Tweaks and overrides

Changing defaults

Tweaking output


Adding an ottava marking to a single voice

If you have more than one voice on the staff, setting octavation in one voice will transpose the position of notes in all voices for the duration of the ottava bracket. If the ottavation is only intended to apply to one voice, the middleCPosition and ottava bracket may be set explicitly. In this snippet, the bass clef usually has middleCPosition set to 6, six positions above the center line, so in the 8va portion middleCPosition is 7 positions (one octave) higher still.

{
  \clef bass
  << { <g d'>1~ q2 <c' e'> }
  \\
    {
      r2.
      \set Staff.ottavation = #"8vb"
      \once \override Staff.OttavaBracket.direction = #DOWN
      \set Voice.middleCPosition = #(+ 6 7)
      <b,,, b,,>4 ~ |
      q2
      \unset Staff.ottavation
      \unset Voice.middleCPosition
      <c e>2
    }
  >>
}

[image of music]


Adding links to objects

To add a link to a grob-stencil you could use add-link as defined here. Works with \override and \tweak. Drawback: point-and-click will be disturbed for the linked grobs.

Limitation: Works for PDF only.

The linked objects are colored with a separate command.

% Code by Thomas Morley
% Contributed by harm6
% Tested with 2.14.2 up to 2.17.9

#(define (add-link url-strg)
  (lambda (grob)
    (let* ((stil (ly:grob-property grob 'stencil)))
      (if (ly:stencil? stil)
        (begin
          (let* (
             (x-ext (ly:stencil-extent stil X))
             (y-ext (ly:stencil-extent stil Y))
             (url-expr (list 'url-link url-strg `(quote ,x-ext) `(quote ,y-ext)))
             (new-stil (ly:stencil-add (ly:make-stencil url-expr x-ext y-ext) stil)))
          (ly:grob-set-property! grob 'stencil new-stil)))
        #f))))

%%%% test

urlI =
"http://lilypond.org/doc/v2.14/Documentation/notation/writing-pitches"

urlII =
"http://lilypond.org/doc/v2.14/Documentation/notation/rhythms"

urlIII =
"http://lilypond.org/doc/v2.14/Documentation/notation/note-heads"

urlIV =
"http://lilypond.org/doc/v2.14/Documentation/notation/beams"

urlV =
"http://lilypond.org/doc/v2.14/Documentation/notation/note-head-styles"

\relative c' {
  \key cis \minor

  \once \override Staff.Clef.color = #green
  \once \override Staff.Clef.after-line-breaking =
    #(add-link urlI)

  \once \override Staff.TimeSignature.color = #green
  \once \override Staff.TimeSignature.after-line-breaking =
    #(add-link urlII)

  \once \override NoteHead.color = #green
  \once \override NoteHead.after-line-breaking =
    #(add-link urlIII)

  cis'1
  \once \override Beam.color = #green
  \once \override Beam.after-line-breaking =
    #(add-link urlIV)
  cis8 dis e fis gis2
  <gis,
   % With 2.17.9 you could use the command below to address the Accidental.
   % \tweak Accidental.before-line-breaking #(add-link url)
   \tweak color #green
   \tweak after-line-breaking #(add-link urlV)
   \tweak style #'harmonic
   bis
   dis
   fis
  >1
  <cis, cis' e>
}

[image of music]


Adding timing marks to long glissandi

Skipped beats in very long glissandi are sometimes indicated by timing marks, often consisting of stems without noteheads. Such stems can also be used to carry intermediate expression markings.

If the stems do not align well with the glissando, they may need to be repositioned slightly.

glissandoSkipOn = {
  \override NoteColumn.glissando-skip = ##t
  \hide NoteHead
  \override NoteHead.no-ledgers = ##t
}

glissandoSkipOff = {
  \revert NoteColumn.glissando-skip
  \undo \hide NoteHead
  \revert NoteHead.no-ledgers
}

\relative c'' {
  r8 f8\glissando
  \glissandoSkipOn
  f4 g a a8\noBeam
  \glissandoSkipOff
  a8

  r8 f8\glissando
  \glissandoSkipOn
  g4 a8
  \glissandoSkipOff
  a8 |

  r4 f\glissando \<
  \glissandoSkipOn
  a4\f \>
  \glissandoSkipOff
  b8\! r |
}

[image of music]


Adjusting grace note spacing

The space given to grace notes can be adjusted using the spacing-increment property of Score.GraceSpacing.

graceNotes = {
  \grace { c4 c8 c16 c32 }
  c8
}

\relative c'' {
  c8
  \graceNotes
  \override Score.GraceSpacing.spacing-increment = #2.0
  \graceNotes
  \revert Score.GraceSpacing.spacing-increment
  \graceNotes
}

[image of music]


Adjusting lyrics vertical spacing

This snippet shows how to bring the lyrics line closer to the staff.

% Default layout:
<<
  \new Staff \new Voice = melody \relative c' {
    c4 d e f
    g4 f e d
    c1
  }
  \new Lyrics \lyricsto melody { aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa }

  \new Staff {
    \new Voice = melody \relative c' {
      c4 d e f
      g4 f e d
      c1
    }
  }
  % Reducing the minimum space below the staff and above the lyrics:
  \new Lyrics \with {
    \override VerticalAxisGroup.nonstaff-relatedstaff-spacing = #'((basic-distance . 1))
  }
  \lyricsto melody { aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa }
>>

[image of music]


Altering the length of beamed stems

Stem lengths on beamed notes can be varied by overriding the beamed-lengths property of the details of the Stem. If a single value is used as an argument, the length applies to all stems. When multiple arguments are used, the first applies to eighth notes, the second to sixteenth notes and so on. The final argument also applies to all notes shorter than the note length of the final argument. Non-integer arguments may also be used.

\relative c'' {
  \override Stem.details.beamed-lengths = #'(2)
  a8[ a] a16[ a] a32[ a]
  \override Stem.details.beamed-lengths = #'(8 10 12)
  a8[ a] a16[ a] a32[ a] r8
  \override Stem.details.beamed-lengths = #'(8)
  a8[ a]
  \override Stem.details.beamed-lengths = #'(8.5)
  a8[ a]
  \revert Stem.details
  a8[ a] a16[ a] a32[ a] r16
}

[image of music]


Alternative bar numbering

Two alternative methods for bar numbering can be set, especially for when using repeated music.

\relative c'{
  \set Score.alternativeNumberingStyle = #'numbers
  \repeat volta 3 { c4 d e f | }
    \alternative {
      { c4 d e f | c2 d \break }
      { f4 g a b | f4 g a b | f2 a | \break }
      { c4 d e f | c2 d }
    }
  c1 \break
  \set Score.alternativeNumberingStyle = #'numbers-with-letters
  \repeat volta 3 { c,4 d e f | }
    \alternative {
      { c4 d e f | c2 d \break }
      { f4 g a b | f4 g a b | f2 a | \break }
      { c4 d e f | c2 d }
    }
  c1
}

[image of music]


Analysis brackets above the staff

Simple horizontal analysis brackets are added below the staff by default. The following example shows a way to place them above the staff instead.

\layout {
  \context {
    \Voice
    \consists "Horizontal_bracket_engraver"
  }
}

\relative c'' {
  \once \override HorizontalBracket.direction = #UP
  c2\startGroup
  d2\stopGroup
}

[image of music]


Asymmetric slurs

Slurs can be made asymmetric to match an asymmetric pattern of notes better.

slurNotes = { d,8( a' d f a f' d, a) }

\relative c' {
  \stemDown
  \slurUp
  \slurNotes
  \once \override Slur.eccentricity = #3.0
  \slurNotes
}

[image of music]


Avoiding collisions with chord fingerings

Fingerings and string numbers applied to individual notes will automatically avoid beams and stems, but this is not true by default for fingerings and string numbers applied to the individual notes of chords. The following example shows how this default behavior can be overridden.

\relative c' {
  \set fingeringOrientations = #'(up)
  \set stringNumberOrientations = #'(up)
  \set strokeFingerOrientations = #'(up)

  % Default behavior
  r8
  <f c'-5>8
  <f c'\5>8
  <f c'-\rightHandFinger #2 >8

  % No tweak needed
  r8
  <f c'-5>8
  <f c'\5>8
   % Corrected to avoid collisions
  \override StrokeFinger.add-stem-support = ##t
  <f c'-\rightHandFinger #2 >8
}

[image of music]


Caesura ("railtracks") with fermata

A caesura is sometimes denoted by a double “railtracks” breath mark with a fermata sign positioned above. This snippet shows an optically pleasing combination of railtracks and fermata.

\relative c'' {
  c2.
  % construct the symbol
  \override BreathingSign.text = \markup {
    \override #'(direction . 1)
    \override #'(baseline-skip . 1.8)
    \dir-column {
      \translate #'(0.155 . 0)
        \center-align \musicglyph #"scripts.caesura.curved"
      \center-align \musicglyph #"scripts.ufermata"
    }
  }
  \breathe c4
  % set the breathe mark back to normal
  \revert BreathingSign.text
  c2. \breathe c4
  \bar "|."
}

[image of music]


Centering markup on note heads automatically

For technical reasons, text scripts attached to note heads cannot easily be centered on a note head’s width, unlike articulations.

Instead of using trial-and-error offset tweaks, this snippet uses a Scheme engraver to reset the horizontal parent of each markup to a NoteColumn. This also allows text to follow note heads which have been shifted via force-hshift.

#(define (Text_align_engraver ctx)
  (let ((scripts '())
        (note-column #f))
    (make-engraver
     (acknowledgers
      ((note-column-interface trans grob source)
       ;; cache NoteColumn in this Voice context
       (set! note-column grob))
      ((text-script-interface trans grob source)
       ;; whenever a TextScript is acknowledged,
       ;; add it to `scripts' list
       (set! scripts (cons grob scripts))))
     ((stop-translation-timestep trans)
      ;; if any TextScript grobs exist,
      ;; set NoteColumn as X-parent
      (for-each (lambda (script)
		  (set! (ly:grob-parent script X) note-column))
		scripts)
      ;; clear scripts ready for next timestep
      (set! scripts '())))))

\layout {
  \context {
    \Voice
    \consists #Text_align_engraver
    \override TextScript.X-offset =
      #ly:self-alignment-interface::aligned-on-x-parent
    \override TextScript.self-alignment-X = #CENTER
  }
}

\new Staff <<
  \relative c'' {
    \override NoteColumn.force-hshift = #3
    c1-\markup { \arrow-head #Y #DOWN ##t }
  }
  \\
  \relative c' {
    a4 a-\markup { \huge ^ } a a
  }
>>

[image of music]


Changing a single note’s size in a chord

Individual note heads in a chord can be modified with the \tweak command inside a chord, by altering the font-size property.

Inside the chord (within the brackets < >), before the note to be altered, place the \tweak command, followed by #'font-size and define the proper size like #-2 (a tiny note head).

\relative c' {
  <\tweak font-size #+2 c e g c \tweak font-size #-2 e>1^\markup { A tiny e }_\markup { A big c }
}

[image of music]


Changing beam thickness and spacing

To make beams thicker or thinner alter the Beam.beam-thickness property. To adjust the spacing between beams alter the Beam.length-fraction property.

\relative f' {
  \time 1/8
  \override Beam.beam-thickness = #0.4
  \override Beam.length-fraction = #0.8
  c32 c c c
  \revert Beam.beam-thickness  % 0.48 is default thickness
  \revert Beam.length-fraction  % 1.0 is default spacing
  c32 c c c
  \override Beam.beam-thickness = #0.6
  \override Beam.length-fraction = #1.3
  c32 c c c
}

[image of music]


Changing form of multi-measure rests

If there are ten or fewer measures of rests, a series of longa and breve rests (called in German “Kirchenpausen” - church rests) is printed within the staff; otherwise a simple line is shown. This default number of ten may be changed by overriding the expand-limit property.

\relative c'' {
  \compressFullBarRests
  R1*2 | R1*5 | R1*9
  \override MultiMeasureRest.expand-limit = #3
  R1*2 | R1*5 | R1*9
}

[image of music]


Changing properties for individual grobs

The \applyOutput command allows the tuning of any layout object, in any context. It requires a Scheme function with three arguments.

#(define (mc-squared grob grob-origin context)
  (let ((sp (ly:grob-property grob 'staff-position)))
    (if (grob::has-interface grob 'note-head-interface)
      (begin
        (ly:grob-set-property! grob 'stencil
          (grob-interpret-markup grob
            (make-lower-markup 0.5
              (case sp
                ((-5) "m")
                ((-3) "c ")
                ((-2) (make-smaller-markup (make-bold-markup "2")))
                (else "bla")))))))))

\relative c' {
  <d f g b>2
  \applyOutput #'Voice #mc-squared
  <d f g b>2
}

[image of music]


Changing text and spanner styles for text dynamics

The text used for crescendos and decrescendos can be changed by modifying the context properties crescendoText and decrescendoText.

The style of the spanner line can be changed by modifying the 'style property of DynamicTextSpanner. The default value is 'dashed-line, and other possible values include 'line, 'dotted-line and 'none.

