LilyPond — Music Glossary

This glossary provides definitions and translations of musical terms used in the documentation manuals for LilyPond version 2.19.15.

For more information about how this manual fits with the other documentation, or to read this manual in other formats, see Manuals.

If you are missing any manuals, the complete documentation can be found at http://www.lilypond.org/.


1. Musical terms A-Z

Languages in this order.


1.1 A

See also

Pitch names.


1.2 a due

ES: a dos, I: a due, F: à deux, D: ?, NL: ?, DK: ?, S: ?, FI: kahdelle.

Abbreviated a2 or a 2. In orchestral scores, a due indicates that:

  1. A single part notated on a single staff that normally carries parts for two players (e.g. first and second oboes) is to be played by both players.
  2. Or conversely, that two pitches or parts notated on a staff that normally carries a single part (e.g. first violin) are to be played by different players, or groups of players (‘desks’).

See also

No cross-references.


1.3 accelerando

ES: accelerando, I: accelerando, F: accelerando, en accélérant, D: accelerando, schneller werden, NL: accelerando, DK: accelerando, S: accelerando, FI: accelerando, kiihdyttäen.

[Italian: ‘speed up, accelerate’]

An increase in the tempo, abbreviated accel.

See also

No cross-references.


1.4 accent

ES: acento, I: accento, F: accent, D: Akzent, NL: accent, DK: accent, S: accent, FI: aksentti, korostus.

The stress of one tone over others.

See also

No cross-references.


1.5 accessory

See also

ornament.


1.6 acciaccatura

ES: mordente de una nota, I: acciaccatura, F: acciaccatura, appoggiature brève, D: Zusammenschlag, NL: samenslag, DK: ?, S: ?, FI: ?.

A grace note which takes its time from the rest or note preceding the principal note to which it is attached. The acciaccatura is drawn as a small eighth note (quaver) with a line drawn through the flag and stem.

See also

appoggiatura, grace notes, mordent, ornament.


1.7 accidental

ES: alteración accidental, I: alterazione, accidente, F: altération accidentelle, D: Versetzungszeichen, Akzidenz, NL: toevallig (verplaatsings)teken, DK: løst fortegn, S: tillfälligt förtecken, FI: tilapäinen etumerkki.

An accidental alters a note by:

[image of music]

See also

alteration, semitone, whole tone.


1.8 adagio

ES: adagio, lento, I: adagio, F: adagio, lent, D: Adagio, Langsam, NL: adagio, DK: adagio, S: adagio, FI: adagio, hitaasti.

[Italian: ‘comfortable, easy’]

See also

andante, largo, sonata.


1.9 al niente

ES: al niente, I: al niente, F: al niente, en mourant, D: ?, NL: ?, DK: ?, S: ?, FI: häviten olemattomiin.

[Italian: ‘to nothing’] Used with decrescendo to indicate that the sound should fade away to nothing.

Al niente is indicated by circling the tip of the hairpin:

[image of music]

or with the actual phrase al niente:

[image of music]

Since one does not crescendo to nothing, it is not correct to use al niente with crescendo. Instead, one should use dal niente (from nothing).

See also

crescendo, dal niente, decrescendo, hairpin.


1.10 alla breve

ES: alla breve, I: alla breve, F: alla breve, à la brève, D: Allabreve, alla breve NL: ?, DK: ?, S: ?, FI: ?.

[Italian: ‘on the breve’] Twice as fast as the notation indicates.

Also called in cut time. The name derives from mensural notation, where the tactus (or beat) is counted on the semibreve (the modern whole note). Counting ‘on the breve’ shifts the tactus to the next longest note value, which (in modern usage) effectively halves all note values.

In mensural notation, breves and semibreves can have a ternary relationship, in which case alla breve means thrice (not twice) as fast. In practice, this complication may not have mattered, since Gaffurius’s system of multiplex proportions makes it easy to explicitly state which proportion is needed.

See also

breve, hemiola, mensural notation, note value, proportion, whole note.


1.11 allegro

ES: allegro, rápido, I: allegro, F: allegro, gaiement, D: Allegro, Schnell, Fröhlich, Lustig, NL: allegro, DK: allegro, S: allegro, FI: allegro, nopeasti.

[Italian: ‘cheerful’] Quick tempo. Also used as a title for pieces in a quick tempo, especially the first and last movements of a sonata.

See also

sonata.


1.12 alteration

ES: alteración, I: alterazione, F: altération, D: Alteration, NL: verhoging of verlaging, DK: Forandring, S: Förändring, FI: muunnettu.

An alteration is the modification, raising or lowering, of a note’s pitch. It is established by an accidental.

See also

accidental.


1.13 alto

ES: alto, I: contralto, F: alto, D: Alt, NL: alt, DK: alt, S: alt, FI: altto, matala naisääni.

A female voice of low range (contralto). Originally the alto was a high male voice (hence the name), which by castration or the use of falsetto reached the height of the natural female voice. This type of voice is also known as countertenor.

See also

countertenor.


1.14 alto clef

ES: clave de do en tercera, I: chiave di contralto, F: clef d’ut troisième ligne, D: Altschlüssel, Bratschenschlüssel, NL: alt sleutel, DK: altnøgle, S: altklav, FI: alttoavain.

C clef setting middle C on the middle line of the staff.

See also

C clef.


1.15 ambitus

ES: ámbito, I: ambitus, F: ambitus, tessiture, D: Ambitus, NL: ambitus, DK: ambitus, S: ambitus, FI: ambitus, ääniala, soitinala.

[Latin: past participle of ambire, ‘to go around’; plural: ambitus] Denotes a range of pitches for a given voice in a part of music. It may also denote the pitch range that a musical instrument is capable of playing. Sometimes anglicized to ambit (pl. ambits).

See also

No cross-references.


1.16 anacrusis

ES: anacrusa, I: anacrusi, F: anacrouse, levée, D: Auftakt, NL: opmaat, DK: optakt, S: upptakt, FI: kohotahti.

An anacrusis (also known as pickup or upbeat) is an incomplete measure of music before a section of music. It also refers to the initial note(s) of a melody occurring in that incomplete measure.

[image of music]

See also

measure, meter.


1.17 ancient minor scale

ES: escala menor natural, I: scala minore naturale, F: forme du mode mineur ancien, troisème mode, mode hellénique, D: reines Moll, natürliches Moll, NL: authentieke mineurtoonladder, DK: ren mol, S: ren mollskala, FI: luonnollinen molliasteikko.

Also called ‘natural minor scale’.

[image of music]

See also

diatonic scale.


1.18 andante

ES: andante, I: andante, F: andante, allant, D: Andante, Gehend, NL: andante, DK: andante, S: andante, FI: andante, käyden.

[Italian: present participle of andare, ‘to walk’]

Walking tempo/character.

See also

No cross-references.


1.19 appoggiatura

ES: apoyatura, I: appoggiatura, F: appoggiature, (port de voix), D: Vorschlag, Vorhalt NL: (korte) voorslag, DK: forslag, S: förslag, FI: appoggiatura, etuhele.

Ornamental note, usually a second, that is melodically connected with the main note following it. In music before the 19th century appoggiature were usually performed on the beat, after that mostly before the beat. While the short appoggiatura is performed as a short note regardless of the duration of the main note the duration of the long appoggiatura is proportional to that of the main note.

[image of music]

An appoggiatura may have more notes preceding the main note.

[image of music]

See also

No cross-references.


1.20 arpeggio

ES: arpegio, I: arpeggio, F: arpège, D: Arpeggio, Akkordbrechungen, gebrochener Akkord, NL: gebroken akoord, DK: arpeggio, akkordbrydning, S: arpeggio, FI: arpeggio, murtosointu.

[Italian: ‘harp-like, played like a harp’]

[image of music]

See also

No cross-references.


1.21 articulation

ES: articulación, I: articolazione, F: articulation, D: Artikulation, NL: articulatie, DK: ?, S: ?, FI: artikulaatio, ilmaisu.

Articulation refers to notation which indicates how a note or notes should be played. Slurs, accents, staccato, and legato are all examples of articulation.

See also

No cross-references.


1.22 ascending interval

ES: intervalo ascendente, I: intervallo ascendente, F: intervalle ascendant, D: steigendes Intervall, NL: stijgend interval, DK: stigende interval, S: stigande intervall, FI: nouseva intervalli.

A distance between a starting lower note and a higher ending note.

See also

No cross-references.


1.23 augmentation

ES: aumentación, I: aumentazione, F: augmentation, D: Augmentation, NL: Augmentatio, DK: Forøgelse, S: Förstoring, FI: aika-arvojen pidentäminen.

This is a placeholder for augmentation (wrt mensural notation).

See also

diminution, mensural notation.


1.24 augmented interval

ES: intervalo aumentado, I: intervallo aumentato, F: intervalle augmenté, D: übermäßiges Intervall, NL: overmatig interval, DK: forstørret interval, S: överstigande intervall, FI: ylinouseva intervalli.

See also

interval.


1.25 autograph

ES: manuscrito, I: autografo, F: manuscrit, autographe D: Autograph, Handschrift, NL: manuscript, DK: håndskrift, autograf, S: handskrift, FI: käsinkirjoitettu nuotti.

See also

No cross-references.


1.26 B

See also

H, Pitch names


1.27 backfall

See also

appoggiatura.


1.28 bar

See also

measure.


1.29 bar line

ES: barra, línea divisoria, I: stanghetta, barra (di divisione), F: barre (de mesure), D: Taktstrich, NL: maatstreep, DK: taktstreg, S: taktstreck, FI: tahtiviiva.

A vertical line through the staff (or through multiple staves) that separates measures. Used very infrequently during the Renaissance (mostly in secular music, or in sacred music to indicate congruences between parts in otherwise-unmetered music).

See also

measure.


1.30 baritone

ES: barítono, I: baritono, F: bariton, D: Bariton, NL: bariton, DK: baryton, S: baryton, FI: baritoni, keskikorkuinen miesääni.

The male voice intermediate in pitch between the bass and the tenor.

See also

bass, tenor.


1.31 baritone clef

ES: clave de fa en tercera, I: chiave di baritono, F: clef d’ut cinquième ligne, clef de fa troisième, D: Baritonschlüssel, NL: baritonsleutel, DK: barytonnøgle, S: barytonklav, FI: baritoniavain.

