3.2.1 Creating titles headers and footers


Titles explained

Each \book block in a single input file produces a separate output file, see File structure. Within each output file three types of titling areas are provided: Book Titles at the beginning of each book, Bookpart Titles at the beginning of each bookpart and Score Titles at the beginning of each score.

Values of titling fields such as title and composer are set in \header blocks. (For the syntax of \header blocks and a complete list of the fields available by default see Default layout of bookpart and score titles). Book Titles, Bookpart Titles and Score Titles can all contain the same fields, although by default the fields in Score Titles are limited to piece and opus.

\header blocks may be placed in four different places to form a descending hierarchy of \header blocks:

The values of the fields filter down this hierarchy, with the values set higher in the hierarchy persisting unless they are over-ridden by a value set lower in the hierarchy, so:

Note: Remember when placing a \header block inside a \score block, that the music expression must come before the \header block.

It is not necessary to provide \header blocks in all four places: any or even all of them may be omitted. Similarly, simple input files may omit the \book and \bookpart blocks, leaving them to be created implicitly.

If the book has only a single score, the \header block should normally be placed at the top of the file so that just a Bookpart Title is produced, making all the titling fields available for use.

If the book has multiple scores a number of different arrangements of \header blocks are possible, corresponding to the various types of musical publications. For example, if the publication contains several pieces by the same composer a \header block placed at the top of the file specifying the book title and the composer with \header blocks in each \score block specifying the piece and/or opus would be most suitable, as here:

\header {
  title = "SUITE I."
  composer = "J. S. Bach."
}

\score {
  \new Staff \relative g, {
    \clef bass
    \key g \major
    \repeat unfold 2 { g16( d' b') a b d, b' d, } |
    \repeat unfold 2 { g,16( e' c') b c e, c' e, } |
  }
  \header {
    piece = "Prélude."
  }
}

\score {
  \new Staff \relative b {
    \clef bass
    \key g \major
    \partial 16 b16 |
    <g, d' b'~>4 b'16 a( g fis) g( d e fis) g( a b c) |
    d16( b g fis) g( e d c) b(c d e) fis( g a b) |
  }
  \header {
    piece = "Allemande."
  }
}

[image of music]

More complicated arrangements are possible. For example, text fields from the \header block in a book can be displayed in all Score Titles, with some fields over-ridden and some manually suppressed:

\book {
  \paper {
    print-all-headers = ##t
  }
  \header {
    title = "DAS WOHLTEMPERIRTE CLAVIER"
    subtitle = "TEIL I"
    % Do not display the tagline for this book
    tagline = ##f
  }
  \markup { \vspace #1 }
  \score {
    \new PianoStaff <<
      \new Staff { s1 }
      \new Staff { \clef "bass" s1 }
    >>
    \header {
      title = "PRAELUDIUM I"
      opus = "BWV 846"
      % Do not display the subtitle for this score
      subtitle = ##f
    }
  }
  \score {
    \new PianoStaff <<
      \new Staff { s1 }
      \new Staff { \clef "bass" s1 }
    >>
    \header {
      title = "FUGA I"
      subsubtitle = "A 4 VOCI"
      opus = "BWV 846"
      % Do not display the subtitle for this score
      subtitle = ##f
    }
  }
}

[image of music]

See also

Notation Reference: File structure, Default layout of bookpart and score titles, Custom layout for titles.


Default layout of bookpart and score titles

This example demonstrates all \header variables:

\book {
  \header {
      % The following fields are centered
    dedication = "Dedication"
    title = "Title"
    subtitle = "Subtitle"
    subsubtitle = "Subsubtitle"
      % The following fields are evenly spread on one line
      % the field "instrument" also appears on following pages
    instrument = \markup \with-color #green "Instrument"
    poet = "Poet"
    composer = "Composer"
      % The following fields are placed at opposite ends of the same line
    meter = "Meter"
    arranger = "Arranger"
      % The following fields are centered at the bottom
    tagline = "tagline goes at the bottom of the last page"
    copyright = "copyright goes at the bottom of the first page"
  }
  \score {
    { s1 }
    \header {
        % The following fields are placed at opposite ends of the same line
      piece = "Piece 1"
      opus = "Opus 1"
    }
  }
  \score {
    { s1 }
    \header {
        % The following fields are placed at opposite ends of the same line
      piece = "Piece 2 on the same page"
      opus = "Opus 2"
    }
  }
  \pageBreak
  \score {
    { s1 }
    \header {
        % The following fields are placed at opposite ends of the same line
      piece = "Piece 3 on a new page"
      opus = "Opus 3"
    }
  }
}

[image of music]

Note that

To change the default layout see Custom layout for titles.

If a \book block starts immediately with a \bookpart block, no Book Title will be printed, as there is no page on which to print it. If a Book Title is required, begin the \book block with some markup material or a \pageBreak command.

Use the breakbefore variable inside a \header block that is itself in a \score block, to make the higher-level \header block titles appear on the first page on their own, with the music (defined in the \score block) starting on the next.

\book {
  \header {
    title = "This is my Title"
    subtitle = "This is my Subtitle"
    copyright = "This is the bottom of the first page"
  }
  \score {
    \repeat unfold 4 { e'' e'' e'' e'' }
    \header {
      piece = "This is the Music"
      breakbefore = ##t
    }
  }
}

[image of music]

See also

Learning Manual: How LilyPond input files work,

Notation Reference: Custom layout for titles, File structure.

Installed Files: ‘ly/titling-init.ly’.


Default layout of headers and footers

Headers and footers are lines of text appearing at the top and bottom of pages, separate from the main text of a book. They are controlled by the following \paper variables:

These markup variables can only access text fields from top-level \header blocks (which apply to all scores in the book) and are defined in ‘ly/titling-init.ly’. By default:

The default tagline can be changed by adding a tagline in the top-level \header block.

\book {
  \header {
    tagline = "... music notation for Everyone"
  }
  \score {
    \relative c' {
      c4 d e f
    }
  }
}

[image of music]

To remove the tagline set the value to ##f.


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