\relative c'' {
  \set crescendoText = \markup { \italic { cresc. poco } }
  \set crescendoSpanner = #'text
  \override DynamicTextSpanner.style = #'dotted-line
  a2\< a
  a2 a
  a2 a
  a2 a\mf
}

[image of music]


Changing the default text font family

The default font families for text can be overridden with make-pango-font-tree.

\paper {
  % change for other default global staff size.
  myStaffSize = #20
  %{
     run
         lilypond -dshow-available-fonts blabla
     to show all fonts available in the process log.
  %}

  #(define fonts
    (make-pango-font-tree "Times New Roman"
                          "Nimbus Sans"
                          "Luxi Mono"
;;                        "Helvetica"
;;                        "Courier"
     (/ myStaffSize 20)))
}

\relative c'' {
  c4^\markup {
    roman: foo \bold bla \italic bar \italic \bold baz
  }
  c'4_\markup {
    \override #'(font-family . sans)
    {
      sans: foo \bold bla \italic bar \italic \bold baz
    }
  }
  c'2^\markup {
    \override #'(font-family . typewriter)
    {
      mono: foo \bold bla \italic bar \italic \bold baz
    }
  }
}

[image of music]


Changing the staff size

Though the simplest way to resize staves is to use #(set-global-staff-size xx), an individual staff’s size can be changed by scaling the properties 'staff-space and fontSize.

<<
  \new Staff {
    \relative c'' {
      \dynamicDown
      c8\ff c c c c c c c
    }
  }
  \new Staff \with {
    fontSize = #-3
    \override StaffSymbol.staff-space = #(magstep -3)
  } {
    \clef bass
    c8 c c c c\f c c c
  }
>>

[image of music]


Changing the tempo without a metronome mark

To change the tempo in MIDI output without printing anything, make the metronome mark invisible.

\score {
  \new Staff \relative c' {
    \tempo 4 = 160
    c4 e g b
    c4 b d c
    \set Score.tempoHideNote = ##t
    \tempo 4 = 96
    d,4 fis a cis
    d4 cis e d
  }
  \layout { }
  \midi { }
}

[image of music]


Changing the text for sustain markings

Staff.pedalSustainStrings can be used to set the text used for pedal down and up. Note that the only valid strings are those found in the list of pedal glyphs - the values used this snippet constitute an exhaustive list.

sustainNotes = { c4\sustainOn d e\sustainOff\sustainOn f\sustainOff }

\relative c' {
  \sustainNotes
  \set Staff.pedalSustainStrings = #'("P" "P-" "-")
  \sustainNotes
  \set Staff.pedalSustainStrings = #'("d" "de" "e")
  \sustainNotes
  \set Staff.pedalSustainStrings = #'("M" "M-" "-")
  \sustainNotes
  \set Staff.pedalSustainStrings = #'("Ped" "*Ped" "*")
  \sustainNotes
}

[image of music]


Controlling spanner visibility after a line break

The visibility of spanners which end on the first note following a line break is controlled by the after-line-breaking callback ly:spanner::kill-zero-spanned-time.

For objects such as glissandos and hairpins, the default behaviour is to hide the spanner after a break; disabling the callback will allow the left-broken span to be shown.

Conversely, spanners which are usually visible, such as text spans, can be hidden by enabling the callback.

\paper { ragged-right = ##t }

\relative c'' {
  \override Hairpin.to-barline = ##f
  \override Glissando.breakable = ##t
  % show hairpin
  \override Hairpin.after-line-breaking = ##t
  % hide text span
  \override TextSpanner.after-line-breaking =
    #ly:spanner::kill-zero-spanned-time
  e2\<\startTextSpan
  % show glissando
  \override Glissando.after-line-breaking = ##t
  f2\glissando
  \break
  f,1\!\stopTextSpan
}

[image of music]


Controlling the vertical ordering of scripts

The vertical ordering of scripts is controlled with the 'script-priority property. The lower this number, the closer it will be put to the note. In this example, the TextScript (the sharp symbol) first has the lowest priority, so it is put lowest in the first example. In the second, the prall trill (the Script) has the lowest, so it is on the inside. When two objects have the same priority, the order in which they are entered determines which one comes first.

\relative c''' {
  \once \override TextScript.script-priority = #-100
  a2^\prall^\markup { \sharp }

  \once \override Script.script-priority = #-100
  a2^\prall^\markup { \sharp }
}

[image of music]


Controlling tuplet bracket visibility

The default behavior of tuplet-bracket visibility is to print a bracket unless there is a beam of the same length as the tuplet. To control the visibility of tuplet brackets, set the property 'bracket-visibility to either #t (always print a bracket), #f (never print a bracket) or #'if-no-beam (only print a bracket if there is no beam).

music = \relative c'' {
  \tuplet 3/2 { c16[ d e } f8]
  \tuplet 3/2 { c8 d e }
  \tuplet 3/2 { c4 d e }
}

\new Voice {
  \relative c' {
    << \music s4^"default" >>
    \override TupletBracket.bracket-visibility = #'if-no-beam
    << \music s4^"'if-no-beam" >>
    \override TupletBracket.bracket-visibility = ##t
    << \music s4^"#t" >>
    \override TupletBracket.bracket-visibility = ##f
    << \music s4^"#f" >>
    %% v2.18 :
    \omit TupletBracket
    << \music s4^"omit" >>
  }
}

[image of music]


Creating a delayed turn

Creating a delayed turn, where the lower note of the turn uses the accidental, requires several overrides. The outside-staff-priority property must be set to #f, as otherwise this would take precedence over the avoid-slur property. Changing the fractions 2/3 and 1/3 adjusts the horizontal position.

\relative c'' {
  c2*2/3 ( s2*1/3\turn d4) r
  <<
    { c4.( d8) }
    { s4 s\turn }
  >>
  \transpose c d \relative c'' <<
    { c4.( d8) }
    {
      s4
      \once \set suggestAccidentals = ##t
      \once \override AccidentalSuggestion.outside-staff-priority = ##f
      \once \override AccidentalSuggestion.avoid-slur = #'inside
      \once \override AccidentalSuggestion.font-size = -3
      \once \override AccidentalSuggestion.script-priority = -1
      \single \hideNotes
      b8-\turn \noBeam
      s8
    }
  >>
}

[image of music]


Creating custom key signatures

LilyPond supports custom key signatures. In this example, print for D minor with an extended range of printed flats.

\new Staff \with {
  \override StaffSymbol.line-count = #8
  \override KeySignature.flat-positions = #'((-7 . 6))
  \override KeyCancellation.flat-positions = #'((-7 . 6))
  % presumably sharps are also printed in both octaves
  \override KeySignature.sharp-positions = #'((-6 . 7))
  \override KeyCancellation.sharp-positions = #'((-6 . 7))

  \override Clef.stencil = #
  (lambda (grob)(grob-interpret-markup grob
  #{ \markup\combine
    \musicglyph #"clefs.C"
    \translate #'(-3 . -2)
    \musicglyph #"clefs.F"
   #}))
    clefPosition = #3
    middleCPosition = #3
    middleCClefPosition = #3
}

{
  \key d\minor
  f bes, f bes,
}

[image of music]


Creating double-digit fingerings

Creating fingerings larger than 5 is possible.

\relative c' {
  c1-10
  c1-50
  c1-36
  c1-29
}

[image of music]


Creating simultaneous rehearsal marks

Unlike text scripts, rehearsal marks cannot be stacked at a particular point in a score: only one RehearsalMark object is created. Using an invisible measure and bar line, an extra rehearsal mark can be added, giving the appearance of two marks in the same column. This method may also prove useful for placing rehearsal marks at both the end of one system and the start of the following system.

{
  \key a \major
  \set Score.markFormatter = #format-mark-box-letters
  \once \override Score.RehearsalMark.outside-staff-priority = #5000
  \once \override Score.RehearsalMark.self-alignment-X = #LEFT
  \once \override Score.RehearsalMark.break-align-symbols = #'(key-signature)
  \mark \markup { \bold { Senza denti } }

  % the hidden measure and bar line
  % \cadenzaOn turns off automatic calculation of bar numbers
  \cadenzaOn
  \once \override Score.TimeSignature.stencil = ##f
  \time 1/16
  s16 \bar ""
  \cadenzaOff

  \time 4/4
  \once \override Score.RehearsalMark.self-alignment-X = #LEFT
  \mark \markup { \box \bold Intro }
  d'1
  \mark \default
  d'1
}

[image of music]


Creating text spanners

The \startTextSpan and \stopTextSpan commands allow the creation of text spanners as easily as pedal indications or octavations. Override some properties of the TextSpanner object to modify its output.

\paper { ragged-right = ##f }

\relative c'' {
  \override TextSpanner.bound-details.left.text = #"bla"
  \override TextSpanner.bound-details.right.text = #"blu"
  a4 \startTextSpan
  b4 c
  a4 \stopTextSpan

  \override TextSpanner.style = #'line
  \once \override TextSpanner.bound-details.left.stencil-align-dir-y = #CENTER
  a4 \startTextSpan
  b4 c
  a4 \stopTextSpan

  \override TextSpanner.style = #'dashed-line
  \override TextSpanner.bound-details.left.text =
    \markup { \draw-line #'(0 . 1) }
  \override TextSpanner.bound-details.right.text =
    \markup { \draw-line #'(0 . -2) }
  \once \override TextSpanner.bound-details.right.padding = #-2

  a4 \startTextSpan
  b4 c
  a4 \stopTextSpan

  \set Staff.middleCPosition = #-13
  \override TextSpanner.dash-period = #10
  \override TextSpanner.dash-fraction = #0.5
  \override TextSpanner.thickness = #10
  a4 \startTextSpan
  b4 c
  a4 \stopTextSpan
}

[image of music]


Cross-staff chords - beaming problems workaround

Sometimes it is better to use stems from the upper staff for creating cross-staff chords, because no problems with automatic beam collision avoidance then arise. If the stems from the lower staff were used in the following example, it would be necessary to change the automatic beam collision avoidance settings so that it doesn’t detect collisions between staves using \override Staff.Beam.collision-voice-only = ##t

\new PianoStaff <<
  \new Staff = up
    \relative c' {
      <<
        { r4
          \override Stem.cross-staff = ##t
          \override Stem.length = #19 % this is in half-spaces,
              % so it makes stems 9.5 staffspaces long
          \override Stem.Y-offset = #-6 % stems are normally lengthened
              % upwards, so here we must lower the stem by the amount
              % equal to the lengthening - in this case (19 - 7) / 2
              % (7 is default stem length)
          e e e }
        { s4
          \change Staff = "bottom"
          \override NoteColumn.ignore-collision = ##t
          c, c c
        }
      >>
    }
  \new Staff = bottom
    \relative c' {
      \clef bass
      \voiceOne
      g8 a g a g a g a
    }
>>

[image of music]


Cross staff stems

This snippet shows the use of the Span_stem_engraver and \crossStaff to connect stems across staves automatically.

The stem length need not be specified, as the variable distance between noteheads and staves is calculated automatically.

\layout {
  \context {
    \PianoStaff
    \consists #Span_stem_engraver
  }
}

{
  \new PianoStaff <<
    \new Staff {
      <b d'>4 r d'16\> e'8. g8 r\!
      e'8 f' g'4 e'2
    }
    \new Staff {
      \clef bass
      \voiceOne
      \autoBeamOff
      \crossStaff { <e g>4 e, g16 a8. c8} d
      \autoBeamOn
      g8 f g4 c2
    }
  >>
}

[image of music]


Custodes

Custodes may be engraved in various styles.

\layout { ragged-right = ##t }

\new Staff \with { \consists "Custos_engraver" } \relative c' {
  \override Staff.Custos.neutral-position = #4

  \override Staff.Custos.style = #'hufnagel
  c1^"hufnagel" \break
  <d a' f'>1

  \override Staff.Custos.style = #'medicaea
  c1^"medicaea" \break
  <d a' f'>1

  \override Staff.Custos.style = #'vaticana
  c1^"vaticana" \break
  <d a' f'>1

  \override Staff.Custos.style = #'mensural
  c1^"mensural" \break
  <d a' f'>1
}

[image of music]


Customizing fretboard fret diagrams

Fret diagram properties can be set through 'fret-diagram-details. For FretBoard fret diagrams, overrides are applied to the FretBoards.FretBoard object. Like Voice, FretBoards is a bottom level context, therefore can be omitted in property overrides.