C or F clef setting middle C on the upper staff line.

See also

C clef, F clef.


1.32 bass

ES: bajo, I: basso, F: basse, D: Bass, NL: bas, DK: bas, S: bas, FI: basso, matala miesääni.

See also

strings.


1.33 bass clef

ES: clave de fa en cuarta, I: chiave di basso, F: clef de fa quatrième ligne, D: Bassschlüssel, NL: bassleutel, DK: basnøgle, S: basklav, FI: bassoavain.

A clef setting with middle C on the first top ledger line.

See also

F clef.


1.34 beam

ES: barra (de corcheas), I: coda, F: ligature, barre (de croches), D: Balken, NL: waardestreep, DK: bjælke, S: balk, FI: palkki.

Line connecting a series of notes (shorter than a quarter note). The number of beams determines the note value of the connected notes.

[image of music]

See also

feathered beam.


1.35 beat

ES: tiempo, parte (de compás) I: tempi, F: temps, D: Takt, Taktschlag, Zeit (im Takt), NL: tel, DK: (takt)slag, S: taktslag, FI: aika-arvo.

Note value used for counting, most often half-, fourth-, and eighth notes. The base counting value and the number of them in each measure is indicated at the start of the music by the time signature.

[image of music]

See also

time signature.


1.36 beat repeat

See also

percent repeat.


1.37 bind

See also

tie.


1.38 brace

ES: llave, corchete, I: graffa, F: accolade, D: Klammer, Akkolade, NL: accolade, teksthaak, DK: klamme, S: klammer, FI: yhdistävä sulkumerkki.

Symbol at the start of a system connecting staves.

Curly braces are used for connecting piano staves, and sometimes for connecting the staves of like instruments in an orchestral score when written on different staves (e.g. first and second flutes):

[image of music]

Angular brackets for connecting parts in an orchestral or choral score:

[image of music]

See also

No cross-references.


1.39 bracket

ES: corchete, I: parentesi quadra, F: crochet, D: ?, NL: ?, DK: ?, S: ?, FI: sulkumerkki.

See also

brace


1.40 brass

ES: metales, I: ottoni, D: Blechbläser, NL: koper (blazers), F: cuivres, DK: messingblæsere, S: brassinstrument, mässingsinstrument, FI: vaskisoitin.

A family of blown musical instruments made of brass, all using a cup formed mouth piece. The brass instruments commonly used in a symphony orchestra are trumpet, trombone, French horn, and tuba. In marching bands, sousaphones and contrabass bugles are common.

See also

No cross-references.


1.41 breath mark

ES: respiración, I: respiro, F: respiration, D: Atemzeichen, Trennungszeichen, NL: repercussieteken, DK: vejrtrækningstegn, S: andningstecken, FI: hengitysmerkki.

Indication of where to breathe in vocal and wind instrument parts.

See also

caesura.


1.42 breve

Note value: twice the length of a whole note (semibreve).

Mainly used in music from before 1650. In mensural notation, it was a note of fairly short duration—hence the name, which is Latin for ‘short’ or ‘of short duration’.

[image of music]

See also

mensural notation, note value, semibreve.


1.43 C

See also

Pitch names.


1.44 C clef

ES: clave de do, I: chiave di do, F: clef d’ut, D: C-Schlüssel, NL: C-sleutel, DK: c-nøgle, S: c-klav, FI: C-avain.

Clef symbol indicating the position of the middle C. Used on all note lines.

[image of music]

See also

No cross-references.


1.45 cadence

ES: cadencia, I: cadenza, F: cadence, D: Kadenz, NL: cadens, DK: kadence, S: kadens, FI: kadenssi, lopuke.

See also

harmonic cadence, functional harmony.


1.46 cadenza

ES: cadenza, I: cadenza, F: cadence, D: Kadenz, NL: cadens, DK: kadence, S: kadens, FI: kadenssi, lopuke.

An extended, improvisatory style section inserted near the end of movement. The purpose of a cadenza is to give singers or players a chance to exhibit their technical skill and – not last – their ability to improvise. Since the middle of the 19th century, however, most cadenzas have been written down by the composer.

See also

No cross-references.


1.47 caesura

ES: cesura, I: cesura, F: césure, D: Zäsur, NL: ?, DK: ?, S: ?, FI: välimerkki.

[Latin: from the supine of caedere ‘to cut down’]

The break between two musical phrases, sometimes (but not always) marked by a rest or a breath mark.

See also

breath mark.


1.48 canon

ES: canon, I: canone, F: canon, D: Kanon, NL: canon, DK: kanon, S: kanon, FI: kaanon, tarkka jäljittely.

See also

counterpoint.


1.49 cent

ES: cent, I: cent, F: cent, D: Cent, NL: cent, DK: cent, S: cent, FI: sentti, puolisävelaskeleen sadasosa tasavireisessä viritysjärjestelmässä.

Logarithmic unit of measuring pitch differences. 1 cent is 1/1200 of an octave (1/100 of an equally tempered semitone).

See also

equal temperament, semitone.


1.50 central C

See also

middle C.


1.51 chord

ES: acorde, I: accordo, F: accord, D: Akkord, NL: akkoord, DK: akkord, S: ackord, FI: sointu.

Two or more tones sounding simultaneously. In traditional European music the base chord is a triad consisting of two thirds. Major (major + minor third) as well as minor (minor + major third) chords may be extended with more thirds. Four-tone seventh chords and five-tone ninth major chords are most often used as dominants (functional harmony). Chords having no third above the lower notes to define their mood are a special case called ‘open chords’. The lack of the middle third means their quality is ambivalent – neither major nor minor.

[image of music]

See also

functional harmony, interval, inversion, quality, third.


1.52 chromatic scale

ES: escala cromática, I: scala cromatica, F: gamme chromatique, D: chromatische Tonleiter, NL: chromatische toonladder, DK: kromatisk skala, S: kromatisk skala, FI: kromaattinen asteikko.

A scale consisting of all 12 semitones.

[image of music]

See also

semitone.


1.53 chromaticism

ES: cromatismo, I: cromatismo, F: chromatisme, D: Chromatik, NL: chromatiek, DK: kromatik, S: kromatik, FI: kromatiikka.

Using tones extraneous to a diatonic scale (minor, major).

See also

diatonic scale.


1.54 church mode

ES: modo eclesiástico, I: modo ecclesiastico, F: mode ecclésiastique, mode d’église, D: Kirchentonart, NL: kerktoonladder, DK: kirketoneart, S: kyrkotonart, FI: moodi, kirkkosävellaji.

See also

diatonic scale.


1.55 clef

ES: clave, I: chiave, F: clé, clef, D: Schlüssel, Notenschlüssel, NL: sleutel, DK: nøgle, S: klav, FI: avain, nuottiavain.

The clef indicates which lines of the staff correspond to which pitches. The three clef symbols in common use are:

[image of music]

Imagine a large staff of 11 lines centered on middle C, sometimes called a ‘grand staff’, with the bottom line representing low G and the top line high F:

[image of music]

Staves of five lines are usually used, and the clef superimposed on them indicates which five lines have been selected from this grand staff. For example, the treble or G clef indicates that the top five lines have been selected:

[image of music]

The ‘curl’ of the G clef is centered on the line that represents the pitch G.

In the same way, the bass or F clef indicates that the bottom five lines have been selected from the grand staff, and the alto or C clef indicates the middle five lines have been selected. This relationship is shown below, where the notes show an arpeggio on a C major chord.

[image of music]

See also

C clef, F clef, G clef.


1.56 cluster

ES: racimo, I: cluster, F: cluster, D: Cluster, NL: ?, DK: ?, S: ?, FI: klusteri, cluster.

A cluster is a range of simultaneously sounding pitches that may change over time. The set of available pitches to apply usually depends on the acoustic source. Thus, in piano music, a cluster typically consists of a continuous range of the semitones as provided by the piano’s fixed set of a chromatic scale. In choral music, each singer of the choir typically may sing an arbitrary pitch within the cluster’s range that is not bound to any diatonic, chromatic or other scale. In electronic music, a cluster (theoretically) may even cover a continuous range of pitches, thus resulting in colored noise, such as pink noise.

Clusters can be denoted in the context of ordinary staff notation by engraving simple geometrical shapes that replace ordinary notation of notes. Ordinary notes as musical events specify starting time and duration of pitches; however, the duration of a note is expressed by the shape of the note head rather than by the horizontal graphical extent of the note symbol. In contrast, the shape of a cluster geometrically describes the development of a range of pitches (vertical extent) over time (horizontal extent). Still, the geometrical shape of a cluster covers the area in which any single pitch contained in the cluster would be notated as an ordinary note.

[image of music]

See also

No cross-references.


1.57 comma

ES: coma, comma, I: comma, F: comma, D: Komma, NL: komma, DK: komma, S: komma, FI: komma, korvinkuultava ero äänenkorkeudessa.

Difference in pitch between a note derived from pure tuning and the same note derived from some other tuning method.

See also

didymic comma, Pythagorean comma, syntonic comma, temperament.


1.58 common meter

Another name for common time.

See also

common time, meter.


1.59 Common Practice Period

ES: ?, I: Periodo di pratica comune, F: ?, D: Kunstmusik, NL: ?, DK: ?, S: ?, FI: ?.

This is a stub for Common Practice Period (CPP).

See also

Note names in other languages.


1.60 common time

ES: compasillo, I: tempo semplice, F: mesure à 4/4, D: ?, NL: ?, DK: ?, S: ?, FI: C-merkintä.

4/4 time. The symbol, which resembles a capital letter C, comes from mensural notation.

See also

mensural notation, meter.


1.61 complement

ES: intervalo invertido, I: rivolto, F: intervalle complémentaire, D: Komplementärintervall, NL: complementair interval, DK: komplementærinterval, S: komplementärintervall (?), FI: täydentävä intervalli.

See also

inverted interval.


1.62 compound interval

ES: intervalo compuesto, I: intervallo composto, F: intervalle composé, D: weites Intervall, NL: samengesteld interval, DK: sammensat interval, S: sammansatt intervall, FI: oktaavia laajempi intervalli.

Intervals larger than an octave.

See also

interval.


