released under this License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for modified versions, provided that you include in the combination all of the Invariant Sections of all of the original documents, unmodified, and list them all as Invariant Sections of your combined work in its license notice, and that you preserve all their Warranty Disclaimers.

The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single copy. If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name but different contents, make the title of each such section unique by adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the original author or publisher of that section if known, or else a unique number. Make the same adjustment to the section titles in the list of Invariant Sections in the license notice of the combined work.

In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled “History” in the various original documents, forming one section Entitled “History”; likewise combine any sections Entitled “Acknowledgements”, and any sections Entitled “Dedications”. You must delete all sections Entitled “Endorsements.”

7. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS

You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other documents released under this License, and replace the individual copies of this License in the various documents with a single copy that is included in the collection, provided that you follow the rules of this License for verbatim copying of each of the documents in all other respects.

You may extract a single document from such a collection, and distribute it individually under this License, provided you insert a copy of this License into the extracted document, and follow this License in all other respects regarding verbatim copying of that document.

8. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS

A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or distribution medium, is called an “aggregate” if the copyright resulting from the compilation is not used to limit the legal rights of the compilation’s users beyond what the individual works permit. When the Document is included in an aggregate, this License does not apply to the other works in the aggregate which are not themselves derivative works of the Document.

If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one half of the entire aggregate, the Document’s Cover Texts may be placed on covers that bracket the Document within the aggregate, or the electronic equivalent of covers if the Document is in electronic form. Otherwise they must appear on printed covers that bracket the whole aggregate.

9. TRANSLATION

Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section 4. Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special permission from their copyright holders, but you may include translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the original versions of these Invariant Sections. You may include a translation of this License, and all the license notices in the Document, and any Warranty Disclaimers, provided that you also include the original English version of this License and the original versions of those notices and disclaimers. In case of a disagreement between the translation and the original version of this License or a notice or disclaimer, the original version will prevail.

If a section in the Document is Entitled “Acknowledgements”, “Dedications”, or “History”, the requirement (section 4) to Preserve its Title (section 1) will typically require changing the actual title.

10. TERMINATION

You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document except as expressly provided under this License. Any attempt otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute it is void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License.

However, if you cease all violation of this License, then your license from a particular copyright holder is reinstated (a) provisionally, unless and until the copyright holder explicitly and finally terminates your license, and (b) permanently, if the copyright holder fails to notify you of the violation by some reasonable means prior to 60 days after the cessation.

Moreover, your license from a particular copyright holder is reinstated permanently if the copyright holder notifies you of the violation by some reasonable means, this is the first time you have received notice of violation of this License (for any work) from that copyright holder, and you cure the violation prior to 30 days after your receipt of the notice.

Termination of your rights under this section does not terminate the licenses of parties who have received copies or rights from you under this License. If your rights have been terminated and not permanently reinstated, receipt of a copy of some or all of the same material does not give you any rights to use it.

11. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE

The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. See http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/.

Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number. If the Document specifies that a particular numbered version of this License “or any later version” applies to it, you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that specified version or of any later version that has been published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. If the Document does not specify a version number of this License, you may choose any version ever published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. If the Document specifies that a proxy can decide which future versions of this License can be used, that proxy’s public statement of acceptance of a version permanently authorizes you to choose that version for the Document.

12. RELICENSING

“Massive Multiauthor Collaboration Site” (or “MMC Site”) means any World Wide Web server that publishes copyrightable works and also provides prominent facilities for anybody to edit those works. A public wiki that anybody can edit is an example of such a server. A “Massive Multiauthor Collaboration” (or “MMC”) contained in the site means any set of copyrightable works thus published on the MMC site.

“Incorporate” means to publish or republish a Document, in whole or in part, as part of another Document.

An MMC is “eligible for relicensing” if it is licensed under this License, and if all works that were first published under this License somewhere other than this MMC, and subsequently incorporated in whole or in part into the MMC, (1) had no cover texts or invariant sections, and (2) were thus incorporated prior to November 1, 2008.

The operator of an MMC Site may republish an MMC contained in the site under CC-BY-SA on the same site at any time before August 1, 2009, provided the MMC is eligible for relicensing.

To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of the License in the document and put the following copyright and license notices just after the title page:

  Copyright (C) year your name. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled GNU Free Documentation License''. 

If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover Texts, replace the “with…Texts.” line with this:

  with the Invariant Sections being list their titles, with the Front-Cover Texts being list, and with the Back-Cover Texts being list. 

If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or some other combination of the three, merge those two alternatives to suit the situation.

If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of free software license, such as the GNU General Public License, to permit their use in free software.

# B. LilyPond index

Ugorj ide: \   A   B   C   D   E   F   H   I   K   L   M   O   P   Q   S   T   V   W   X   Z
Ugorj ide: \   A   B   C   D   E   F   H   I   K   L   M   O   P   Q   S   T   V   W   X   Z

# Lábjegyzet

[1] A GUILE megelőző állapota nem áll vissza feldolgozás után, így elővigyázatosnak kell lenni, hogy ne változtassuk meg a rendszer alapbeállításait Scheme kódból.

[2] Legalábbis ez abban az esetben lehetséges, ha a LilyPond fájl nem tartalmaz Scheme kódot. Ha viszont tartalmaz, akkor egy Turing-teljes nyelvvel van dolgunk, és az algoritmuselméletben jól ismert „megállási problémába” ütközünk.

[3] Ezt a dokumentumot a Texinfo generálta, így apró eltérések lehetnek.

[4] Note that PDFLaTeX and LaTeX may not be both usable to compile any LaTeX document, that is why we explain the two ways.

# A navigációs panel használata

This document was generated by GUB on január 3, 2017 using texi2html 1.82.

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