\include "predefined-guitar-fretboards.ly"
\storePredefinedDiagram #default-fret-table \chordmode { c' }
                        #guitar-tuning
                        #"x;1-1-(;3-2;3-3;3-4;1-1-);"
<<
  \new ChordNames {
    \chordmode { c1 | c | c | d }
  }
  \new FretBoards {
    % Set global properties of fret diagram
    \override FretBoards.FretBoard.size = #'1.2
    \override FretBoard.fret-diagram-details.finger-code = #'in-dot
    \override FretBoard.fret-diagram-details.dot-color = #'white
    \chordmode {
      c
      \once \override FretBoard.size = #'1.0
      \once \override FretBoard.fret-diagram-details.barre-type = #'straight
      \once \override FretBoard.fret-diagram-details.dot-color = #'black
      \once \override FretBoard.fret-diagram-details.finger-code = #'below-string
      c'
      \once \override FretBoard.fret-diagram-details.barre-type = #'none
      \once \override FretBoard.fret-diagram-details.number-type = #'arabic
      \once \override FretBoard.fret-diagram-details.orientation = #'landscape
      \once \override FretBoard.fret-diagram-details.mute-string = #"M"
      \once \override FretBoard.fret-diagram-details.label-dir = #LEFT
      \once \override FretBoard.fret-diagram-details.dot-color = #'black
      c'
      \once \override FretBoard.fret-diagram-details.finger-code = #'below-string
      \once \override FretBoard.fret-diagram-details.dot-radius = #0.35
      \once \override FretBoard.fret-diagram-details.dot-position = #0.5
      \once \override FretBoard.fret-diagram-details.fret-count = #3
      d
    }
  }
  \new Voice {
    c'1 | c' | c' | d'
  }
>>

[image of music]


Customizing markup fret diagrams

Fret diagram properties can be set through 'fret-diagram-details. For markup fret diagrams, overrides can be applied to the Voice.TextScript object or directly to the markup.

<<
  \chords { c1 | c | c | d }

  \new Voice = "mel" {
    \textLengthOn
    % Set global properties of fret diagram
    \override TextScript.size = #'1.2
    \override TextScript.fret-diagram-details.finger-code = #'in-dot
    \override TextScript.fret-diagram-details.dot-color = #'white

    %% C major for guitar, no barre, using defaults
       % terse style
    c'1^\markup { \fret-diagram-terse #"x;3-3;2-2;o;1-1;o;" }

    %% C major for guitar, barred on third fret
       % verbose style
       % size 1.0
       % roman fret label, finger labels below string, straight barre
    c'1^\markup {
      % standard size
      \override #'(size . 1.0) {
        \override #'(fret-diagram-details . (
                     (number-type . roman-lower)
                     (finger-code . in-dot)
                     (barre-type . straight))) {
          \fret-diagram-verbose #'((mute 6)
                                   (place-fret 5 3 1)
                                   (place-fret 4 5 2)
                                   (place-fret 3 5 3)
                                   (place-fret 2 5 4)
                                   (place-fret 1 3 1)
                                   (barre 5 1 3))
        }
      }
    }

    %% C major for guitar, barred on third fret
       % verbose style
       % landscape orientation, arabic numbers, M for mute string
       % no barre, fret label down or left, small mute label font
    c'1^\markup {
      \override #'(fret-diagram-details . (
                   (finger-code . below-string)
                   (number-type . arabic)
                   (label-dir . -1)
                   (mute-string . "M")
                   (orientation . landscape)
                   (barre-type . none)
                   (xo-font-magnification . 0.4)
                   (xo-padding . 0.3))) {
        \fret-diagram-verbose #'((mute 6)
                                 (place-fret 5 3 1)
                                 (place-fret 4 5 2)
                                 (place-fret 3 5 3)
                                 (place-fret 2 5 4)
                                 (place-fret 1 3 1)
                                 (barre 5 1 3))
      }
    }

    %% simple D chord
       % terse style
       % larger dots, centered dots, fewer frets
       % label below string
    d'1^\markup {
      \override #'(fret-diagram-details . (
                   (finger-code . below-string)
                   (dot-radius . 0.35)
                   (dot-position . 0.5)
                   (fret-count . 3))) {
        \fret-diagram-terse #"x;x;o;2-1;3-2;2-3;"
      }
    }
  }
>>

[image of music]


Display bracket with only one staff in a system

If there is only one staff in one of the staff types ChoirStaff or StaffGroup, by default the bracket and the starting bar line will not be displayed. This can be changed by overriding collapse-height to set its value to be less than the number of staff lines in the staff.

Note that in contexts such as PianoStaff and GrandStaff where the systems begin with a brace instead of a bracket, another property has to be set, as shown on the second system in the example.

\score {
  \new StaffGroup <<
    % Must be lower than the actual number of staff lines
    \override StaffGroup.SystemStartBracket.collapse-height = #4
    \override Score.SystemStartBar.collapse-height = #4
    \new Staff {
      c'1
    }
  >>
}
\score {
  \new PianoStaff <<
    \override PianoStaff.SystemStartBrace.collapse-height = #4
    \override Score.SystemStartBar.collapse-height = #4
    \new Staff {
      c'1
    }
  >>
}

[image of music]


Displaying grob ancestry

When working with grob callbacks, it can be helpful to understand a grob’s “ancestry”. Most grobs have “parents” which influence the positioning of the grob. X- and Y-parents influence the horizontal and vertical positions for the grob, respectively. Additionally, each parent may have parents of its own.

Unfortunately, there are several aspects of a grob’s ancestry that can lead to confusion:

* The types of parents a grob has may depend on context. * For some grobs, the X- and Y-parents are the same. * A particular “ancestor” may be related to a grob in multiple ways. * The concept of “generations” is misleading.

For example, the System grob can be both parent (on the Y-side) and grandparent (twice on the X-side) to a VerticalAlignment grob.

This macro prints (to the console) a textual representation of a grob’s ancestry.

When called this way

{ \once \override NoteHead.before-line-breaking = #display-ancestry c }

The following output is generated:

————————————

NoteHead X,Y: NoteColumn X: PaperColumn X,Y: System Y: VerticalAxisGroup X: NonMusicalPaperColumn X,Y: System Y: VerticalAlignment X: NonMusicalPaperColumn X,Y: System Y: System

%% http://lsr.di.unimi.it/LSR/Item?id=622
%% see also http://www.lilypond.org/doc/v2.18/Documentation/snippets/tweaks-and-overrides#tweaks-and-overrides-displaying-grob-ancestry

#(define (grob-name grob)
   (if (ly:grob? grob)
       (assoc-ref (ly:grob-property grob 'meta) 'name)
       #f))

#(define (get-ancestry grob)
   (if (not (null? (ly:grob-parent grob X)))
       (list (grob-name grob)
             (get-ancestry (ly:grob-parent grob X))
             (get-ancestry (ly:grob-parent grob Y)))
       (grob-name grob)))

#(define (format-ancestry lst padding)
   (string-append
    (symbol->string (car lst))
    "\n"
    (let ((X-ancestry
           (if (list? (cadr lst))
               (format-ancestry (cadr lst) (+ padding 3))
               (symbol->string (cadr lst))))
          (Y-ancestry
           (if (list? (caddr lst))
               (format-ancestry (caddr lst) (+ padding 3))
               (symbol->string (caddr lst)))))
      (if (equal? X-ancestry Y-ancestry)
          (string-append
           (format #f "~&")
           (make-string padding #\space)
           "X,Y: "
           (if (list? (cadr lst))
               (format-ancestry (cadr lst) (+ padding 5))
               (symbol->string (cadr lst))))
          (string-append
           (format #f "~&")
           (make-string padding #\space)
           "X: " X-ancestry
           "\n"
           (make-string padding #\space)
           "Y: " Y-ancestry
           (format #f "~&"))))
    (format #f "~&")))

#(define (display-ancestry grob)
   (format (current-error-port)
      "~3&~a~2%~a~&"
      (make-string 36 #\-)
      (format-ancestry (get-ancestry grob) 0)))

\relative c' {
  \once \override NoteHead.before-line-breaking = #display-ancestry
  f4
  \once \override Accidental.before-line-breaking = #display-ancestry
  \once \override Arpeggio.before-line-breaking = #display-ancestry
  <f as c>4\arpeggio
}

[image of music]


Dotted harmonics

Artificial harmonics using \harmonic do not show dots. To override this behavior, set the context property harmonicDots.

\relative c''' {
  \time 3/4
  \key f \major
  \set harmonicDots = ##t
  <bes f'\harmonic>2. ~
  <bes f'\harmonic>4. <a e'\harmonic>8( <gis dis'\harmonic> <g d'\harmonic>)
  <fis cis'\harmonic>2.
  <bes f'\harmonic>2.
}

[image of music]


Drawing boxes around grobs

The print-function can be overridden to draw a box around an arbitrary grob.

\relative c'' {
  \override TextScript.stencil =
    #(make-stencil-boxer 0.1 0.3 ly:text-interface::print)
  c'4^"foo"

  \override Stem.stencil =
    #(make-stencil-boxer 0.05 0.25 ly:stem::print)
  \override Score.RehearsalMark.stencil =
    #(make-stencil-boxer 0.15 0.3 ly:text-interface::print)
  b8

  \revert Stem.stencil
  \revert Flag.stencil
  c4. c4
  \mark "F"
  c1
}

[image of music]


Drawing circles around various objects

The \circle markup command draws circles around various objects, for example fingering indications. For other objects, specific tweaks may be required: this example demonstrates two strategies for rehearsal marks and measure numbers.

\relative c' {
  c1
  \set Score.markFormatter =
    #(lambda (mark context)
             (make-circle-markup (format-mark-numbers mark context)))
  \mark \default

  c2 d^\markup {
    \override #'(thickness . 3) {
      \circle \finger 2
    }
  }
  \override Score.BarNumber.break-visibility = #all-visible
  \override Score.BarNumber.stencil =
    #(make-stencil-circler 0.1 0.25 ly:text-interface::print)
}

[image of music]


Dynamics custom text spanner postfix

Postfix functions for custom crescendo text spanners. The spanners should start on the first note of the measure. One has to use -\mycresc, otherwise the spanner start will rather be assigned to the next note.

% Two functions for (de)crescendo spanners where you can explicitly give the
% spanner text.
mycresc =
#(define-music-function (parser location mymarkup) (markup?)
   (make-music 'CrescendoEvent
               'span-direction START
               'span-type 'text
               'span-text mymarkup))
mydecresc =
#(define-music-function (parser location mymarkup) (markup?)
   (make-music 'DecrescendoEvent
               'span-direction START
               'span-type 'text
               'span-text mymarkup))

\relative c' {
  c4-\mycresc "custom cresc" c4 c4 c4 |
  c4 c4 c4 c4 |
  c4-\mydecresc "custom decresc" c4 c4 c4 |
  c4 c4\! c4 c4
}

[image of music]


Dynamics text spanner postfix

Custom text spanners can be defined and used with hairpin and text crescendos. \< and \> produce hairpins by default, \cresc etc. produce text spanners by default.

% Some sample text dynamic spanners, to be used as postfix operators
crpoco =
#(make-music 'CrescendoEvent
             'span-direction START
             'span-type 'text
             'span-text "cresc. poco a poco")

\relative c' {
  c4\cresc d4 e4 f4 |
  g4 a4\! b4\crpoco c4 |
  c4 d4 e4 f4 |
  g4 a4\! b4\< c4 |
  g4\dim a4 b4\decresc c4\!
}

[image of music]


Extending a TrillSpanner

For TrillSpanner, the minimum-length property becomes effective only if the set-spacing-rods procedure is called explicitly. To do this, the springs-and-rods property should be set to ly:spanner::set-spacing-rods.

%=> http://lilypond-french-users.1298960.n2.nabble.com/Allonger-un-trille-td7581110.html

%by P.P.Schneider on April 2014

\relative c' {
\key c\minor
  \time 2/4
  c16( as') c,-. des-.
  \once\override TrillSpanner.minimum-length = #15
  \once\override TrillSpanner.springs-and-rods = #ly:spanner::set-spacing-rods
  \afterGrace es4
  \startTrillSpan { d16[( \stopTrillSpan es)] }
  c( c' g es c g' es d
  \hideNotes
  c8)
}

[image of music]


Extending glissandi across repeats

A glissando which extends into several \alternative blocks can be simulated by adding a hidden grace note with a glissando at the start of each \alternative block. The grace note should be at the same pitch as the note which starts the initial glissando. This is implemented here with a music function which takes the pitch of the grace note as its argument.

Note that in polyphonic music the grace note must be matched with corresponding grace notes in all other voices.

repeatGliss = #(define-music-function (parser location grace)
  (ly:pitch?)
  #{
    % the next two lines ensure the glissando is long enough
    % to be visible
    \once \override Glissando.springs-and-rods
      = #ly:spanner::set-spacing-rods
    \once \override Glissando.minimum-length = #3.5
    \once \hideNotes
    \grace $grace \glissando
  #})

\score {
  \relative c'' {
    \repeat volta 3 { c4 d e f\glissando }
    \alternative {
      { g2 d }
      { \repeatGliss f g2 e }
      { \repeatGliss f e2 d }
    }
  }
}

music =  \relative c' {
  \voiceOne
  \repeat volta 2 {
    g a b c\glissando
  }
  \alternative {
    { d1 }
    { \repeatGliss c e1 }
  }
}

\score {
  \new StaffGroup <<
    \new Staff <<
      \context Voice { \clef "G_8" \music }
    >>
    \new TabStaff  <<
      \context TabVoice { \clef "moderntab" \music }
    >>
  >>
}

[image of music]


Fine-tuning pedal brackets

The appearance of pedal brackets may be altered in different ways.

\paper { ragged-right = ##f }
\relative c'' {
  c2\sostenutoOn c
  c2\sostenutoOff c
  \once \override Staff.PianoPedalBracket.shorten-pair = #'(-7 . -2)
  c2\sostenutoOn c
  c2\sostenutoOff c
  \once \override Staff.PianoPedalBracket.edge-height = #'(0 . 3)
  c2\sostenutoOn c
  c2\sostenutoOff c
}

[image of music]


Forcing horizontal shift of notes

When the typesetting engine cannot cope, the following syntax can be used to override typesetting decisions. The units of measure used here are staff spaces.