1.63 compound meter

ES: compás compuesto, compás de subdivisión ternaria, I: tempo composto, F: mesure composée, D: Dreiertakt, NL: ?, DK: ?, S: ?, FI: kolmijakoinen tahtilaji.

A meter that includes a triplet subdivision within the beat, such as 6/8, 9/8, 12/8.

See also

meter, simple meter.


1.64 compound time

ES: compás compuesto, compás de amalgama (def. 2), I: tempo misto, F: temps composé, D: zusammengesetzte Taktart, NL: ?, DK: ?, S: ?, FI: yhdistetty tahtilajiosoitus.

  1. A meter that includes a triplet subdivision within the beat: see compound meter.
  2. A time signature that additively combines two or more unequal meters, e.g., ‘3/8 + 2/8’ instead of ‘5/8’. Sometimes called additive time signatures.
\relative c' {
  \key f \major
  \compoundMeter #'((3 8) (2 8) (3 8))
  c8 d e f4 d8 c bes
  c4 g'8 e c f4.
  \bar "||"
}

[image of music]

See also

compound meter, meter, polymetric time signature.


1.65 concert pitch

ES: en Do, tono de concierto, I: intonazione reale, F: tonalité de concert, en ut, D: Kammerton, NL: ?, DK: ?, S: ?, FI: konserttikorkeus.

The pitch at which the piano and other nontransposing instruments play: such instruments are said to be ‘in C’. The following list includes some (but not all) instruments that play in concert pitch:

WoodwindsStrings
  • flute
  • oboe
  • bassoon
  • violin
  • viola
  • violoncello

Instruments that play ‘in C’ but in a different octave than what is written are, technically speaking, transposing instruments:

See also

transposing instrument.


1.66 conjunct movement

ES: movimiento conjunto, I: moto congiunto, F: mouvement conjoint, D: schrittweise, stufenweise Bewegung, NL: stapsgewijze, trapsgewijze beweging, DK: trinvis bevægelse, S: stegvis rörelse, FI: asteittainen liike.

Progressing melodically by intervals of a second, as contrasted with disjunct movement.

[image of music]

See also

disjunct movement.


1.67 consonance

ES: consonancia, I: consonanza, F: consonance, D: Konsonanz, NL: consonant, DK: konsonans, S: konsonans, FI: konsonanssi, sopusointi.

See also

harmony.


1.68 contralto

ES: contralto, I: contralto, F: contralto, D: Alt, NL: contralto, DK: alt, S: alt, FI: kontra-altto.

See also

alto.


1.69 copying music

A music copyist did fast freehand scores and parts on preprinted staff lines for performance. Some of their conventions (e.g., the placement of note heads on stems) varied slightly from those of engravers. Some of their working methods were superior and could well be adopted by music typesetters.

See also

No cross-references.


1.70 counterpoint

ES: contrapunto, I: contrappunto, F: contrepoint, D: Kontrapunkt, NL: contrapunt, DK: kontrapunkt, S: kontrapunkt, FI: kontrapunkti, ääni ääntä vastaan.

From Latin punctus contra punctum, note against note. The combination into a single musical fabric of lines or parts which have distinct melodic significance. A frequently used polyphonic technique is imitation, in its strictest form found in the canon needing only one part to be written down while the other parts are performed with a given displacement. Imitation is also the contrapuntal technique used in the fugue which, since the music of the baroque era, has been one of the most popular polyphonic composition methods.

[image of music]

See also

No cross-references.


1.71 countertenor

ES: contratenor, I: controtenore, F: contre-tenor, D: Countertenor, Kontratenor, NL: contratenor, DK: kontratenor, S: kontratenor, counter tenor, FI: kontratenori.

See also

contralto.


1.72 crescendo

ES: crescendo, I: crescendo, F: crescendo, D: Crescendo, lauter werden, NL: crescendo, DK: crescendo, S: crescendo, FI: cresendo, voimistuen.

Increasing volume. Indicated by a rightwards opening horizontal wedge (hairpin) or the abbreviation cresc.

[image of music]

See also

decrescendo, hairpin.


1.73 cue-notes

ES: notas guía, I: notine, F: petites notes précédant l’entrée d’un instrument, réplique, ‘à défaut’, D: Stichnoten, NL: stichnoten, DK: stiknoder, S: inprickningar, FI: vihjenuotit.

Notes belonging to one part printed in another to hint when to start playing. Usually printed in a smaller type.

See also

Compare: ossia.


1.74 custos

ES: custos, I: custos, guida, F: guidon, D: Notenzeiger, Custos, NL: ?, DK: ?, S: ?, FI: vihje.

A custos (plural: custodes) is a staff symbol that appears at the end of a staff line with monophonic musical contents (i.e., with a single voice). It anticipates the pitch of the first note of the following line and thus helps the player or singer to manage line breaks during performance, which enhances the readability of a score.

Custodes were frequently used in music notation until the 16th century. There were different appearances for different notation styles. Nowadays, they have survived only in special forms of musical notation such as the Editio Vaticana, dating from the beginning of the 20th century

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See also

No cross-references.


1.75 cut time

See also

alla breve.


1.76 D

See also

Pitch names


1.77 da capo

ES: da capo, I: da capo, F: da capo, depuis le commencement, D: da capo, von Anfang, NL: da capo, DK: da capo, S: da capo, FI: da capo, alusta.

Abbreviated D.C. Indicates that the piece is to be repeated from the beginning to the end or to a certain place marked fine.

See also

No cross-references.


1.78 dal niente

ES: dal niente, de la nada, I: dal niente, F: partant de rien, D: aus dem Nichts, dal niente, NL: ?, DK: ?, S: ?, FI: tyhjästä ilmaantuen.

[Italian: ‘from nothing’] Used with crescendo to indicate that the sound should gradually increase from nothing.

See also

al niente.


1.79 dal segno

ES: dal segno, I: dal segno, F: dal segno, depuis le signe, D: dal segno, ab dem Zeichen, NL: dal segno, DK: dal segno, S: dal segno, FI: dal segno, lähtien merkistä.

Abbreviated D.S. Repetition, not from the beginning, but from another place frequently near the beginning marked by a sign (segno):

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See also

No cross-references.


1.80 decrescendo

ES: decrescendo, I: decrescendo, D: Decrescendo, leiser werden, NL: decrescendo, DK: decrescendo, S: decrescendo, FI: decresendo, hiljentyen.

Decreasing tone volume. Indicated by a leftwards opening horizontal wedge (hairpin) or the abbreviation decresc.

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See also

crescendo, diminuendo, hairpin.


1.81 descending interval

ES: intervalo descendente, I: intervallo discendente, F: intervalle descendant, D: fallendes Intervall, absteigendes Intervall, NL: dalend interval, DK: faldende interval, S: fallande intervall, FI: laskeva intervalli.

A distance between a starting higher note and a lower ending note.

See also

No cross-references.


1.82 diatonic scale

ES: escala diatónica, I: scala diatonica, F: gamme diatonique, D: diatonische Tonleiter, NL: diatonische toonladder, DK: diatonisk skala, S: diatonisk skala, FI: diatoninen asteikko.

A scale consisting of 5 whole tones and 2 semitones (S). Scales played on the white keys of a piano keyboard are diatonic. These scales are sometimes called, somewhat inaccurately, ‘church modes’).

These modes are used in Gregorian chant and in pre-baroque early music but also to some extent in newer jazz music.

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From the beginning of the 17th century the scales used in European compositional music are primarily the major and the minor scales. In the harmonic minor scale type an augmented second (A) occurs between the 6th and 7th tone.

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See also

semitone, whole tone.


1.83 didymic comma

See also

syntonic comma.


1.84 diminished interval

ES: intervalo disminuido, I: intervallo diminuito, F: intervalle diminué, D: vermindertes Intervall, NL: verminderd interval, DK: formindsket interval, S: förminskat intervall, FI: vähennetty intervalli.

See also

interval.


1.85 diminuendo

ES: diminuendo, I: diminuendo, F: diminuendo, en diminuant, D: diminuendo, NL: diminuendo, DK: diminuendo, S: diminuendo, FI: diminuendo, hiljentyen.

Abbreviated dim. It indicates a decrease in tone volume.

See also

decrescendo.


1.86 diminution

ES: disminución, I: diminuzione, F: diminution, D: Diminution, NL: ?, DK: ?, S: ?, FI: aika-arvojen tihennys.

This is a stub for diminution (wrt mensural notation).

See also

augmentation, mensural notation.


1.87 direct

ES: directo, I: ?, F: ?, D: Weiser, Zeiger, NL: ?, DK: ?, S: ?, FI: suora.

See also

custos.


1.88 disjunct movement

ES: movimiento disjunto, I: moto disgiunto, F: mouvement disjoint, D: sprunghafte Bewegung, NL: sprongsgewijze beweging, DK: springende bevægelse, S: hoppande rörelse, FI: melodian hyppivä liike.

Progressing melodically by intervals larger than a major second, as contrasted with conjunct movement.

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See also

conjunct movement.


1.89 dissonance

Another name for dissonant interval.

See also

dissonant interval, harmony.


1.90 dissonant interval

ES: intervalo disonante, disonancia, I: intervallo dissonante, dissonanza, F: intervalle dissonant, dissonance, D: Dissonanz, NL: dissonant interval, dissonant, DK: dissonerende interval, dissonans, S: dissonans, FI: dissonanssi, dissonoiva intervalli, riitasointi.

See also

harmony.


1.91 divisio

ES: división, I: divisio, F: ?, D: Divisio, NL: ?, DK: ?, S: ?, FI: jäsennysmerkki.

[Latin: ‘division’; pl. divisiones] In Gregorian chant, a vertical stroke through part or all of the staff that serves to structure a chant into phrases and sections. There are four types:

TODO: musical example here?

See also

No cross-references.


1.92 doit

ES: elevación [de tono], I: portamento indeterminato verso l’alto/l’acuto, F: saut, D: Glissando zu unbestimmter Tonhöhe, NL: ?, DK: ?, S: ?, FI: nousu.

Indicator for an indeterminately rising pitch bend. Compare with glissando, which has determinate starting and ending pitches.

See also

fall, glissando.


1.93 dominant

ES: dominante, I: dominante, F: dominante, D: Dominante, NL: dominant, DK: dominant, S: dominant, FI: dominantti, huippusointu.

The fifth scale degree in functional harmony.

See also

functional harmony, scale degree.


1.94 dominant ninth chord

ES: acorde de novena de dominante, I: accordo di nona di dominante, F: accord de neuvième de dominante, D: Dominantnonenakkord, NL: dominant noon akkoord, DK: dominantnoneakkord, S: dominantnonackord, FI: dominanttinoonisointu.

See also

chord, functional harmony.


1.95 dominant seventh chord

ES: acorde de séptima de dominante, I: accordo di settima di dominante, F: accord de septième de dominante, D: Dominantseptakkord, NL: dominant septiem akkoord, DK: dominantseptimakkord, S: dominantseptimackord, FI: dominanttiseptimisointu.

See also

chord, functional harmony.


1.96 dorian mode

ES: modo dórico, I: modo dorico, F: mode dorien, D: dorisch, dorischer Kirchenton, NL: dorische toonladder, DK: dorisk skala, S: dorisk tonart, FI: doorinen moodi.

See also

diatonic scale.


1.97 dot (augmentation dot)

ES: puntillo, I: punto (di valore), F: point, D: Punkt (Verlängerungspunkt), NL: punt, DK: punkt, S: punkt, FI: piste.

See also

dotted note, note value.


1.98 dotted note

ES: nota con puntillo, I: nota puntata, F: note pointée, D: punktierte Note, NL: gepuncteerde noot, DK: punkteret node, S: punkterad not, FI: pisteellinen nuotti.

See also

note value.


1.99 double appoggiatura

ES: apoyatura doble, I: appoggiatura doppia, F: appoggiature double, D: doppelter Vorschlag, NL: dubbele voorslag, DK: dobbelt forslag, S: dubbelslag, FI: kaksoisappogiatura, kaksoisetuhele.

See also

appoggiatura.


1.100 double bar line

ES: doble barra, I: doppia barra, F: double barre, D: Doppelstrich, NL: dubbele maatstreep, DK: dobbeltstreg, S: dubbelstreck, FI: kaksoistahtiviiva.

Indicates the end of a section within a movement.

See also

No cross-references.


1.101 double dotted note

ES: nota con doble puntillo, I: nota doppiamente puntata, F: note doublement pointée, D: doppelt punktierte Note, NL: dubbelgepuncteerde noot, DK: dobbeltpunkteret node, S: dubbelpunkterad not, FI: kaksoispisteellinen nuotti.

See also

note value.


1.102 double flat

ES: doble bemol, I: doppio bemolle, F: double bémol, D: Doppel-B, NL: dubbelmol, DK: dobbelt-b, S: dubbelbe, FI: kaksoisalennusmerkki.

See also

accidental.


1.103 double sharp

ES: doble sostenido, I: doppio diesis, F: double dièse, D: Doppelkreuz, NL: dubbelkruis, DK: dobbeltkryds, S: dubbelkors, FI: kaksoisylennysmerkki.

See also

accidental.


1.104 double time signature

ES: compás polimétrico, I: indicazione di tempo doppia/polimetrica, F: ?, D: zusammengesetzte Taktart, NL: ?, DK: ?, S: ?, FI: kaksois-aika-arvomerkintä.

See also

polymetric time signature.


1.105 double trill

ES: trino doble, I: doppio trillo, F: trille double, D: Doppeltriller, NL: dubbele triller, DK: dobbelttrille, S: dubbeldrill, FI: kaksoistrilli.

A simultaneous trill on two notes, usually in the distance of a third.

See also

No cross-references.


1.106 duple meter

ES: tiempo binario, I: tempo binario, F: métrique binaire, D: in zwei, grader Takt, NL: tweedelige maatsoort, DK: todelt takt, S: tvåtakt, FI: kaksoistempo.

See also

meter.


1.107 duplet

ES: dosillo, I: duina, F: duolet, D: Duole, NL: duool, DK: duol, S: duol, FI: duoli.

See also

note value.


1.108 duration

ES: duración, I: durata, F: durée, D: Dauer, Länge, NL: duur, lengte, DK: varighed, S: tonlängd, FI: kesto, aika-arvo.

See also

note value.


1.109 dynamics

ES: dinámica, matices, I: dinamica, F: nuances, D: Dynamik, Lautstärke, NL: ?, DK: ?, S: ?, FI: äänen voimakkuusvaihtelu, dynamiikka.

The aspect of music relating to degrees of loudness, or changes from one degree to another. The terms, abbreviations, and symbols used to indicate this information are called dynamic marks.

See also

piano, forte, crescendo, decrescendo, diminuendo.


1.110 E

See also

Pitch names


1.111 ecclesiastical mode

See also

church mode, diatonic scale.


1.112 eighth note

See also

note value.


1.113 eighth rest

See also

note value.


1.114 elision

ES: sinalefa, I: elisione, F: élision, D: Elision, NL: ?, DK: ?, S: ?, FI: tavujen yhdistäminen yhteen ääneen.

More properly synalepha [New Lat. > Gr. συναλοιφη, from Greek συναλοιφην ‘to smear together’].

The singing of several syllables on a single note. Elision may be indicated by a lyric tie, which looks like (and serves the same function) as a musical tie.

See also

lyric tie.


1.115 embellishment

See also

ornament.


1.116 engraving

ES: grabado, I: incisione, F: gravure, D: Notenstich, Notendruck NL: steken, DK: nodestik, S: nottryck, FI: painatus.

Engraving means incising or etching a metal plate for printing. Photoengraving means drawing music with ink in a manner similar to drafting or engineering drawing, using similar tools.

The traditional process of music printing is done through cutting in a plate of metal. Now also the term for the art of music typesetting.

See also

No cross-references.


1.117 enharmonic

ES: enarmónico, I: enarmonico, F: enharmonique, D: enharmonisch, NL: enharmonisch, DK: enharmonisk, S: enharmonisk, FI: enharmoninen.

Two notes, intervals, or scales are enharmonic if they have different names but equal pitch.

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See also

No cross-references.


1.118 equal temperament

ES: temperamento igual, I: temperamento equabile, F: tempérament égal, D: gleichschwebende Stimmung, NL: gelijkzwevende temperatuur, DK: ligesvævende temperatur, S: liksvävande temperatur, FI: tasavireinen.

A tuning system that divides the octave into 12 equal semitones (each of which is precisely equal to 100 cents).

See also

cent, semitone, temperament.


1.119 expression mark

ES: expresión, I: segno d’espressione, F: signe d’expression, indication de nuance, D: Vortragszeichen, NL: voordrachtsteken, DK: foredragsbetegnelse, S: föredragsbeteckning, FI: nyanssiosoitus, esitysmerkki.

Performance indications concerning:

See also

allegro, andante, crescendo, forte.


1.120 extender line

ES: línea de extensión [de melisma, de bajo cifrado, etc.], I: linea di estensione, F: ligne d’extension [de mélisme, de basse chiffrée, etc.], D: Fülllinie, NL: ?, DK: ?, S: ?, FI: pidennysviiva.

The generic term (in LilyPond) for a line (or dash) of arbitrary length that extends text (without indicating the musical function of that text).

Used in many contexts, for example:

See also

melisma, sul G, thorough bass, octave mark, octave marking.


1.121 F

See also

Pitch names


1.122 F clef

ES: clave de fa, I: chiave di fa, F: clef de fa, D: F-Schlüssel, NL: F-sleutel, DK: F-nøgle, S: f-klav, FI: F-avain.

The position between the dots of the key symbol is the line of the F below central C. Used on the third, fourth and fifth note line. A digit 8 above the clef symbol indicates that the notes must be played an octave higher (for example, bass recorder) while 8 below the clef symbol indicates playing an octave lower (for example, on the Double Bass).

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See also

baritone clef, strings.


1.123 fall

ES: caída [de tono], I: portamento indeterminato verso il basso/il grave, F: chute, D: Glissando zu unbestimmter Tonhöhe nach unten, NL: ?, DK: ?, S: ?, FI: lasku.

Indicator for an indeterminately falling pitch bend. Compare with glissando, which has determinate starting and ending pitches.

See also

doit, glissando.


1.124 feathered beam

ES: barra progresiva, I: travatura convergente/divergente, F: ligature en soufflet, lien de croches en soufflet, D: gespreizter Balken, NL: ?, DK: ?, S: ?, FI: kiilapalkki.

A type of beam used to indicate that a small group of notes should be played at an increasing or decreasing tempo – depending on the direction of ‘feathering’ – but without changing the overall tempo of the piece.

See also

Internals Reference: Manual beams


1.125 fermata

ES: calderón, I: corona, F: point d’orgue, point d’arrêt, D: Fermate, NL: fermate, DK: fermat, S: fermat, FI: fermaatti, pidäke.

Prolonged note or rest of indefinite duration.

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See also

No cross-references.


1.126 fifth

ES: quinta, I: quinta, F: quinte, D: Quinte, NL: kwint, DK: kvint, S: kvint, FI: kvintti.

See also

interval.


1.127 figured bass

ES: bajo cifrado, I: basso continuo, basso numerato, F: basse chiffrée, basse continue, D: Generalbass, bezifferter Bass, NL: basso continuo, becijferde bas DK: generalbas, S: generalbas, FI: kenraalibasso, numeroitu basso.

Also called ‘thorough bass’.

A method of indicating an accompaniment part by the bass notes only, together with figures designating the chief intervals and chords to be played above the bass notes.

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See also

chord, interval.


1.128 fingering

ES: digitación, I: diteggiatura, F: doigté, D: Fingersatz, NL: vingerzetting, DK: fingersætning, S: fingersättning, FI: sormitus.

Figures to the side or above the note that methodically indicate which fingers to use while playing a passage.

See also

No cross-references.


1.129 flag

ES: corchete, I: coda (uncinata), bandiera, F: crochet, D: Fahne, Fähnchen, NL: vlaggetje, DK: fane, S: flagga, FI: lippu, viiri.

Ornament at the end of the stem of a note used for notes with values less than a quarter note. The number of flags determines the note value.

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See also

note value.


1.130 flageolet

ES: armónico, I: armonico, F: flageolet, D: Flageolett, NL: ?, DK: ?, S: ?, FI: flageolet-ääni.

An articulation for string players that means the note or passage is to be played in harmonics.

Also:

See also

articulation, harmonics.