\relative c' <<
  {
    <d g>2 <d g>
  }
  \\
  {
    <b f'>2
    \once \override NoteColumn.force-hshift = #1.7
    <b f'>2
  }
>>

[image of music]


Fret diagrams explained and developed

This snippet shows many possibilities for obtaining and tweaking fret diagrams.

<<
  \chords {
    a2 a
    \repeat unfold 3 {
      c c c d d
    }
  }

  \new Voice = "mel" {
    \textLengthOn
    % Set global properties of fret diagram
    \override TextScript.size = #1.2
    \override TextScript.fret-diagram-details.finger-code = #'below-string
    \override TextScript.fret-diagram-details.dot-color = #'black

    %% A chord for ukulele
    a'2^\markup {
      \override #'(fret-diagram-details . (
                   (string-count . 4)
                   (dot-color . white)
                   (finger-code . in-dot))) {
        \fret-diagram #"4-2-2;3-1-1;2-o;1-o;"
      }
    }

    %% A chord for ukulele, with formatting defined in definition string
    %  1.2 * size, 4 strings, 4 frets, fingerings below string
    %  dot radius .35 of fret spacing, dot position 0.55 of fret spacing
    a'2^\markup {
      \override #'(fret-diagram-details . (
                   (dot-color . white)
                   (open-string . "o"))) {
        \fret-diagram #"s:1.2;w:4;h:3;f:2;d:0.35;p:0.55;4-2-2;3-1-1;2-o;1-o;"
      }
    }

      %% These chords will be in normal orientation

    %% C major for guitar, barred on third fret
    %  verbose style
    %  roman fret label, finger labels below string, straight barre
    c'2^\markup {
      % 110% of default size
      \override #'(size . 1.1) {
        \override #'(fret-diagram-details . (
                     (number-type . roman-lower)
                     (finger-code . below-string)
                     (barre-type . straight))) {
          \fret-diagram-verbose #'((mute 6)
                                   (place-fret 5 3 1)
                                   (place-fret 4 5 2)
                                   (place-fret 3 5 3)
                                   (place-fret 2 5 4)
                                   (place-fret 1 3 1)
                                   (barre 5 1 3))
        }
      }
    }

    %% C major for guitar, barred on third fret
    %% Double barre used to test barre function
    %  verbose style
    c'2^\markup {
      % 110% of default size
      \override #'(size . 1.1) {
        \override #'(fret-diagram-details . (
                     (number-type . arabic)
                     (dot-label-font-mag . 0.9)
                     (finger-code . in-dot)
                     (fret-label-font-mag . 0.6)
                     (fret-label-vertical-offset . 0)
                     (label-dir . -1)
                     (mute-string . "M")
                     (xo-font-magnification . 0.4)
                     (xo-padding . 0.3))) {
          \fret-diagram-verbose #'((mute 6)
                                   (place-fret 5 3 1)
                                   (place-fret 4 5 2)
                                   (place-fret 3 5 3)
                                   (place-fret 2 5 4)
                                   (place-fret 1 3 1)
                                   (barre 4 2 5)
                                   (barre 5 1 3))
        }
      }
    }

    %% C major for guitar, with capo on third fret
    %  verbose style
    c'2^\markup {
      % 110% of default size
      \override #'(size . 1.1) {
        \override #'(fret-diagram-details . (
                     (number-type . roman-upper)
                     (dot-label-font-mag . 0.9)
                     (finger-code . none)
                     (fret-label-vertical-offset . 0.5)
                     (xo-font-magnification . 0.4)
                     (xo-padding . 0.3))) {
          \fret-diagram-verbose #'((mute 6)
                                   (capo 3)
                                   (open 5)
                                   (place-fret 4 5 1)
                                   (place-fret 3 5 2)
                                   (place-fret 2 5 3)
                                   (open 1))
        }
      }
    }

    %% simple D chord
    d'2^\markup {
      \override #'(fret-diagram-details . (
                   (finger-code . below-string)
                   (dot-radius . 0.35)
                   (string-thickness-factor . 0.3)
                   (dot-position . 0.5)
                   (fret-count . 3))) {
        \fret-diagram-terse #"x;x;o;2-1;3-2;2-3;"
      }
    }

    %% simple D chord, large top fret thickness
    d'2^\markup  {
      \override #'(fret-diagram-details . (
                   (finger-code . below-string)
                   (dot-radius . 0.35)
                   (dot-position . 0.5)
                   (top-fret-thickness . 7)
                   (fret-count . 3))) {
        \fret-diagram-terse #"x;x;o;2-1;3-2;2-3;"
      }
    }

      % These chords will be in landscape orientation
    \override TextScript.fret-diagram-details.orientation = #'landscape

    %% C major for guitar, barred on third fret
    %  verbose style
    %  roman fret label, finger labels below string, straight barre
    c'2^\markup {
      % 110% of default size
      \override #'(size . 1.1) {
        \override #'(fret-diagram-details . (
                     (number-type . roman-lower)
                     (finger-code . below-string)
                     (barre-type . straight))) {
          \fret-diagram-verbose #'((mute 6)
                                   (place-fret 5 3 1)
                                   (place-fret 4 5 2)
                                   (place-fret 3 5 3)
                                   (place-fret 2 5 4)
                                   (place-fret 1 3 1)
                                   (barre 5 1 3))
        }
      }
    }

    %% C major for guitar, barred on third fret
    %% Double barre used to test barre function
    %  verbose style
    c'2^\markup {
      % 110% of default size
      \override #'(size . 1.1) {
        \override #'(fret-diagram-details . (
                     (number-type . arabic)
                     (dot-label-font-mag . 0.9)
                     (finger-code . in-dot)
                     (fret-label-font-mag . 0.6)
                     (fret-label-vertical-offset . 0)
                     (label-dir . -1)
                     (mute-string . "M")
                     (xo-font-magnification . 0.4)
                     (xo-padding . 0.3))) {
          \fret-diagram-verbose #'((mute 6)
                                   (place-fret 5 3 1)
                                   (place-fret 4 5 2)
                                   (place-fret 3 5 3)
                                   (place-fret 2 5 4)
                                   (place-fret 1 3 1)
                                   (barre 4 2 5)
                                   (barre 5 1 3))
        }
      }
    }

    %% C major for guitar, with capo on third fret
    %  verbose style
    c'2^\markup {
      % 110% of default size
      \override #'(size . 1.1) {
        \override #'(fret-diagram-details . (
                     (number-type . roman-upper)
                     (dot-label-font-mag . 0.9)
                     (finger-code . none)
                     (fret-label-vertical-offset . 0.5)
                     (xo-font-magnification . 0.4)
                     (xo-padding . 0.3))) {
          \fret-diagram-verbose #'((mute 6)
                                   (capo 3)
                                   (open 5)
                                   (place-fret 4 5 1)
                                   (place-fret 3 5 2)
                                   (place-fret 2 5 3)
                                   (open 1))
        }
      }
    }

    %% simple D chord
    d'2^\markup {
      \override #'(fret-diagram-details . (
                   (finger-code . below-string)
                   (dot-radius . 0.35)
                   (dot-position . 0.5)
                   (fret-count . 3))) {
        \fret-diagram-terse #"x;x;o;2-1;3-2;2-3;"
      }
    }

    %% simple D chord, large top fret thickness
    d'2^\markup {
      \override #'(fret-diagram-details . (
                   (finger-code . below-string)
                   (dot-radius . 0.35)
                   (dot-position . 0.5)
                   (top-fret-thickness . 7)
                   (fret-count . 3))) {
        \fret-diagram-terse #"x;x;o;2-1;3-2;2-3;"
      }
    }

      % These chords will be in opposing-landscape orientation
    \override TextScript.fret-diagram-details.orientation = #'opposing-landscape

    %% C major for guitar, barred on third fret
    %  verbose style
    %  roman fret label, finger labels below string, straight barre
    c'2^\markup {
      % 110% of default size
      \override #'(size . 1.1) {
        \override #'(fret-diagram-details . (
                     (number-type . roman-lower)
                     (finger-code . below-string)
                     (barre-type . straight))) {
          \fret-diagram-verbose #'((mute 6)
                                   (place-fret 5 3 1)
                                   (place-fret 4 5 2)
                                   (place-fret 3 5 3)
                                   (place-fret 2 5 4)
                                   (place-fret 1 3 1)
                                   (barre 5 1 3))
        }
      }
    }

    %% C major for guitar, barred on third fret
    %% Double barre used to test barre function
    %  verbose style
    c'2^\markup {
      % 110% of default size
      \override #'(size . 1.1) {
        \override #'(fret-diagram-details . (
                     (number-type . arabic)
                     (dot-label-font-mag . 0.9)
                     (finger-code . in-dot)
                     (fret-label-font-mag . 0.6)
                     (fret-label-vertical-offset . 0)
                     (label-dir . -1)
                     (mute-string . "M")
                     (xo-font-magnification . 0.4)
                     (xo-padding . 0.3))) {
          \fret-diagram-verbose #'((mute 6)
                                   (place-fret 5 3 1)
                                   (place-fret 4 5 2)
                                   (place-fret 3 5 3)
                                   (place-fret 2 5 4)
                                   (place-fret 1 3 1)
                                   (barre 4 2 5)
                                   (barre 5 1 3))
        }
      }
    }

    %% C major for guitar, with capo on third fret
    %  verbose style
    c'2^\markup {
      % 110% of default size
      \override #'(size . 1.1) {
        \override #'(fret-diagram-details . (
                     (number-type . roman-upper)
                     (dot-label-font-mag . 0.9)
                     (finger-code . none)
                     (fret-label-vertical-offset . 0.5)
                     (xo-font-magnification . 0.4)
                     (xo-padding . 0.3))) {
          \fret-diagram-verbose #'((mute 6)
                                   (capo 3)
                                   (open 5)
                                   (place-fret 4 5 1)
                                   (place-fret 3 5 2)
                                   (place-fret 2 5 3)
                                   (open 1))
        }
      }
    }

    %% simple D chord
    d'2^\markup {
      \override #'(fret-diagram-details . (
                   (finger-code . below-string)
                   (dot-radius . 0.35)
                   (dot-position . 0.5)
                   (fret-count . 3))) {
        \fret-diagram-terse #"x;x;o;2-1;3-2;2-3;"
      }
    }

    %% simple D chord, large top fret thickness
    d'2^\markup {
      \override #'(fret-diagram-details . (
                   (finger-code . below-string)
                   (dot-radius . 0.35)
                   (dot-position . 0.5)
                   (top-fret-thickness . 7)
                   (fret-count . 3))) {
        \fret-diagram-terse #"x;x;o;2-1;3-2;2-3;"
      }
    }
  }
>>

[image of music]


Generating custom flags

The stencil property of the Flag grob can be set to a custom scheme function to generate the glyph for the flag.

#(define-public (weight-flag grob)
   (let* ((stem-grob (ly:grob-parent grob X))
          (log (- (ly:grob-property stem-grob 'duration-log) 2))
          (is-up? (eqv? (ly:grob-property stem-grob 'direction) UP))
          (yext (if is-up? (cons (* log -0.8) 0) (cons 0 (* log 0.8))))
          (flag-stencil (make-filled-box-stencil '(-0.4 . 0.4) yext))
          (stroke-style (ly:grob-property grob 'stroke-style))
          (stroke-stencil (if (equal? stroke-style "grace")
                              (make-line-stencil 0.2 -0.9 -0.4 0.9 -0.4)
                              empty-stencil)))
     (ly:stencil-add flag-stencil stroke-stencil)))


% Create a flag stencil by looking up the glyph from the font
#(define (inverted-flag grob)
   (let* ((stem-grob (ly:grob-parent grob X))
          (dir (if (eqv? (ly:grob-property stem-grob 'direction) UP) "d" "u"))
          (flag (retrieve-glyph-flag "" dir "" grob))
          (line-thickness (ly:staff-symbol-line-thickness grob))
          (stem-thickness (ly:grob-property stem-grob 'thickness))
          (stem-width (* line-thickness stem-thickness))
          (stroke-style (ly:grob-property grob 'stroke-style))
          (stencil (if (null? stroke-style)
                       flag
                       (add-stroke-glyph flag stem-grob dir stroke-style "")))
          (rotated-flag (ly:stencil-rotate-absolute stencil 180 0 0)))
     (ly:stencil-translate rotated-flag (cons (- (/ stem-width 2)) 0))))

snippetexamplenotes = { \autoBeamOff c'8 d'16 c'32 d'64 \acciaccatura {c'8} d'64 }

{
  \override Score.RehearsalMark.self-alignment-X = #LEFT
  \time 1/4
  \mark "Normal flags"
  \snippetexamplenotes

  \mark "Custom flag: inverted"
  \override Flag.stencil = #inverted-flag
  \snippetexamplenotes

  \mark "Custom flag: weight"
  \override Flag.stencil = #weight-flag
  \snippetexamplenotes

  \mark "Revert to normal"
  \revert Flag.stencil
  \snippetexamplenotes
}

[image of music]


Glissandi can skip grobs

NoteColumn grobs can be skipped over by glissandi.