1.131 flat

ES: bemol, I: bemolle, F: bémol, D: B, NL: mol, DK: b, S: beförtecken, FI: alennusmerkki.

See also

accidental.


1.132 forefall

See also

appoggiatura.


1.133 forte

ES: forte, fuerte, I: forte, F: forte, D: forte, laut, NL: forte, DK: forte, S: forte, FI: forte, voimakkaasti.

[Italian: ‘loud’]

Abbreviated f. Variants include:

See also

No cross-references.


1.134 fourth

ES: cuarta, I: quarta, F: quarte, D: Quarte, NL: kwart, DK: kvart, S: kvart, FI: kvartti.

See also

interval.


1.135 Frenched score

ES: partitura a la francesa, I: partitura senza i righi vuoti, F: ?, D: Orchesterpartitur ohne leere Systeme, NL: ?, DK: ?, S: ?, FI: partituuri ilman tyhjiä nuottiviivastoja.

A ‘condensed’ score, produced by omitting staves for instruments that are not playing at the moment, and by moving up additional systems from following pages to take up the space thus liberated, which reduces the total number of pages used to print the work.

The specific rules for ‘frenching’ a score differ from publisher to publisher. If you are producing scores for eventual publication by a commercial publisher, you may wish to procure a copy of their style manual.

See also

Frenched staff.


1.136 Frenched staff

ES: pentagrama a la francesa, I: rigo temporaneo, F: ?, D: zeitweiliges Notensystem, NL: ?, DK: ?, S: ?, FI: karsittu nuotinnus.

[Pl. Frenched staves] Analogous to Frenched scores (q.v), a Frenched staff has unneeded measures or sections removed. This is useful for producing, for example, an ossia staff.

See also

ossia.


1.137 Frenched staves

Plural of Frenched staff.


1.138 fugue

ES: fuga, I: fuga, F: fugue, D: Fuge, NL: fuga, DK: fuga, S: fuga, FI: fuuga.

See also

counterpoint.


1.139 functional harmony

ES: armonía funcional, I: armonia funzionale, F: étude des functions, D: Funktionslehre, NL: functionele harmonie, DK: funktionsanalyse, funktionsharmonik, S: funktionslära, FI: harmoniajärjestelmä.

A system of harmonic analysis.

It is based on the idea that, in a given key, there are only three functionally different chords: tonic (T, the chord on the first note of the scale), subdominant (S, the chord on the fourth note), and dominant (D, the chord on the fifth note). Others are considered to be variants of the base chords. A few examples among many others are the tonic, subdominant or dominant of the parallel minor scale, or the incomplete dominant seventh chord.

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See also

dominant, incomplete dominant seventh chord, subdominant, tonic.


1.140 G

See also

Pitch names


1.141 G clef

ES: clave de sol, I: chiave di sol, F: clef de sol, D: G-Schlüssel, Violinschlüssel, NL: G-sleutel, DK: g-nøgle, S: g-klav, FI: G-avain.

A clef symbol that indicates G above middle C. Used on the first and second note lines. A digit 8 above the clef symbol indicates that the notes must be played an octave higher while 8 below the clef symbol indicates playing or singing an octave lower (used most frequently to notate the tenor part in modern choral scores).

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See also

No cross-references.


1.142 glissando

ES: glissando, I: glissando, F: glissando, D: Glissando, NL: glissando, DK: glissando, S: glissando, FI: glissando, liukuen.

Letting the pitch slide fluently from one note to the other.

See also

No cross-references.


1.143 grace notes

ES: notas de adorno, I: abbellimenti, F: ornement, fioriture, D: Verzierungen, Vorschläge, Vorschlagsnoten, NL: versieringen, DK: forsiringer, S: ornament, FI: korunuotit.

Notes printed in small types to indicate that their time values are not counted in the rhythm of the bar.

See also

acciaccatura, appoggiatura, mordent, ornament.


1.144 grand staff

ES: sistema de piano, I: accollatura, F: système [de portées], accolade, D: Akkolade, Klaviersystem, NL: piano systeem, DK: klaversystem, S: ackolad, böjd klammer, FI: kaksoisnuottiviivasto.

A combination of two staves with a brace. Usually used for piano music.

See also

brace.


1.145 grave

ES: grave, I: grave, F: grave, lent, D: Grave, Langsam, NL: grave, ernstig, DK: grave, S: grave, FI: grave, raskaasti.

[Italian] Slow, solemn.

See also

No cross-references.


1.146 gruppetto

See also

turn.


1.147 H

Letter name used for B natural in German and Scandinavian usage. In the standard usage of these countries, B means B flat.

See also

Pitch names, B.


1.148 hairpin

Graphical version of the crescendo and decrescendo dynamic marks.

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See also

crescendo, decrescendo.


1.149 half note

See also

note value.


1.150 half rest

See also

note value.


1.151 harmonic cadence

ES: cadencia (armónica), I: cadenza (armonica), F: cadence harmonique, D: Schlusskadenz, NL: harmonische cadens, DK: harmonisk kadence, S: (harmonisk) kadens, FI: harmoninen kadenssi.

A sequence of chords that terminates a musical phrase or section.

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See also

functional harmony.


1.152 harmonics

ES: armónicos, sonidos aflautados, I: armonici, F: flageolet, sons harmoniques, D: Flageolett-Töne, NL: ?, DK: ?, S: ?, FI: harmoniset äänet, huiluäänet.

The general class of pitches produced by sounding the second or higher harmonic of a tone producer: string, column of air, and so on.

On stringed instruments, these pitches sound rather flute-like; hence, their name in languages other than English. They are produced by lightly touching the string at a node for the desired mode of vibration while it is being bowed or plucked.

For instruments of the violin family, there are two types of harmonics: natural harmonics, which are those played on the open string; and artificial harmonics, which are produced on stopped strings.

See also

No cross-references.


1.153 harmony

ES: armonía, I: armonia, F: harmonie, D: Harmonie, Zusammenklang, NL: harmonie, DK: samklang, S: samklang, FI: harmonia, yhteissointi.

Tones sounding simultaneously. Two note harmonies fall into the categories consonances and dissonances.

Consonances:

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Dissonances:

[image of music]

For harmony that uses three or more notes, see chord.

See also

chord.


1.154 hemiola

ES: hemiolia, I: emiolia, (rarely hemiola or emiola), F: hémiole, D: Hemiole, NL: ?, DK: ?, S: ?, FI: hemioli, 3/2 -suhde.

[Greek: in Latin, sesquialtera] The ratio 3:2.

Most frequently, a proportion (q.v.) of three notes of equal value in the time normally occupied by two. The resulting rhythm can be expressed in modern terms as a substitution (for example) of a bar in 3/2 for one of 6/4, or of a bar in 3/4 for one of 6/8. During the Baroque era, hemiola is most frequently as a special effect (or affect) at cadences.

For example, this phrase in 6/4 time

[image of music]

may be thought of having alternating time signatures

[image of music]

and is therefore a polymeter (second definition) of considerable antiquity.

See also

mensural notation, meter, polymeter, proportion.


1.155 homophony

ES: homofonía, I: omofonia, F: homophonie, D: Homophonie, NL: homofonie, DK: homofoni, S: homofoni, FI: homofonia, yksiäänisyys.

Music in which one voice leads melodically supported by the other voices in the same rhythm (more or less). In contrast to polyphony.

See also

polyphony.


1.156 hook

See also

flag.


1.157 hymn meter

ES: ?, I: metrica dell’inno, F: ?, D: Silbenanzahl, NL: ?, DK: ?, S: ?, FI: säkeiden tavumäärät.

A group or list of numbers that indicate the number of syllables in a line of a hymn’s verse. Different hymnals have different ways of noting the hymn meter: for example, consider a hymn that has four lines in two couplets alternating regularly between eight and seven syllables. The English Hymnal notes this as 87. 87. Other hymnals may note it as 8787, 87.87, or 8 7 8 7.

Some frequently-used hymn meters have traditional names:

Some hymns and their tunes are doubled versions of a simpler meter: for easier reading, a hymn with a meter of 87.87.87.87 is usually written 87.87D. The traditional names above also have doubled versions:

See also

No cross-references.


1.158 incomplete dominant seventh chord

ES: ?, I: accordo di settima dominante incompleto, F: ?, D: verkürzter Dominantseptakkord, NL: ?, DK: ?, S: ?, FI: ?.

A dominant seventh chord where the root tone is removed. The remaining three tones build a diminished triad.

See also

chord, dominant seventh chord, functional harmony.


1.159 interval

ES: intervalo, I: intervallo, F: intervalle, D: Intervall, NL: interval, DK: interval, S: intervall, FI: intervalli, kahden sävelen korkeusero.

Difference in pitch between two notes. Intervals may be diminished, minor, perfect, major, or augmented. The augmented fourth and the diminished fifth are identical (or enharmonic) on an equal-tempered twelve-tone scale and are called tritonus because they consist of three whole tones. The addition of such two intervals forms an octave.

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See also

enharmonic, whole tone.


1.160 inversion

ES: inversión, I: rivolto, F: renversement, D: Umkehrung, NL: ?, DK: ?, S: ?, FI: käännös.

When a chord sounds with a bass note that differs from the root of the chord, it is said to be inverted. The number of inversions that a chord can have is one fewer than the number of constituent notes. For example, triads (which have three constituent notes) can have three positions, two of which are inversions:

Root position

The root note is in the bass, and above that are the third and the fifth. A triad built on the first scale degree, for example, is marked I.

First inversion

The third is in the bass, and above it are the fifth and the root. This creates an interval of a sixth and a third above the bass note, and so is marked in figured Roman notation as 6/3. This is commonly abbreviated to I6 (or Ib) since the sixth is the characteristic interval of the inversion, and so always implies 6/3.

Second inversion

The fifth is in the bass, and above it are the root and the third. This creates an interval of a sixth and a fourth above the bass note, and so is marked as I6/4 or Ic. Second inversion is the most unstable chord position.

See also

No cross-references.


1.161 inverted interval

ES: intervalo invertido, I: intervallo rivolto, F: intervalle renversé, D: umgekehrtes Intervall, NL: interval inversie, DK: omvendingsinterval, S: intervallets omvändning, FI: käänteisintervalli.

The difference between an interval and an octave.