\relative c' {
  a2 \glissando
  \once \override NoteColumn.glissando-skip = ##t
  f''4 d,
}

[image of music]


Hairpins with different line styles

Hairpins can take any style from line-interface - dashed-line, dotted-line, line, trill or zigzag.

\relative c' {
  c2\< c\!
  \override Hairpin.style = #'dashed-line
  c2\< c\!
  \override Hairpin.style = #'dotted-line
  c2\< c\!
  \override Hairpin.style = #'line
  c2\< c\!
  \override Hairpin.style = #'trill
  c2\< c\!
  \override Hairpin.style = #'zigzag
  c2\< c\!
  \revert Hairpin.style
  c2\< c\!
}

[image of music]


Horizontally aligning custom dynamics (e.g. "sempre pp" "piu f" "subito p")

Some dynamic expressions involve additional text, like “sempre pp”. Since dynamics are usually centered under the note, the \pp would be displayed way after the note it applies to.

To correctly align the “sempre pp” horizontally, so that it is aligned as if it were only the \pp, there are several approaches:

* Simply use \once\override DynamicText.X-offset = #-9.2 before the note with the dynamics to manually shift it to the correct position. Drawback: This has to be done manually each time you use that dynamic markup...

* Add some padding (#:hspace 7.1) into the definition of your custom dynamic mark, so that after lilypond center-aligns it, it is already correctly aligned. Drawback: The padding really takes up that space and does not allow any other markup or dynamics to be shown in that position.

* Shift the dynamic script \once\override ... .X-offset = ... Drawback: \once\override is needed for every invocation!

* Set the dimensions of the additional text to 0 (using #:with-dimensions '(0 . 0) '(0 . 0)). Drawback: To LilyPond “sempre” has no extent, so it might put other stuff there and create collisions (which are not detected by the collision detection!). Also, there seems to be some spacing, so it’s not exactly the same alignment as without the additional text

* Add an explicit shifting directly inside the scheme function for the dynamic-script.

* Set an explicit alignment inside the dynamic-script. By default, this won’t have any effect, only if one sets X-offset! Drawback: One needs to set DynamicText.X-offset, which will apply to all dynamic texts! Also, it is aligned at the right edge of the additional text, not at the center of pp.

\header { title = "Horizontally aligning custom dynamics" }

\paper { ragged-right = ##f }

% Solution 1: Using a simple markup with a particular halign value
% Drawback: It's a markup, not a dynamic command, so \dynamicDown
%           etc. will have no effect
semppMarkup = \markup { \halign #1.4 \italic "sempre" \dynamic "pp" }

% Solution 2: Using a dynamic script & shifting with
%             \once \override ...X-offset = ..
% Drawback: \once \override needed for every invocation
semppK =
#(make-dynamic-script
  (markup #:line
          (#:normal-text
           #:italic "sempre"
           #:dynamic "pp")))

% Solution 3: Padding the dynamic script so the center-alignment
%             puts it at the correct position
% Drawback: the padding really reserves the space, nothing else can be there
semppT =
#(make-dynamic-script
  (markup #:line
          (#:normal-text
           #:italic "sempre"
           #:dynamic "pp"
           #:hspace 7.1)))

% Solution 4: Dynamic, setting the dimensions of the additional text to 0
% Drawback: To lilypond "sempre" has no extent, so it might put
%           other stuff there => collisions
% Drawback: Also, there seems to be some spacing, so it's not exactly the
%           same alignment as without the additional text
semppM =
#(make-dynamic-script
  (markup #:line
          (#:with-dimensions '(0 . 0) '(0 . 0)
                             #:right-align
                             #:normal-text
                             #:italic "sempre"
                             #:dynamic "pp")))

% Solution 5: Dynamic with explicit shifting inside the scheme function
semppG =
#(make-dynamic-script
  (markup #:hspace 0
          #:translate '(-18.85 . 0)
          #:line (#:normal-text
                  #:italic "sempre"
                  #:dynamic "pp")))

% Solution 6: Dynamic with explicit alignment. This has only effect
%             if one sets X-offset!
% Drawback: One needs to set DynamicText.X-offset!
% Drawback: Aligned at the right edge of the additional text,
%           not at the center of pp
semppMII =
#(make-dynamic-script
  (markup #:line (#:right-align
                  #:normal-text
                  #:italic "sempre"
                  #:dynamic "pp")))

\context StaffGroup <<
  \context Staff = "s" <<
    \set Staff.instrumentName = #"Normal"
    \relative c'' {
      \key es \major
      c4\pp c\p c c | c\ff c c\pp c
    }
  >>
  \context Staff = "sMarkup" <<
    \set Staff.instrumentName = \markup \column { Normal markup }
    \relative c'' {
      \key es \major
      c4-\semppMarkup c\p c c | c\ff c c-\semppMarkup c
    }
  >>
  \context Staff = "sK" <<
    \set Staff.instrumentName = \markup \column { Explicit shifting }
    \relative c'' {
      \key es \major
      \once \override DynamicText.X-offset = #-9.2
      c4\semppK c\p c c
      c4\ff c
      \once \override DynamicText.X-offset = #-9.2
      c4\semppK c
    }
  >>
  \context Staff = "sT" <<
    \set Staff.instrumentName = \markup \column { Right padding }
    \relative c'' {
      \key es \major
      c4\semppT c\p c c | c\ff c c\semppT c
    }
  >>
  \context Staff = "sM" <<
    \set Staff.instrumentName = \markup \column { Setting dimension "to zero" }
    \relative c'' {
      \key es \major
      c4\semppM c\p c c | c\ff c c\semppM c
    }
  >>
  \context Staff = "sG" <<
    \set Staff.instrumentName = \markup \column { Shifting inside dynamics }
    \relative c'' {
      \key es \major
      c4\semppG c\p c c | c\ff c c\semppG c
    }
  >>
  \context Staff = "sMII" <<
    \set Staff.instrumentName = \markup \column { Alignment inside dynamics }
    \relative c'' {
      \key es \major
      % Setting to ##f (false) gives the same result
      \override DynamicText.X-offset = #0
      c4\semppMII c\p c c | c\ff c c\semppMII c
    }
  >>
>>

[image of music]


How to change fret diagram position

If you want to move the position of a fret diagram, for example, to avoid collision, or to place it between two notes, you have various possibilities:

1) modify #’padding or #’extra-offset values (as shown in the first snippet)

2) you can add an invisible voice and attach the fret diagrams to the invisible notes in that voice (as shown in the second example).

If you need to move the fret according with a rythmic position inside the bar (in the example, the third beat of the measure) the second example is better, because the fret is aligned with the third beat itself.

harmonies = \chordmode
{
  a8:13
% THE FOLLOWING IS THE COMMAND TO MOVE THE CHORD NAME
  \once \override ChordNames.ChordName.extra-offset = #'(10 . 0)
  b8:13 s2.
% THIS LINE IS THE SECOND METHOD
    s4 s4  b4:13
}

\score
{
  <<
    \context ChordNames \harmonies
    \context Staff
    {a8^\markup { \fret-diagram  #"6-x;5-0;4-2;3-0;2-0;1-2;"  }
% THE FOLLOWING IS THE COMMAND TO MOVE THE FRET DIAGRAM
     \once \override TextScript.extra-offset = #'(10 . 0)
     b4.~^\markup { \fret-diagram  #"6-x;5-2;4-4;3-2;2-2;1-4;"  } b4. a8\break
% HERE IS THE SECOND METHOD
     <<
       { a8 b4.~ b4. a8}
       { s4 s4 s4^\markup { \fret-diagram  #"6-x;5-2;4-4;3-2;2-2;1-4;"  }
       }
     >>
   }
  >>
}

[image of music]


How to print two rehearsal marks above and below the same barline (method 1)

This method prints two ’rehearsal marks’, one on top of the other. It shifts the lower rehearsal mark below the staff and then adds padding above it in order to place the upper rehearsal mark above the staff.

By adjusting the extra-offset and baseline-skip values you can increase or decrease the overall space between the rehearsal mark and the staff.

Because nearly every type of glyph or string can be made to behave like a rehearsal mark it is possible to centre those above and below a bar line.

Adding the appropriate ’break visibility’ as shown in snippet 1 will allow you to position two marks at the end of a line as well.

Note: Method 1 is less complex than Method 2 but does not really allow for fine tuning of placement of one of the rehearsal marks without affecting the other. It may also give some problems with vertical spacing, since using extra-offset does not change the bounding box of the mark from its original value.

\relative c'{
  c d e f |
  \once \override Score.RehearsalMark.extra-offset = #'(0 . -8.5)
  \once \override Score.RehearsalMark.baseline-skip = #9
  \mark \markup \center-column { \circle 1 \box A }
  g f e d |
  \once \override Score.RehearsalMark.extra-offset = #'(0 . -8.5)
  \once \override Score.RehearsalMark.baseline-skip = #9
  \mark \markup \center-column { \flat { \bold \small \italic Fine. } }
  g f e d |
  \once \override Score.RehearsalMark.extra-offset = #'(0 . -8.5)
  \once \override Score.RehearsalMark.baseline-skip = #9
  \override Score.RehearsalMark.break-visibility = #begin-of-line-invisible
  \mark \markup \center-column { \fermata \box z }
}

[image of music]


How to print two rehearsal marks above and below the same barline (method 2)

This method prints two ’rehearsal marks’ - one above the stave and one below, by creating two voices, adding the Rehearsal Mark engraver to each voice - without this no rehearsal mark is printed - and then placing each rehearsal mark UP and DOWN in each voice respectively.

This method (as opposed to method 1) is more complex, but allows for more flexibility, should it be needed to tweak each rehearsal mark independently of the other.

\score {
  \relative c'
  <<
    \new Staff {
      <<
        \new Voice \with {
          \consists Mark_engraver
          \consists "Staff_collecting_engraver"
        }
        { c4 d e f
          \mark \markup { \box A }
          c4 d e f
        }
        \new Voice \with {
          \consists Mark_engraver
          \consists "Staff_collecting_engraver"
          \override RehearsalMark.direction = #DOWN
        }
        { s4 s s s
          \mark \markup { \circle 1 }
          s4 s s s
        }
      >>
    }
  >>
  \layout {
    \context {
      \Score
      \remove "Mark_engraver"
      \remove "Staff_collecting_engraver"
    }
  }
}

[image of music]


Inserting a caesura

Caesura marks can be created by overriding the 'text property of the BreathingSign object. A curved caesura mark is also available.

\relative c'' {
  \override BreathingSign.text = \markup {
    \musicglyph #"scripts.caesura.straight"
  }
  c8 e4. \breathe g8. e16 c4

  \override BreathingSign.text = \markup {
    \musicglyph #"scripts.caesura.curved"
  }
  g8 e'4. \breathe g8. e16 c4
}

[image of music]


Line arrows

Arrows can be applied to text-spanners and line-spanners (such as the Glissando).

\relative c'' {
  \override TextSpanner.bound-padding = #1.0
  \override TextSpanner.style = #'line
  \override TextSpanner.bound-details.right.arrow = ##t
  \override TextSpanner.bound-details.left.text = #"fof"
  \override TextSpanner.bound-details.right.text = #"gag"
  \override TextSpanner.bound-details.right.padding = #0.6

  \override TextSpanner.bound-details.right.stencil-align-dir-y = #CENTER
  \override TextSpanner.bound-details.left.stencil-align-dir-y = #CENTER

  \override Glissando.bound-details.right.arrow = ##t
  \override Glissando.arrow-length = #0.5
  \override Glissando.arrow-width = #0.25

  a8\startTextSpan gis a4 b\glissando b,
  g'4 c\stopTextSpan c2
}

[image of music]


Making an object invisible with the ’transparent property

Setting the transparent property will cause an object to be printed in “invisible ink”: the object is not printed, but all its other behavior is retained. The object still takes up space, it takes part in collisions, and slurs, ties and beams can be attached to it.

This snippet demonstrates how to connect different voices using ties. Normally, ties only connect two notes in the same voice. By introducing a tie in a different voice, and blanking the first up-stem in that voice, the tie appears to cross voices.

\relative c'' {
  \time 2/4
  <<
    {
      \once \hide Stem
      \once \override Stem.length = #8
      b8 ~ 8\noBeam
      \once \hide Stem
      \once \override Stem.length = #8
      g8 ~ 8\noBeam
    }
    \\
    {
      b8 g g e
    }
  >>
}

[image of music]


Making glissandi breakable

Setting the breakable property to #t in combination with after-line-breaking allows a glissando to break if it occurs at a line break:

glissandoSkipOn = {
  \override NoteColumn.glissando-skip = ##t
  \hide NoteHead
  \override NoteHead.no-ledgers = ##t
}

\relative c'' {
  \override Glissando.breakable = ##t
  \override Glissando.after-line-breaking = ##t
  f1\glissando |
  \break
  a4 r2. |
  f1\glissando
  \once \glissandoSkipOn
  \break
  a2 a4 r4 |
}

[image of music]


Manually controlling beam positions

Beam positions may be controlled manually, by overriding the positions setting of the Beam grob.

\relative c' {
  \time 2/4
  % from upper staff-line (position 2) to center (position 0)
  \override Beam.positions = #'(2 . 0)
  c8 c
  % from center to one above center (position 1)
  \override Beam.positions = #'(0 . 1)
  c8 c
}

[image of music]


Mensurstriche layout (bar lines between the staves)

The mensurstriche-layout where the bar lines do not show on the staves but between staves can be achieved with a StaffGroup instead of a ChoirStaff. The bar line on staves is blanked out by setting the transparent property.

global = {
  \hide Staff.BarLine
  s1 s
  % the final bar line is not interrupted
  \undo \hide Staff.BarLine
  \bar "|."
}

\new StaffGroup \relative c'' {
  <<
    \new Staff { << \global { c1 c } >> }
    \new Staff { << \global { c c } >> }
  >>
}

[image of music]


Modifying the Ottava spanner slope

It is possible to change the slope of the Ottava spanner.

\relative c'' {
  \override Staff.OttavaBracket.stencil = #ly:line-spanner::print
  \override Staff.OttavaBracket.bound-details =
    #`((left . ((Y . 0) ; Change the integer here
                (attach-dir . ,LEFT)
                (padding . 0)
                (stencil-align-dir-y . ,CENTER)))
       (right . ((Y . 5) ; Change the integer here
                 (padding . 0)
                 (attach-dir . ,RIGHT)
                 (text . ,(make-draw-dashed-line-markup (cons 0 -1.2))))))
  \override Staff.OttavaBracket.left-bound-info =
     #ly:line-spanner::calc-left-bound-info-and-text
  \override Staff.OttavaBracket.right-bound-info =
     #ly:line-spanner::calc-right-bound-info
  \ottava #1
  c1
  c'''1
}

[image of music]


Moving dotted notes in polyphony

When a dotted note in the upper voice is moved to avoid a collision with a note in another voice, the default is to move the upper note to the right. This behaviour can be over-ridden by using the prefer-dotted-right property of NoteCollision.

\new Staff \relative c' <<
  {
    f2. f4
    \override Staff.NoteCollision.prefer-dotted-right = ##f
    f2. f4
    \override Staff.NoteCollision.prefer-dotted-right = ##t
    f2. f4
  }
  \\
  { e4 e e e e e e e e e e e }
>>

[image of music]


Moving slur positions vertically

The vertical position of a slur can be adjusted using the positions property of Slur. The property has 2 parameters, the first referring to the left end of the slur and the second to the right. The values of the parameters are not used by LilyPond to make an exact movement of the slur - instead it selects what placement of the slur looks best, taking into account the parameter values. Positive values move the slur up, and are appropriate for notes with stems down. Negative values move downward slurs further down.

\relative c' {
  \stemDown
  e4( a)
  \override Slur.positions = #'(1 . 1)
  e4( a)
  \override Slur.positions = #'(2 . 2)
  e4( a)
  \override Slur.positions = #'(3 . 3)
  e4( a)
  \override Slur.positions = #'(4 . 4)
  e4( a)
  \override Slur.positions = #'(5 . 5)
  e4( a)
  \override Slur.positions = #'(0 . 5)
  e4( a)
  \override Slur.positions = #'(5 . 0)
  e4( a)
  \stemUp
  \override Slur.positions = #'(-5 . -5)
  e4( a)
  \stemDown
  \revert Slur.positions
  e4( a)
}

[image of music]


Nesting staves

The property systemStartDelimiterHierarchy can be used to make more complex nested staff groups. The command \set StaffGroup.systemStartDelimiterHierarchy takes an alphabetical list of the number of staves produced. Before each staff a system start delimiter can be given. It has to be enclosed in brackets and takes as much staves as the brackets enclose. Elements in the list can be omitted, but the first bracket takes always the complete number of staves. The possibilities are SystemStartBar, SystemStartBracket, SystemStartBrace, and SystemStartSquare.

\new StaffGroup
\relative c'' <<
  \set StaffGroup.systemStartDelimiterHierarchy
    = #'(SystemStartSquare (SystemStartBrace (SystemStartBracket a
                             (SystemStartSquare b)  ) c ) d)
  \new Staff { c1 }
  \new Staff { c1 }
  \new Staff { c1 }
  \new Staff { c1 }
  \new Staff { c1 }
>>

[image of music]


Overriding articulations of destinct type

Sometimes you may want to affect a single articulation-type. Although it is always possible to use \tweak, it might become tedious to do so for every single sign of a whole score. The following shows how to tweak articulations with a list of custom-settings. One use-case might be to create a style-sheet.

With 2.16.2 it is possible to put the proposed function, \customScripts, into a \layout-block.

% Code by David Nalesnik and Thomas Morley

#(define (custom-script-tweaks ls)
  (lambda (grob)
    (let* ((type (ly:prob-property
                    (assoc-ref (ly:grob-properties grob) 'cause)
                    'articulation-type))
           (tweaks (assoc-ref ls type)))
      (if tweaks
          (for-each
            (lambda (x) (ly:grob-set-property! grob (car x) (cdr x)))
            tweaks)))))

customScripts =
#(define-music-function (parser location settings)(list?)
#{
  \override Script.before-line-breaking =
    #(custom-script-tweaks settings)
#})

revertCustomScripts = { \revert Script.before-line-breaking }

%%%%%%%%%%%%%
% Example:
%%%%%%%%%%%%%

% Predefine a list of desired tweaks.
#(define my-settings-1
  '(
    ("staccato" . ((color . (1 0 0))(padding . 0.5)))
    ("accent" . ((font-size . 0)(color . (1 0 0))))
    ("tenuto" . ((rotation . (45 0 0)) (padding . 2)(font-size . 10)))
    ("staccatissimo" . ((padding . 1) (color . (1 0 0))))
    ("segno" . ((font-size . 0)(color . (1 0 0))))
    ))

#(define my-settings-2
  '(
    ("staccato" . ((color . (0 1 0))))
    ("accent" . ((font-size . 4)(color . (0 1 0))(padding . 1.5)))
    ("tenuto" . ((font-size . 10)))
    ("staccatissimo" . ((padding . 2) (color . (0 1 0))))
    ("coda" . ((color . (0 1 0)) (padding . 1)))
    ))

one =
\relative c'' {
  f1--
  \customScripts #my-settings-1
  f-. f-! f-> f-- f-!\segno
  \revertCustomScripts
  f-> f-.
}

two =
\relative c' {
  f1--
  \customScripts #my-settings-2
  f-. f-! f-> f---> f-!
  f-> f-.\coda
}

\new Staff <<
   \new Voice { \voiceOne \one }
   \new Voice { \voiceTwo \two }
   >>

[image of music]


Percent repeat count visibility

Percent repeat counters can be shown at regular intervals by setting the context property repeatCountVisibility.

\relative c'' {
  \set countPercentRepeats = ##t
  \set repeatCountVisibility = #(every-nth-repeat-count-visible 5)
  \repeat percent 10 { c1 } \break
  \set repeatCountVisibility = #(every-nth-repeat-count-visible 2)
  \repeat percent 6 { c1 d1 }
}

[image of music]


Positioning arpeggios

If you need to extend or shorten an arpeggio, you can modify the upper and lower start positions independently.

\relative c' {
  <c e g b>1\arpeggio
  \once \override Arpeggio.positions = #'(-5 . 0)
  <c e g b>1\arpeggio
  \once \override Arpeggio.positions = #'(0 . 5)
  <c e g b>1\arpeggio
  \once \override Arpeggio.positions = #'(-5 . 5)
  <c e g b>1\arpeggio
}

[image of music]


Positioning multi-measure rests

Unlike ordinary rests, there is no predefined command to change the staff position of a multi-measure rest symbol of either form by attaching it to a note. However, in polyphonic music multi-measure rests in odd-numbered and even-numbered voices are vertically separated. The positioning of multi-measure rests can be controlled as follows:

\relative c'' {
  % Multi-measure rests by default are set under the fourth line
  R1
  % They can be moved using an override
  \override MultiMeasureRest.staff-position = #-2
  R1
  \override MultiMeasureRest.staff-position = #0
  R1
  \override MultiMeasureRest.staff-position = #2
  R1
  \override MultiMeasureRest.staff-position = #3
  R1
  \override MultiMeasureRest.staff-position = #6
  R1
  \revert MultiMeasureRest.staff-position
  \break

  % In two Voices, odd-numbered voices are under the top line
  << { R1 } \\ { a1 } >>
  % Even-numbered voices are under the bottom line
  << { a1 } \\ { R1 } >>
  % Multi-measure rests in both voices remain separate
  << { R1 } \\ { R1 } >>

  % Separating multi-measure rests in more than two voices
  % requires an override
  << { R1 } \\ { R1 } \\
     \once \override MultiMeasureRest.staff-position = #0
     { R1 }
  >>

  % Using compressed bars in multiple voices requires another override
  % in all voices to avoid multiple instances being printed
  \compressFullBarRests
  <<
   \revert MultiMeasureRest.direction
    { R1*3 }
    \\
   \revert MultiMeasureRest.direction
    { R1*3 }
  >>
}

[image of music]


Positioning text markups inside slurs

Text markups need to have the outside-staff-priority property set to false in order to be printed inside slurs.

\relative c'' {
  \override TextScript.avoid-slur = #'inside
  \override TextScript.outside-staff-priority = ##f
  c2(^\markup { \halign #-10 \natural } d4.) c8
}

[image of music]


Printing a repeat sign at the beginning of a piece

A |: bar line can be printed at the beginning of a piece.

\relative c'' {
  \bar ".|:"
  \repeat volta 2 {
    c1
    d1
    d4 e f g
  }
}

[image of music]


Printing bar numbers inside boxes or circles

Bar numbers can also be printed inside boxes or circles.

\relative c' {
  % Prevent bar numbers at the end of a line and permit them elsewhere
  \override Score.BarNumber.break-visibility = #end-of-line-invisible
  \set Score.barNumberVisibility = #(every-nth-bar-number-visible 4)

  % Increase the size of the bar number by 2
  \override Score.BarNumber.font-size = #2

  % Draw a box round the following bar number(s)
  \override Score.BarNumber.stencil
    = #(make-stencil-boxer 0.1 0.25 ly:text-interface::print)
  \repeat unfold 5 { c1 }

  % Draw a circle round the following bar number(s)
  \override Score.BarNumber.stencil
    = #(make-stencil-circler 0.1 0.25 ly:text-interface::print)
  \repeat unfold 4 { c1 } \bar "|."
}

[image of music]


Printing metronome and rehearsal marks below the staff

By default, metronome and rehearsal marks are printed above the staff. To place them below the staff simply set the direction property of MetronomeMark or RehearsalMark appropriately.

\layout {
  indent = 0
  ragged-right = ##f
}

{
  % Metronome marks below the staff
  \override Score.MetronomeMark.direction = #DOWN
  \tempo 8. = 120
  c''1

  % Rehearsal marks below the staff
  \override Score.RehearsalMark.direction = #DOWN
  \mark \default
  c''1
}

[image of music]


Printing note names with and without an octave marker

The NoteNames context can be used to print the text value of notes. The printOctaveNames property turns on or off the representation of the octave of the note.

scale = \relative c' {
  a4 b c d
  e4 f g a
}

\new Staff {
  <<
    \scale
    \context NoteNames {
      \set printOctaveNames = ##f
      \scale
    }
  >>
  R1
  <<
    \scale
    \context NoteNames {
      \set printOctaveNames = ##t
      \scale
    }
  >>
}

[image of music]


Proportional strict notespacing

If strict-note-spacing is set spacing of notes is not influenced by bars or clefs within a system. Rather, they are placed just before the note that occurs at the same time. This may cause collisions.

\relative c'' <<
  \override Score.SpacingSpanner.strict-note-spacing = ##t
  \set Score.proportionalNotationDuration = #(ly:make-moment 1/16)
  \new Staff {
    c8[ c \clef alto c c \grace { d16 } c8 c] c4
    c2 \grace { c16[ c16] } c2
  }
  \new Staff {
    c2 \tuplet 3/2 { c8 \clef bass cis,, c } c4
    c1
  }
>>

[image of music]


Removing brace on first line of piano score

This snippet removes the first brace from a PianoStaff or a GrandStaff. It may be useful when cutting and pasting the engraved image into existing music.

It uses \alterBroken.

% => http://lilypond.1069038.n5.nabble.com/Getting-rid-of-initial-brace-on-piano-score-td161158.html
someMusic =  {
  \once \override Staff.Clef.stencil = ##f
  \once \override Staff.TimeSignature.stencil = ##f
  \repeat unfold 3 c1 \break
  \repeat unfold 5 c1 \break
  \repeat unfold 5 c1
}

\score {
  \new PianoStaff
  <<
    \new Staff = "right" \relative c'' \someMusic
    \new Staff = "left" \relative c' { \clef F \someMusic }
  >>
  \layout {
    indent=75
    \context {
      \PianoStaff
      \alterBroken transparent #'(#t) SystemStartBrace
    }
  }
}

[image of music]


Removing connecting bar lines on StaffGroup PianoStaff or GrandStaff

By default, bar lines in StaffGroup, PianoStaff, or GrandStaff groups are connected between the staves. This behaviour can be overridden on a staff-by-staff basis.