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See also

No cross-references.


1.162 just intonation

ES: entonación justa, I: intonazione giusta, F: intonation juste, D: reine Stimmung, NL: reine stemming, DK: ren stemning, S: ren stämning, FI: puhdas viritys.

Tuning system in which the notes are obtained by adding and subtracting natural fifths and thirds.

See also

temperament.


1.163 key

ES: tonalidad, I: tonalità, F: tonalité, D: Tonart, NL: toonsoort, DK: toneart, S: tonart, FI: tonaliteetti.

According to the 12 tones of the chromatic scale there are 12 keys, one on c, one on c-sharp, etc.

See also

chromatic scale, key signature.


1.164 key signature

ES: armadura (de la clave), I: armatura di chiave, F: armure, armature [de la clé], D: Vorzeichen, Tonart, NL: toonsoort (voortekens), DK: faste fortegn, S: tonartssignatur, FI: sävellajiosoitus.

The sharps or flats appearing at the beginning of each staff indicating the key of the music.

See also

accidental.


1.165 kievan notation

A form of medieval music notation used predominantly in the chantbooks of the Russian Orthodox Church as well as Carpatho-Russian and Ukrainian jurisdictions of Orthodoxy and Byzantine-rite Catholicism. It is characterized by the square shape of its noteheads.


1.166 laissez vibrer

ES: dejar vibrar, I: laissez vibrer, F: laissez vibrer, D: Laissez vibrer, schwingen lassen, NL: ?, DK: ?, S: ?, FI: antaa väristä.

[French: ‘Let vibrate’] Most frequently associated with harp parts. Marked l.v. in the score.

See also

No cross-references.


1.167 largo

ES: largo, I: largo, F: largo, large, ample, D: Largo, Langsam, Breit, NL: largo, DK: largo, S: largo, FI: largo, hitaasti, leveästi.

[Italian: ‘wide’.] Very slow in tempo, usually combined with great expressiveness. Larghetto is less slow than largo.


1.168 leading note

ES: sensible, I: sensibile, F: (note) sensible, D: Leitton, NL: leidtoon, DK: ledetone, S: ledton, FI: johtosävel.

The seventh scale degree, a semitone below the tonic; so called because of its strong tendency to ‘lead up’ (resolve upwards) to the tonic scale degree.

See also

scale degree, semitone.


1.169 ledger line

ES: línea adicional, I: tagli addizionali, F: ligne supplémentaire, D: Hilfslinie, NL: hulplijntje, DK: hjælpelinie, S: hjälplinje, FI: apuviiva.

A ledger line is an extension of the staff.

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See also

No cross-references.


1.170 legato

ES: legato, I: legato, F: legato, lié, D: legato, gebunden, NL: legato, DK: legato, S: legato, FI: legato, sitoen.

To be performed (a) without any perceptible interruption between the notes, unlike (b) leggiero or non-legato, (c) portato, or (d) staccato.

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See also

staccato.


1.171 legato curve

See also

slur, legato.


1.172 leger line

See also

ledger line.


1.173 ligature

ES: ligadura, I: ligatura, F: ligature, DE: Ligatur, NL: ?, DK: ?, S: ?, FI: ligatuura.

A ligature is a coherent graphical symbol that represents at least two distinct notes. Ligatures originally appeared in the manuscripts of Gregorian chant notation around the 9th century to denote ascending or descending sequences of notes. In early notation, ligatures were used for monophonic tunes (Gregorian chant) and very soon denoted also the way of performance in the sense of articulation. With the invention of the metric system of the white mensural notation, the need for ligatures to denote such patterns disappeared.

See also

mensural notation.


1.174 lilypond

UK: lily pond, ES: estanque de nenúfares, I: stagno del giglio, F: étang de nénuphars, étang de nymphéas, D: Seerosenteich, NL: lelievijver, DK: liliedam, S: liljedamm, FI: liljalampi.

A pond with lilies floating in it.

Also, the name of a music typesetting program.

See also

No cross-references.


1.175 line

ES: línea, I: linea, F: ligne, D: Linie, Notenlinie, NL: lijn, DK: nodelinie, S: notlinje, FI: viiva, nuottiviiva.

See also

staff.


1.176 loco

ES: en su lugar, I: loco, F: ?, D: loco, NL: ?, DK: ?, S: ?, FI: kirjoitetussa äänenkorkeudessa.

[Italian: ‘place’] Instruction to play the following passage at the written pitch. Cancels octave mark (q.v.).

See also

octave mark, octave marking.


1.177 long appoggiatura

ES: apoyatura larga, I: appoggiatura lunga, F: appoggiature longue, D: Vorhalt, NL: Lange voorslag, DK: langt forslag, S: långt förslag, FI: pitkä appoggiatura, pitkä etuhele.

See also

appoggiatura.


1.178 longa

Note value: twice the length of a breve.

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See also

breve, note value.


1.179 lyric tie

ES: ligadura de letra, I: legatura del testo, F: ligature de mots, D: Textbindung, NL: ?, DK: ?, S: ?, FI: sidonta sanoituksessa.

See also

elision.


1.180 lyrics

ES: letra (de la canción), I: testo, F: paroles, D: Liedtext, Gesangstext, NL: liedtekst, DK: ?, S: ?, FI: sanoitus.

See also

No cross-references.


1.181 major

ES: mayor, I: maggiore, F: [mode] majeur, D: Dur, NL: majeur, DK: dur, S: dur, FI: duuri.

See also

diatonic scale.


1.182 major interval

ES: intervalo mayor, I: intervallo maggiore, F: intervalle majeur, D: großes Intervall, NL: groot interval, DK: stort interval, S: stort intervall, FI: suuri intervalli.

See also

interval.


1.183 maxima

ES: máxima, I: maxima, F: maxima, maxime, D: Maxima, NL: ?, DK: ?, S: ?, FI: maxima.

Note value: twice the length of a longa.

The maxima is the largest duration in use during the 15th and 16th centuries. Like the longa, the maxima can be either two or three times as long as the longa (called binary and ternary, respectively). By the late 15th century, most composers used the smaller proportion by default.

See also

Duration names notes and rests, longa, note value.


1.184 meantone temperament

ES: afinación mesotónica, I: accordatura mesotonica, F: tempérament mésotonique, D: mitteltönige Stimmung, NL: middenstemming, middentoonstemming, DK: middeltonetemperatur, S: medeltonstemperatur, FI: keskisävelviritys.

Temperament yielding acoustically pure thirds by decreasing the natural fifth by 16 cents. Due to the non-circular character of this temperament only a limited set of keys are playable. Used for tuning keyboard instruments for performance of pre-1650 music.

See also

cent, temperament.


1.185 measure

ES: compás, I: misura, battuta, F: mesure, D: Takt, NL: maat, DK: takt, S: takt, FI: tahti.

A group of beats (units of musical time) the first of which bears an accent. Such groups in numbers of two or more recur consistently throughout the composition and are separated from each other by bar lines.

See also

bar line, beat, meter.


1.186 measure repeat

See also

percent repeat.


1.187 mediant

ES: mediante, I: mediante, modale, F: médiante, NL: mediant, D: Mediante, DK: mediant, S: mediant, FI: keskisävel.

See also

chord, functional harmony, relative key.


1.188 melisma

ES: melisma, I: melisma, F: mélisme, tenue, D: Melisma, NL: melisma, DK: ?, S: ?, FI: melisma, laulettavan tavun sävelkuvio.

A melisma (Greek: plural melismata) is a group of notes or tones sung on one syllable, especially as applied to liturgical chant.

See also

No cross-references.


1.189 melisma line

ES: línea de melisma, I: linea del melisma, F: trait de mélisme, trait de tenue, D: Fülllinie, NL: ?, DK: ?, S: ?, FI: melismaviiva.

See also

extender line.


1.190 melodic cadence

See also

cadenza.


1.191 mensural notation

ES: notación mensural, I: notazione mensurale, F: notation mensurale, D: Mensuralnotation, NL: ?, DK: ?, S: ?, FI: mensuraalinuotinnus.

A system of duration notation whose principles were first established in the mid-13th century, and that (with various changes) remained in use until about 1600. As such, it is the basis for the notation of rhythms in Western musical notation.

Franco of Cologne (ca. 1250) is credited with the first systematic explanation of the notation’s principles, so the notation of this earliest period is called ‘Franconian’. Franco’s system made use of three note values – long, breve, and semibreve – each of which was normally equivalent to three of the next lower note value.

Then, in the first half of the 14th century, Philippe de Vitry and Jehan de Murs added several note values (the minim, semiminim and fusa) and extended Franco’s principles to govern the relationship between these values. They also put the duple division of note values on an equal footing with the earlier (preferred) triple division.

TODO: continue description of French and Italian black notation, and the relationship betwixt them.

White or void mensural notation

In the 15th century, hollow (or void) notes began to substitute for the earlier solid black ones, which were then free to assume the function of red (or colored) notes in the earlier notation. ...

TODO: add to definition (including summary info on proportional notation)

See also

augmentation, diminution, ligature, proportion.


1.192 mensuration sign

ES: signo de mensuración, I: indicazione mensurale, F: signe de mensuration, D: Mensurzeichen, NL: ?, DK: ?, S: ?, FI: ?.

The ancestor of the time signature, mensuration signs were used to indicate the relationship between two sets of note durations—specifically, the ratio of breves to semibreves (called tempus), and of semibreves to minims (called prolatio).

Each ratio was represented with a single single sign, and was either three-to-one (ternary) or two-to-one (binary), as in modern music notation. Unlike modern music notation, the ternary ratio was the preferred one—applied to the tempus, it was called perfect, and was represented by a complete circle; applied to the prolatio, it was called major and was represented by a dot in the middle of the sign. The binary ratio applied to the tempus was called imperfect, and was represented by an incomplete circle; applied to prolatio, it was called minor and was represented by the lack of an internal dot. There are four possible combinations, which can be represented in modern time signatures with and without reduction of note values. (These signs are hard-coded in LilyPond with reduction.)

perfect tempus with major prolatio

Indicated by a complete circle with an internal dot. In modern time signatures, this equals:

  • 9/4, with reduction or
  • 9/2, without reduction
perfect tempus and minor prolatio

Indicated by a complete circle without an internal dot. In modern time signatures, this equals:

  • 3/2, with reduction or
  • 3/1, without reduction
imperfect tempus and major prolatio

Indicated by an incomplete circle with an internal dot. In modern time signatures, this equals:

  • 6/4, with reduction or
  • 6/2, without reduction
imperfect tempus and minor prolatio

Indicated by an incomplete circle without an internal dot. In modern time signatures, this equals:

  • 4/4, with reduction or
  • 2/1, without reduction

The last mensuration sign looks like common-time because it is, with note values reduced from the original semibreve to a modern quarter note. Being doubly imperfect, this sign represented the (theoretically) least-preferred mensuration, but it was actually used fairly often.

This system extended to the ratio of longer note values to each other:

In the absence of any other indication, these modes were assumed to be binary. The mensuration signs only indicated tempus and prolatio, so composers needed another way to indicate these longer ratios (called modes. Around the middle of the 15th century started to use groups of rests at the beginning of the staff, preceding the mensuration sign.

Two mensuration signs have survived to the present day: the C-shaped sign, which originally designated tempus imperfectum and prolatio minor now stands for common time; and the slashed C, which designated the same with diminution now stands for cut time (essentially, it has not lost its original meaning).

See also

diminution, proportion, time signature.


1.193 meter

ES: tiempo, compás, I: tempo, misura, F: indication de mesure, mesure, D: Taktart, Metrum, NL: maatsoort, DK: taktart, S: taktart, FI: aika-arvo.

The pattern of note values and accents in a composition or a section thereof. There are a couple ways to classify ‘traditional’ meter (i.e. not polymeter): by grouping beats and by subdividing the primary beat.

By grouping beats:

Other than triple meter and its subdivided variants (see below), meters that feature odd groupings of beats (e.g. quintuple or septuple meter) are not frequently used prior to the 20th Century.

By subdividing the primary beat:

Time signatures are placed at the beginning of a composition (or section) to indicate the meter. For instance, a piece written in simple triple meter with a beat on each quarter note is conventionally written with a time signature of 3/4. Here are some combinations of the two classifications above:

Simple duple meter (F.J. Haydn, 1732-1809; or a Croatian folk tune):

[image of music]

Simple triple meter:

[image of music]

Simple quadruple meter (French folk tune, Au clair de la lune):

[image of music]

Simple quintuple meter (B. Marcello, 1686-1739):

[image of music]

(Aside: this is an example of Augenmusik: the accidentals are thus in the source, with sharps in the accompaniment where the voice has flats and vice versa.)

Compound duple meter (unknown):

[image of music]

Compound triple meter (J.S. Bach, 1685-1750):

[image of music]

Compound quadruple meter (P. Yon, 1886-1943):

[image of music]

See also

accent, hemiola, note value, time signature


1.194 metronome

ES: metrónomo, I: metronomo, F: métronome, D: Metronom, NL: metronoom, DK: metronom, S: metronom, FI: metronomi.

Device used to indicate the exact tempo of a piece.

Invented ca. 1812 by Dietrich Nikolaus Winkler of Amsterdam, but takes its name from Johann Nepomuk Mälzel, who copied the device, added a scale of tempo divisions, and patented it as a ‘metronome’. The inevitable lawsuit that followed acknowledged Winkler as the creator, but by then Mälzel had already sold many of them, and people had taken to calling it a Mälzel Metronome.

See also

metronome mark.


1.195 metronome mark

ES: indicación metronómica, I: indicazione metronomica, F: indication métronomique, D: Metronomangabe, NL: metronoom aanduiding, DK: metronomtal, S: metronomangivelse, FI: metronomiosoitus.

Exact tempo indication (in beats per minute). Abbreviated M.M. or MM, which is short for Mälzels Metronom (or Mälzel’s Mark, anglice).

See also

metronome


1.196 metronomic indication

See also

metronome mark


1.197 mezzo

ES: mezzo, I: mezzo, F: mezzo, D: mezzo, etwas, NL: ?, DK: ?, S: ?, FI: kohtalaisen, melko.

[Italian: ‘medium’]

Used to qualify other indications, such as:

See also

No cross-references.


1.198 mezzo-soprano

ES: mezzosoprano, I: mezzo-soprano, F: mezzo-soprano, D: Mezzosopran, NL: mezzosopraan, DK: mezzosopran, S: mezzosopran, FI: mezzosopraano.

The female voice between soprano and contralto.

See also

soprano, contralto.


1.199 middle C

ES: do central, I: do centrale, F: do central, do 3 D: zweigestrichenes c, NL: centrale c, DK: enstreget c, S: ettstruket c, FI: keski-C.

First C below the 440 Hz A.

[image of music]

See also

No cross-references.


1.200 minor

ES: menor, I: minore, F: (mode) mineur, D: Moll, NL: mineur, DK: mol, S: moll, FI: molli.

See also

diatonic scale.


1.201 minor interval

ES: intervalo menor, I: intervallo minore, F: intervalle mineur, D: kleines Intervall, NL: klein interval, DK: lille interval, S: litet intervall, FI: pieni intervalli.

See also

interval.


1.202 mixolydian mode

See also

diatonic scale.


1.203 mode

ES: modo, I: modo, F: mode, D: Kirchentonart, Modus, NL: modus, DK: skala, S: modus, skala, FI: moodi, kirkkosävelasteikko.

See also

church mode, diatonic scale.


1.204 modulation

ES: modulación, I: modulazione, F: modulation, D: Modulation, NL: modulatie, DK: modulation, S: modulering, FI: modulaatio, sävellajin vaihdos.

Moving from one key to another. For example, the second subject of a sonata form movement modulates to the dominant key if the key is major and to the relative key if the key is minor.

See also

No cross-references.


1.205 mordent

I: mordente, F: mordant, D: Mordent, NL: mordent, DK: mordent, S: mordent, FI: mordent, korukuvio.

See also

acciaccatura, appoggiatura, grace notes, ornament.


1.206 motif

See also

motive.


1.207 motive

ES: motivo, I: inciso, F: motif, incise, D: Motiv, NL: motief, DK: motiv, S: motiv, FI: teema, sävelaihe.

The briefest intelligible and self-contained fragment of a musical theme or subject.

[image of music]

See also

No cross-references.


1.208 movement

ES: movimiento, I: movimento, F: mouvement, D: Satz, NL: deel, DK: sats, S: sats, FI: osa.

Greater musical works like symphony and sonata most often consist of several – more or less – independent pieces called movements.

See also

No cross-references.


1.209 multi-measure rest

ES: compases de espera, silencio multicompás, I: pausa multipla, F: pause multiple, mesure à compter, NL: meermaats rust, D: mehrtaktige Pause, Kirchenpause, DK: flertaktspause, S: flertaktspaus, FI: usean tahdin mittainen tauko.

Multi-measure rests are conventionally typeset with a combination of longa, breve and whole rests for shorter and a long horizontal bar for longer spans of rest, with a number above to indicate the duration (in measures) of the rest. The former style is called ‘Kirchenpausen’ in German, as a reminiscence of its use in Renaissance vocal polyphony.

[image of music]

See also

longa, breve.


1.210 natural

ES: becuadro, I: bequadro, F: bécarre, D: Auflösungszeichen, NL: herstellingsteken, DK: opløsningstegn, S: återställningstecken, FI: palautusmerkki.

See also

accidental.


1.211 neighbor tones

ES: tonos vecinos, I: nota di volta, F: tons voisins, D: ?, NL: ?, DK: ?, S: ?, FI: ?.

See also

acciaccatura, appoggiatura, grace notes, mordent, ornament.


1.212 ninth

ES: novena, I: nona, F: neuvième, D: None, NL: noon, DK: none, S: nona, FI: nooni.

See also

interval.


1.213 non-legato

See also

legato.


1.214 note

ES: nota, I: nota, F: note, D: Note, NL: noot, DK: node, S: not, FI: nuotti.

Notes are signs by means of which music is fixed in writing. The term is also used for the sound indicated by a note, and even for the key of the piano which produces the sound. However, a clear distinction between the terms tone and note is strongly recommended. Briefly, one sees a note, and hears a tone.

See also

No cross-references.


1.215 note head

ES: cabeza, I: testa, testina, capocchia, F: tête de note, D: Notenkopf, NL: nootballetje, DK: nodehovede, S: nothuvud, FI: nuotin pää.

A head-like sign which indicates pitch by its position on a staff provided with a clef, and duration by a variety of shapes such as hollow or black heads with or without stems, flags, etc. For percussion instruments (often having no defined pitch) the note head may indicate the instrument.

See also

clef, flag, staff, stem.


1.216 note names

See also

Pitch names


1.217 note value

ES: valor, duración, I: valore, durata, F: durée, valeur (d’une note), D: Notenwert, NL: nootwaarde, DK nodeværdi, S: notvärde, FI: nuotin aika-arvo.

Note values (durations) are measured as fractions—in modern usage, one-half—of the next higher note value. The longest duration in current use is the breve (equal to two whole notes), but sometimes (especially in music dating from the Baroque era or earlier) the longa (four whole notes) or maxima (eight whole notes) may be found.

As used in mensural notation, this fraction was more flexible: it could also be one-third the higher note value. Composers indicated which proportions to use with various signs—two of which survive to the present day: the C-shaped sign for common time, and the slashed C for alla breve or cut time.

[image of music]

[image of music]

An augmentation dot after a note increases its duration by half; a second dot increases it by half of the first addition (that is, by a fourth of the original duration). More dots can be used to add further halved fractions of the original note value (1/8, 1/16, etc.), but they are not frequently encountered.

[image of music]

Alternatively note values may be subdivided by other ratios. Most common is subdivision by 3 (triplets) and 5 (quintuplets). Subdivisions by 2 (duplets) or 4 (quadruplets) of dotted notes are also frequently used.

[image of music]

[image of music]

See also

common time.


1.218 octavation

See also

octave marking.


1.219 octave

ES: octava, I: ottava, F: octave, D: Oktave, NL: octaaf, DK: oktav, S: oktav, FI: oktaavi.

The interval of an octave, sometimes abbreviated 8ve.

For uses like all’ottava or 8va with an extender line or bracket, or loco see octave marking.

See also

interval, octave marking.