\relative c' {
  \new StaffGroup <<
    \new Staff {
      e1 | e
      \once \override Staff.BarLine.allow-span-bar = ##f
      e1 | e | e
    }
    \new Staff {
      c1 | c | c
      \once \override Staff.BarLine.allow-span-bar = ##f
      c1 | c
    }
    \new Staff {
      a1 | a | a | a | a
    }
  >>
}

[image of music]


Removing the first empty line

The first empty staff can also be removed from the score by setting the VerticalAxisGroup property remove-first. This can be done globally inside the \layout block, or locally inside the specific staff that should be removed. In the latter case, you have to specify the context (Staff applies only to the current staff) in front of the property.

The lower staff of the second staff group is not removed, because the setting applies only to the specific staff inside of which it is written.

\layout {
  \context {
    \Staff \RemoveEmptyStaves
    % To use the setting globally, uncomment the following line:
    % \override VerticalAxisGroup.remove-first = ##t
  }
}
\new StaffGroup <<
  \new Staff \relative c' {
    e4 f g a \break
    c1
  }
  \new Staff {
    % To use the setting globally, comment this line,
    % uncomment the line in the \layout block above
    \override Staff.VerticalAxisGroup.remove-first = ##t
    R1 \break
    R
  }
>>
\new StaffGroup <<
  \new Staff \relative c' {
    e4 f g a \break
    c1
  }
  \new Staff {
    R1 \break
    R
  }
>>

[image of music]


Rest styles

Rests may be used in various styles.

\layout {
  indent = 0
  \context {
    \Staff
    \remove "Time_signature_engraver"
  }
}

\new Staff \relative c {
  \cadenzaOn
  \override Staff.Rest.style = #'mensural
  r\maxima^\markup \typewriter { mensural }
  r\longa r\breve r1 r2 r4 r8 r16 s32 s64 s128 s128
  \bar ""

  \override Staff.Rest.style = #'neomensural
  r\maxima^\markup \typewriter { neomensural }
  r\longa r\breve r1 r2 r4 r8 r16 s32 s64 s128 s128
  \bar ""

  \override Staff.Rest.style = #'classical
  r\maxima^\markup \typewriter { classical }
  r\longa r\breve r1 r2 r4 r8 r16 r32 r64 r128 s128
  \bar ""

  \override Staff.Rest.style = #'default
  r\maxima^\markup \typewriter { default }
  r\longa r\breve r1 r2 r4 r8 r16 r32 r64 r128 s128
}

[image of music]


Rhythmic slashes

In “simple” lead-sheets, sometimes no actual notes are written, instead only “rhythmic patterns” and chords above the measures are notated giving the structure of a song. Such a feature is for example useful while creating/transcribing the structure of a song and also when sharing lead sheets with guitarists or jazz musicians. The standard support for this using \repeat percent is unsuitable here since the first beat has to be an ordinary note or rest. This example shows two solutions to this problem, by redefining ordinary rests to be printed as slashes. (If the duration of each beat is not a quarter note, replace the r4 in the definitions with a rest of the appropriate duration).

% Macro to print single slash
rs = {
  \once \override Rest.stencil = #ly:percent-repeat-item-interface::beat-slash
  \once \override Rest.thickness = #0.48
  \once \override Rest.slope = #1.7
  r4
}

% Function to print a specified number of slashes
comp = #(define-music-function (parser location count) (integer?)
  #{
    \override Rest.stencil = #ly:percent-repeat-item-interface::beat-slash
    \override Rest.thickness = #0.48
    \override Rest.slope = #1.7
    \repeat unfold $count { r4 }
    \revert Rest.stencil
  #}
)

\score {
  \relative c' {
    c4 d e f |
    \rs \rs \rs \rs |
    \comp #4 |
  }
}

[image of music]


Separating key cancellations from key signature changes

By default, the accidentals used for key cancellations are placed adjacent to those for key signature changes. This behavior can be changed by overriding the 'break-align-orders property of the BreakAlignment grob.

The value of 'break-align-orders is a vector of length 3, with quoted lists of breakable items as elements. This example only modifies the second list, moving key-cancellation before staff-bar; by modifying the second list, break alignment behavior only changes in the middle of a system, not at the beginning or the end.

\new Staff {
  \override Score.BreakAlignment.break-align-orders =
    ##((left-edge ambitus breathing-sign clef staff-bar
                   key-cancellation key-signature time-signature custos)

        (left-edge ambitus breathing-sign clef key-cancellation
                   staff-bar key-signature time-signature custos)

        (left-edge ambitus breathing-sign clef key-cancellation
                   key-signature staff-bar time-signature custos))

  \key des \major
  c'1
  \bar "||"
  \key bes \major
  c'1
}

[image of music]


Setting hairpin behavior at bar lines

If the note which ends a hairpin falls on a downbeat, the hairpin stops at the bar line immediately preceding. This behavior can be controlled by overriding the 'to-barline property.

\relative c'' {
  e4\< e2.
  e1\!
  \override Hairpin.to-barline = ##f
  e4\< e2.
  e1\!
}

[image of music]


Setting system separators

System separators can be inserted between systems. Any markup can be used, but \slashSeparator has been provided as a sensible default.

\paper {
  system-separator-markup = \slashSeparator
}

notes = \relative c' {
  c1 | c \break
  c1 | c \break
  c1 | c
}

\book {
  \score {
    \new GrandStaff <<
      \new Staff \notes
      \new Staff \notes
    >>
  }
}

[image of music]


Showing the same articulation above and below a note or chord

By default, LilyPond does not allow the same articulation (e.g., an accent, a fermata, a flageolet, etc.) to be displayed above and below a note. For example, c4_\fermata^\fermata will only show a fermata below. The fermata above will simply be ignored. However, one can stick scripts (just like fingerings) inside a chord, which means it is possible to have as many articulations as desired. This approach has the advantage that it ignores the stem and positions the articulation relative to the note head. This can be seen in the case of the flageolets in the snippet. To mimic the behaviour of scripts outside a chord, ’add-stem-support would be required. So, the solution is to write the note as a chord and add the articulations inside the <...>. The direction will always be above, but one can tweak this via a \tweak: <c-\tweak direction #DOWN-\fermata^\fermata>

% The same as \flageolet, just a little smaller
smallFlageolet =
#(let ((m (make-articulation "flageolet")))
   (set! (ly:music-property m 'tweaks)
         (acons 'font-size -2
                (ly:music-property m 'tweaks)))
   m)

\relative c' {
  s4^"Wrong:"
  c4_\fermata^\fermata % The second fermata is ignored!
  <e d'>4^\smallFlageolet_\smallFlageolet

  s4^"Works if written inside a chord:"
  <e_\smallFlageolet d'^\smallFlageolet>4
  <e_\flageolet d'^\flageolet>4
  <e_\smallFlageolet^\smallFlageolet>4
  <e_\fermata^\fermata>4
}

[image of music]


String number extender lines

Make an extender line for string number indications, showing that a series of notes is supposed to be played all on the same string.

stringNumberSpanner =
  #(define-music-function (parser location StringNumber) (string?)
    #{
      \override TextSpanner.style = #'solid
      \override TextSpanner.font-size = #-5
      \override TextSpanner.bound-details.left.stencil-align-dir-y = #CENTER
      \override TextSpanner.bound-details.left.text = \markup { \circle \number $StringNumber }
    #})


\relative c {
  \clef "treble_8"
  \stringNumberSpanner "5"
  \textSpannerDown
  a8\startTextSpan
  b c d e f\stopTextSpan
  \stringNumberSpanner "4"
  g\startTextSpan a
  bes4 a g2\stopTextSpan
}

[image of music]


Suppressing warnings for clashing note columns

If notes from two voices with stems in the same direction are placed at the same position, but the voices have no voice-specific shifts specified, the error message ‘warning: ignoring too many clashing note columns’ will appear when compiling the LilyPond file. This message can be suppressed by setting the 'ignore-collision property of the NoteColumn object to #t. Please note that this does not just suppress warnings but stops LilyPond trying to resolve collisions at all and so may have unintended results unless used with care.

ignore = \override NoteColumn.ignore-collision = ##t

\relative c' {
  \new Staff <<
    \new Voice{ \ignore \stemDown f2 g }
    \new Voice{ c2 \stemDown c, }
  >>
}

[image of music]


Time signature in parentheses - method 3

Another way to put the time signature in parenthesis

\relative c'' {
  \override Staff.TimeSignature.stencil = #(lambda (grob)
    (parenthesize-stencil (ly:time-signature::print grob) 0.1 0.4 0.4 0.1 ))
  \time 2/4
  a4 b8 c
}

[image of music]


Time signature in parentheses

The time signature can be enclosed within parentheses.

\relative c'' {
  \override Staff.TimeSignature.stencil = #(lambda (grob)
    (bracketify-stencil (ly:time-signature::print grob) Y 0.1 0.2 0.1))
  \time 2/4
  a4 b8 c
}

[image of music]


Time signature printing only the numerator as a number (instead of the fraction)

Sometimes, a time signature should not print the whole fraction (e.g. 7/4), but only the numerator (7 in this case). This can be easily done by using \override Staff.TimeSignature.style = #'single-digit to change the style permanently. By using \revert Staff.TimeSignature.style, this setting can be reversed. To apply the single-digit style to only one time signature, use the \override command and prefix it with a \once.

\relative c'' {
  \time 3/4
  c4 c c
  % Change the style permanently
  \override Staff.TimeSignature.style = #'single-digit
  \time 2/4
  c4 c
  \time 3/4
  c4 c c
  % Revert to default style:
  \revert Staff.TimeSignature.style
  \time 2/4
  c4 c
  % single-digit style only for the next time signature
  \once \override Staff.TimeSignature.style = #'single-digit
  \time 5/4
  c4 c c c c
  \time 2/4
  c4 c
}

[image of music]


Transcription of Ancient music with incipit

As a workaround to get real incipits which are independent from the main score these are included as a markup into the field normally used for the instrument name. As for now lyrics can only be added as a direct markup. It doesn’t unfortunately conform with the spacing of the main lyrics.

incipit =
#(define-music-function (parser location incipit-music) (ly:music?)
  #{
    \once \override Staff.InstrumentName.self-alignment-X = #RIGHT
    \once \override Staff.InstrumentName.self-alignment-Y = ##f
    \once \override Staff.InstrumentName.padding = #0.3
    \once \override Staff.InstrumentName.stencil =
      #(lambda (grob)
         (let* ((instrument-name (ly:grob-property grob 'long-text)))
          (set! (ly:grob-property grob 'long-text)
           #{ \markup
              \score
              {
                { \context MensuralStaff \with {
                  instrumentName = #instrument-name
                } $incipit-music
              }
              \layout { $(ly:grob-layout grob)
                line-width = \indent
                indent =
                 % primitive-eval is probably easiest for
                 % escaping lexical closure and evaluating
                 % everything respective to (current-module).
                   #(primitive-eval
                     '(or (false-if-exception (- indent incipit-width))
                        (* 0.5 indent)))
                ragged-right = ##f
                ragged-last = ##f
                system-count = #1 }
              }
	   #})
           (system-start-text::print grob)))
  #})

%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

global = {
  \set Score.skipBars = ##t
  \key g \major
  \time 4/4

  % the actual music
  \skip 1*8

  % let finis bar go through all staves
  \override Staff.BarLine.transparent = ##f

  % finis bar
  \bar "|."
}

discantusIncipit = <<
  \new MensuralVoice = "discantusIncipit" <<
    \repeat unfold 9 { s1 \noBreak }
    {
      \clef "neomensural-c1"
      \key f \major
      \time 2/2
      c''1.
    }
  >>
  \new Lyrics \lyricsto discantusIncipit { IV- }
>>

discantusNotes = {
  \transpose c' c'' {
    \clef "treble"
    d'2. d'4 |
    b e' d'2 |
    c'4 e'4.( d'8 c' b |
    a4) b a2 |
    b4.( c'8 d'4) c'4 |
    \once \hide NoteHead
    c'1 |
    b\breve |
  }
}

discantusLyrics = \lyricmode {
  Ju -- bi -- |
  la -- te De -- |
  o, om --
  nis ter -- |
  ra, __ om- |
  "..." |
  -us. |
}

altusIncipit = <<
  \new MensuralVoice = "altusIncipit" <<
    \repeat unfold 9 { s1 \noBreak }
    {
      \clef "neomensural-c3"
      \key f \major
      \time 2/2
      r1 f'1.
    }
  >>
  \new Lyrics \lyricsto altusIncipit { IV- }
>>

altusNotes = {
  \transpose c' c'' {
    \clef "treble"
    % two measures
    r2 g2. e4 fis g |
    a2 g4 e |
    fis g4.( fis16 e fis4) |
    g1 |
    \once \hide NoteHead
    g1 |
    g\breve |
  }
}

altusLyrics = \lyricmode {
  % two measures
  Ju -- bi -- la -- te |
  De -- o, om -- |
  nis ter -- ra, |
  "..." |
  -us. |
}

tenorIncipit = <<
  \new MensuralVoice = "tenorIncipit" <<
    \repeat unfold 9 { s1 \noBreak }
    {
      \clef "neomensural-c4"
      \key f \major
      \time 2/2
      r\longa
      r\breve
      r1 c'1.
    }
  >>
  \new Lyrics \lyricsto tenorIncipit { IV- }
>>

tenorNotes = {
  \transpose c' c' {
    \clef "treble_8"
    R1 |
    R1 |
    R1 |
    % two measures
    r2 d'2. d'4 b e' |
    \once \hide NoteHead
    e'1 |
    d'\breve |
  }
}

tenorLyrics = \lyricmode {
  % two measures
  Ju -- bi -- la -- te |
  "..." |
  -us.
}

bassusIncipit = <<
  \new MensuralVoice = "bassusIncipit" <<
    \repeat unfold 9 { s1 \noBreak }
    {
      \clef "bass"
      \key f \major
      \time 2/2
      %% incipit
      r\maxima
      f1.
    }
  >>
  \new Lyrics \lyricsto bassusIncipit { IV- }
>>

bassusNotes = {
  \transpose c' c' {
    \clef "bass"
    R1 |
    R1 |
    R1 |
    R1 |
    g2. e4 |
    \once \hide NoteHead
    e1 |
    g\breve |
  }
}

bassusLyrics = \lyricmode {
  Ju -- bi- |
  "..." |
  -us.
}

\score {
  <<
    \new StaffGroup = choirStaff <<
      \new Voice = "discantusNotes" <<
        \global
        \set Staff.instrumentName = #"Discantus "
        \incipit \discantusIncipit
        \discantusNotes
      >>
      \new Lyrics = "discantusLyrics" \lyricsto discantusNotes { \discantusLyrics }
      \new Voice = "altusNotes" <<
        \global
        \set Staff.instrumentName = #"Altus "
        \incipit \altusIncipit
        \altusNotes
      >>
      \new Lyrics = "altusLyrics" \lyricsto altusNotes { \altusLyrics }
      \new Voice = "tenorNotes" <<
        \global
        \set Staff.instrumentName = #"Tenor "
        \incipit \tenorIncipit
        \tenorNotes
      >>
      \new Lyrics = "tenorLyrics" \lyricsto tenorNotes { \tenorLyrics }
      \new Voice = "bassusNotes" <<
        \global
        \set Staff.instrumentName = #"Bassus "
        \incipit \bassusIncipit
        \bassusNotes
      >>
      \new Lyrics = "bassusLyrics" \lyricsto bassusNotes { \bassusLyrics }
    >>
  >>
  \layout {
    \context {
      \Score
      %% no bar lines in staves or lyrics
      \hide BarLine
    }
    %% the next two instructions keep the lyrics between the bar lines
    \context {
      \Lyrics
      \consists "Bar_engraver"
      \consists "Separating_line_group_engraver"
    }
    \context {
      \Voice
      %% no slurs
      \hide Slur
      %% Comment in the below "\remove" command to allow line
      %% breaking also at those bar lines where a note overlaps
      %% into the next measure.  The command is commented out in this
      %% short example score, but especially for large scores, you
      %% will typically yield better line breaking and thus improve
      %% overall spacing if you comment in the following command.
      %%\remove "Forbid_line_break_engraver"
    }
    indent = 6\cm
    incipit-width = 4\cm
  }
}

[image of music]


Tuplet bracket and change staff

This snippet shows how to set a tuplet starting in a lower staff and finishing in the upper one.

%% http://lsr.di.unimi.it/LSR/Item?id=926
%=> http://lilypond-french-users.1298960.n2.nabble.com/Crochet-de-nolet-tordu-tt7581491.html
%=> http://lilypond.1069038.n5.nabble.com/Tuplet-bracket-amp-changeStff-td164063.html

aigues = \relative c' {
  \time 6/8
  s4.
  \stemDown
  c16[ bes' e]
  \stemUp
  g c e
  \stemDown
  g8
}

basses = \relative c {
  \time 3/4
  \clef F
  \tweak positions #'(4.5 . 9.5)
  \tweak edge-height #'(1 . -1)
  \tuplet 7/6 {
    c16[ bes' e]
    \change Staff = md
    \stemUp
    g[ c e g]
  }
  s4.s8
}

\new PianoStaff
\with { \omit TimeSignature }
<<
  \new Staff = md \aigues
  \new Staff = mg \basses
>>

[image of music]


Tweaking clef properties

Changing the Clef glyph, its position, or the ottavation does not change the position of subsequent notes on the staff. To get key signatures on their correct staff lines middleCClefPosition must also be specified, with positive or negative values moving middle C up or down respectively, relative to the staff’s center line.

For example, \clef "treble_8" is equivalent to setting the clefGlyph, clefPosition (the vertical position of the clef itself on the staff), middleCPosition and clefTransposition. Note that when any of these properties (except middleCPosition) are changed a new clef symbol is printed.

The following examples show the possibilities when setting these properties manually. On the first line, the manual changes preserve the standard relative positioning of clefs and notes, whereas on the second line, they do not.

{
  % The default treble clef
  \key f \major
  c'1
  % The standard bass clef
  \set Staff.clefGlyph = #"clefs.F"
  \set Staff.clefPosition = #2
  \set Staff.middleCPosition = #6
  \set Staff.middleCClefPosition = #6
  \key g \major
  c'1
  % The baritone clef
  \set Staff.clefGlyph = #"clefs.C"
  \set Staff.clefPosition = #4
  \set Staff.middleCPosition = #4
  \set Staff.middleCClefPosition = #4
  \key f \major
  c'1
  % The standard choral tenor clef
  \set Staff.clefGlyph = #"clefs.G"
  \set Staff.clefPosition = #-2
  \set Staff.clefTransposition = #-7
  \set Staff.middleCPosition = #1
  \set Staff.middleCClefPosition = #1
  \key f \major
  c'1
  % A non-standard clef
  \set Staff.clefPosition = #0
  \set Staff.clefTransposition = #0
  \set Staff.middleCPosition = #-4
  \set Staff.middleCClefPosition = #-4
  \key g \major
  c'1 \break

  % The following clef changes do not preserve
  % the normal relationship between notes, key signatures
  % and clefs:

  \set Staff.clefGlyph = #"clefs.F"
  \set Staff.clefPosition = #2
  c'1
  \set Staff.clefGlyph = #"clefs.G"
  c'1
  \set Staff.clefGlyph = #"clefs.C"
  c'1
  \set Staff.clefTransposition = #7
  c'1
  \set Staff.clefTransposition = #0
  \set Staff.clefPosition = #0
  c'1

  % Return to the normal clef:

  \set Staff.middleCPosition = #0
  c'1
}

[image of music]


Tweaking grace layout within music

The layout of grace expressions can be changed throughout the music using the functions add-grace-property and remove-grace-property. The following example undefines the Stem direction for this grace, so that stems do not always point up, and changes the default note heads to crosses.

\relative c'' {
  \new Staff {
    $(remove-grace-property 'Voice 'Stem 'direction)
    $(add-grace-property 'Voice 'NoteHead 'style 'cross)
    \new Voice {
       \acciaccatura { f16 } g4
       \grace { d16 e } f4
       \appoggiatura { f,32 g a } e2
    }
  }
}

[image of music]


Using alternative flag styles

Alternative styles of flag on eighth and shorter notes can be displayed by overriding the stencil property of Flag. Valid values are modern-straight-flag and old-straight-flag.

testnotes = {
  \autoBeamOff
  c8 d16 c32 d64 \acciaccatura { c8 } d64 r4
}

\relative c' {
  \time 2/4
  \testnotes

  \override Flag.stencil = #modern-straight-flag
  \testnotes

  \override Flag.stencil = #old-straight-flag
  \testnotes

  \revert Flag.stencil
  \testnotes
}

[image of music]


Using ly:grob-object to access grobs with \tweak

Some grobs can be accessed “laterally” from within another grob’s callback. These are usually listed as “layout objects” in the “Internal properties” section of a grob-interface. The function ly:grob-object is used to access these grobs.

Demonstrated below are some ways of accessing grobs from within a NoteHead callback, but the technique is not limited to NoteHeads. However, the NoteHead callback is particularly important, since it is the implicit callback used by the \tweak command.

The example function defined below ("display-grobs") is probably not that useful, but it demonstrates that the grobs are indeed being accessed.

Example console output:

#Grob Accidental () #Grob Stem

#(define (notehead-get-accidental notehead)
   ;; notehead is grob
   (ly:grob-object notehead 'accidental-grob))

#(define (notehead-get-arpeggio notehead)
   ;; notehead is grob
   (let ((notecolumn (notehead-get-notecolumn notehead)))
     (ly:grob-object notecolumn 'arpeggio)))

#(define (notehead-get-notecolumn notehead)
   ;; notehead is grob
   (ly:grob-parent notehead X))

#(define (notehead-get-stem notehead)
   ;; notehead is grob
   (let ((notecolumn (notehead-get-notecolumn notehead)))
     (ly:grob-object notecolumn 'stem)))

#(define (display-grobs notehead)
   ;; notehead is grob
   (let ((accidental (notehead-get-accidental notehead))
         (arpeggio (notehead-get-arpeggio notehead))
         (stem (notehead-get-stem notehead)))
     (format (current-error-port) "~2&~a\n" (make-string 20 #\-))
     (for-each
      (lambda (x) (format (current-error-port) "~a\n" x))
      (list accidental arpeggio stem))))

\relative c' {
  %% display grobs for each note head:
  %\override NoteHead.before-line-breaking = #display-grobs
  <c
  %% or just for one:
  \tweak before-line-breaking #display-grobs
  es
  g>1\arpeggio
}

[image of music]


Using PostScript to generate special note head shapes

When a note head with a special shape cannot easily be generated with graphic markup, PostScript code can be used to generate the shape. This example shows how a parallelogram-shaped note head is generated.

parallelogram =
  #(ly:make-stencil (list 'embedded-ps
    "gsave
      currentpoint translate
      newpath
      0 0.25 moveto
      1.3125 0.75 lineto
      1.3125 -0.25 lineto
      0 -0.75 lineto
      closepath
      fill
      grestore" )
    (cons 0 1.3125)
    (cons -.75 .75))

myNoteHeads = \override NoteHead.stencil = \parallelogram
normalNoteHeads = \revert NoteHead.stencil

\relative c'' {
  \myNoteHeads
  g4 d'
  \normalNoteHeads
  <f, \tweak stencil \parallelogram b e>4 d
}

[image of music]


Using the \tweak command to tweak individual grobs

With the \tweak command, every grob can be tuned directly. Here are some examples of available tweaks.

\relative c' {
  \time 2/4
  \set fingeringOrientations = #'(right)
  <
    \tweak font-size #3 c
    \tweak color #red d-\tweak font-size #8 -4
    \tweak style #'cross g
    \tweak duration-log #2 a
  >2
}

[image of music]


Vertically aligned dynamics and textscripts

All DynamicLineSpanner objects (hairpins and dynamic texts) are placed with their reference line at least 'staff-padding from the staff, unless other notation forces them to be farther. Setting 'staff-padding to a sufficiently large value aligns the dynamics.

The same idea, together with \textLengthOn, is used to align the text scripts along their baseline.

music = \relative c' {
  a'2\p b\f
  e4\p f\f\> g, b\p
  c2^\markup { \huge gorgeous } c^\markup { \huge fantastic }
}

{
  \music
  \break
  \override DynamicLineSpanner.staff-padding = #3
  \textLengthOn
  \override TextScript.staff-padding = #1
  \music
}

[image of music]


Vertically aligning ossias and lyrics

This snippet demonstrates the use of the context properties alignBelowContext and alignAboveContext to control the positioning of lyrics and ossias.

\paper {
  ragged-right = ##t
}

\relative c' <<
  \new Staff = "1" { c4 c s2 }
  \new Staff = "2" { c4 c s2 }
  \new Staff = "3" { c4 c s2 }
  { \skip 2
    <<
      \lyrics {
        \set alignBelowContext = #"1"
        lyrics4 below
      }
      \new Staff \with {
        alignAboveContext = #"3"
        fontSize = #-2
        \override StaffSymbol.staff-space = #(magstep -2)
        \remove "Time_signature_engraver"
      } {
        \tuplet 6/4 {
          \override TextScript.padding = #3
          c8[^"ossia above" d e d e f]
        }
      }
    >>
  }
>>

[image of music]


Vertically centering paired figured bass extenders

Where figured bass extender lines are being used by setting useBassFigureExtenders to true, pairs of congruent figured bass extender lines are vertically centered if figuredBassCenterContinuations is set to true.

<<
  \relative c' {
    c8 c b b a a c16 c b b
    c8 c b b a a c16 c b b
    c8 c b b a a c c b b
  }
  \figures {
    \set useBassFigureExtenders = ##t
    <6+ 4 3>4 <6 4 3>8 r
    <6+ 4 3>4 <6 4 3>8 <4 3+>16 r
    \set figuredBassCenterContinuations = ##t
    <6+ 4 3>4 <6 4 3>8 r
    <6+ 4 3>4 <6 4 3>8 <4 3+>16 r
    \set figuredBassCenterContinuations = ##f
    <6+ 4 3>4 <6 4 3>8 r
    <6+ 4 3>4 <6 4 3>8 <4 3+>8
  }
>>

[image of music]


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