1.220 octave mark

ES: indicación de octava, I: segno di ottava, F: indication d’octave, D: Oktavierungszeichen, NL: ?, DK: ?, S: ?, FI: oktaavamerkki.

The phrase, abbreviation, or other mark used (with or without an extender line or bracket) to indicate that the music is to be played in a different octave:

For longer passages, it may be more practical to mark the octave change at the beginning with a phrase (see the list below for examples), but without a bracket or extender line. Then, when the music returns to the written pitch, the octave change is canceled with the word loco (q.v.).

To parallel the list above:

In the phrases above, quindicesima is sometimes replaced with quindecima, which is Latin.

The music on an entire staff can be marked to be played in a different octave by putting a small 8 or 15 above or below the clef at the beginning. This octave mark can be applied to any clef, but it is most frequently used with the G and F clefs.

See also

F clef, G clef, loco, octave marking.


1.221 octave marking

ES: a la octava, I: all’ottava, F: octaviation, D: Oktavierung, NL: octaveren, DK: oktavering, S: oktavering, FI: oktaavamerkintä.

The practice of marking music – an entire staff, a passage, etc. – to indicate that it is to be played in a different octave. If applied to the clef at the beginning of the staff, all music on that staff is to played at the indicated octave.

For a list of the specific marks used, see octave mark.

See also

interval, loco, octave, octave mark.


1.222 octave sign

See also

octave mark.


1.223 ornament

ES: adorno, I: abbellimento, fioriture, F: agrément, ornement, D: Verzierung, Ornament, NL: versiering, DK: forsiring, S: ornament, FI: koru, hele.

Most commonly used is the trill, the rapid alternation of a given note with the diatonic second above it. In the music from the middle of the 19th century and onwards the trill is performed with the main note first while in the music from the preceding baroque and classic periods the upper note is played first.

[image of music]

Other frequently used ornaments are the turn, the mordent, and the prall (inverted mordent).

[image of music]

See also

acciaccatura, appoggiatura, grace notes, mordent.


1.224 ossia

ES: ossia, I: ossia, F: ossia, alternative, D: Ossia, NL: alternatief, DK: ossia, S: ossia, FI: ossia, vaihtoehtoinen esitystapa.

Ossia (otherwise) marks an alternative. It is an added staff or piano score, usually only a few measures long, which presents another version of the music, for example for small hands.

See also

Compare: cue-notes.


1.225 part

ES: parte, particella, I: voce, parte, F: partie, D: Stimme, NL: partij, DK: stemme, S: stämma, FI: stemma, instrumenttiosuus.

See also

counterpoint


1.226 pause

See also

fermata.


1.227 pennant

See also

flag.


1.228 percent repeat

LilyPond-specific term to indicate the repetition of a musical expression on a single staff, as opposed to the more usual definition of repeat, which affects all parts. The musical expression can be anything from a single note or note pattern to one or more measures. There are other names for this symbol:

[image of music]

See also

repeat, University of Vermont Music Dictionary.


1.229 percussion

ES: percusión, I: percussioni, F: percussion, D: Schlagzeug, Schlagwerk, NL: slagwerk, DK: slagtøj, S: slagverk, FI: lyömäsoittimet.

A family of musical instruments which are played on by striking or shaking. Percussion instruments commonly used in a symphony orchestra are kettledrums (I: timpani, D: Pauken), snare drum, bass drum, tambourine, cymbals, Chinese gong (tam-tam), triangle, celesta, glockenspiel, and xylophone.

See also

No cross-references.


1.230 perfect interval

ES: intervalo justo, I: intervallo giusto, F: intervalle juste, D: reines Intervall, NL: rein interval, DK: rent interval, S: rent intervall, FI: puhdas intervalli.

See also

interval.


1.231 phrase

ES: frase, I: frase, F: phrase, D: Phrase, NL: frase, zin, DK: frase, S: fras, FI: fraasi, lause.

A natural division of the melodic line, comparable to a sentence of speech.

See also

caesura.


1.232 phrasing

ES: fraseo, I: fraseggio, F: phrasé, D: Phrasierung, NL: frasering, DK: frasering, S: frasering, FI: fraseeraus, jäsentäminen.

The clear rendering in musical performance of the phrases of the melody. Phrasing may be indicated by a slur.

See also

phrase, slur.


1.233 piano

ES: piano, suave, I: piano, F: piano, D: piano, leise, NL: piano, DK: piano, S: piano, FI, piano, hiljaa.

piano (p) soft, pianissimo (pp) very soft, mezzo piano (mp) medium soft.

See also

No cross-references.


1.234 pickup

ES: anacrusa, I: anacrusi, F: anacrouse, levée, D: Auftakt, NL: opmaat, DK: optakt, S: upptakt, FI: kohotahti.

See also

anacrusis.


1.235 pitch

ES: altura, I: altezza, F: hauteur, D: Tonhöhe, NL: toonhoogte, DK: tonehøjde, S: tonhöjd, FI: sävelkorkeus.

  1. The perceived quality of a sound that is primarily a function of its fundamental frequency.
  2. [FR. ton; DE. Ton; ES. tono] Any point on the continuum of musical pitch.
  3. [FR. diapason; DE. Kammerton, Stimmung; ES. diapasón] The standardized association of a particular frequency with a particular pitch name, e.g., c’ = 256 Hz.

See also

Pitch names.


1.236 pizzicato

ES: pizzicato, I: pizzicato, F: pizzicato, D: pizzicato, NL: pizzicato, getokkeld, DK: pizzicato, S: pizzicato, FI: pizzicato, näppäillen.

A technique for stringed instruments, abbr. pizz. To play by plucking the strings.

See also

No cross-references.


1.237 polymeter

ES: compás polimétrico, I: polimetria, F: polymétrie, D: Polymetrie, NL: ?, DK: ?, S: ?, FI: monia tahtiosoituksia sisältävä.

See also

polymetric (adj.)


1.238 polymetric

ES: polimétrico, I: polimetrico, F: polymétrique, D: polymetrisch, NL: ?, DK: ?, S: ?, FI: monia tahtiosoituksia yhtäaikaa tai peräkkäin sisältävä.

Characterized by polymeter: using two or more metric frameworks simultaneously or in alternation.

See also

polymeter (noun)


1.239 polymetric time signature

ES: indicación de compás polimétrico, I: tempo polimetrico, F: ?, D: zusammengesetzte Taktart, NL: ?, DK: ?, S: ?, FI: vaihtelevan tahtiosoitusmerkintä.

A time signature that indicates regularly alternating polymetric time.

See also

polymetric.


1.240 polyphony

ES: polifonía, I: polifonia, F: polyphonie, D: Polyphonie, Mehrstimmigkeit, NL: polyfonie, DK: polyfoni, S: polyfoni, FI: polyfonia, moniäänisyys.

Music written in a combination of several simultaneous voices (parts) of a more or less pronounced individuality.

See also

counterpoint.


1.241 portato

[Italian: past participle of portare, ‘to carry’]

A stroke in which each of several notes is separated slightly within a slur, without changing the bow’s direction. It is used for passages of a cantabile character.

See also

legato.


1.242 power chord

A chord containing only the root and the fifth (possibly in multiple octaves). Commonly used in guitar music, particularly with electric guitar and high distortion.

See also

chord.


1.243 presto

ES: presto, muy rápido, I: presto, F: presto, très rapide, enlevé, D: Presto, Sehr schnell, NL: presto, Sehr schnell, DK: presto, S: presto, FI: presto, hyvin nopeasti.

[Italian]

Very quick, i.e., quicker than allegro; prestissimo denotes the highest possible degree of speed.

See also

No cross-references.


1.244 proportion

ES: proporción, I: proporzione, F: proportion, D: Proportio, NL: ?, DK: ?, S: ?, FI: suhde.

[Latin: proportio] Described in great detail by Gaffurius, in Practica musicae (published in Milan in 1496). In mensural notation, proportion is:

  1. A ratio that expresses the relationship between the note values that follow with those that precede;
  2. A ratio between the note values of a passage and the ‘normal’ relationship of note values to the metrical pulse. (A special case of the first definition.)

The most common proportions are:

To ‘cancel’ any of these, the inverse proportion is applied. Thus:

Gaffurius enumerates five basic types of major:minor proportions and their inverses:

  1. Multiplex, if the major number is an exact multiple of the minor (2:1, 3:1, 4:2, 6:3); and its inverse, Submultiplex (1:2, 1:3, 2:4, 3:6)
  2. Epimoria or Superparticular [orig. Epimoria seu Superparticularis], if the major number is one more than the minor (3:2, 4:3, 5:4); and its inverse, Subsuperparticular (2:3, 3:4, 4:5)
  3. Superpartiens, if the major number is one less than twice the minor (5:3, 7:4, 9:5, 11:6); and its inverse, subsuperpartiens (3:5, 4:7, 5:9, 6:11)
  4. Multiplexsuperparticular, if the major number is one more than twice the minor (5:2, 7:3, 9:4); and its inverse, Submultiplexsuperparticular (2:5, 3:7, 4:9)
  5. Multiplexsuperpartiens, if the major number is one less than some other multiple (usually three or four) of the minor (8:3, 11:4, 14:5, 11:3); and its inverse, Submultiplexsuperpartiens (3:8, 4:11, 5:14, 3:11)

He then continues to subdivide each type in various ways. For the multiplex proportions, for example, he indicates how many times greater the major number is than the minor:

Other proportions were possible, but whether they were frequently used is another question:

See also

mensural notation.


1.245 Pythagorean comma

ES: coma pitagórica, I: comma pitagorico, F: comma pythagoricien, D: Pythagoräisches Komma, NL: komma van Pythagoras, DK: pythagoræisk komma, S: pytagoreiskt komma, FI: pytagorinen komma.

Originally, the interval by which the sum of six whole tones exceeds the octave – (9:8)^6 - 2:1 = 531441:524288, or 23.5 cents.

Modern acoustical theory defines it as the interval by which twelve fifths exceed seven octaves. To put it another way: A sequence of fifths that starts on C eventually circles back to C. However, this C is 23.5 cents higher than the C obtained by adding 7 octaves. The difference between those two pitches is the Pythagorean comma.

See also

cent, temperament.


1.246 quadruplet

ES: cuatrillo, I: quartina, F: quartolet, D: Quartole, NL: kwartool, DK: kvartol, S: kvartol, FI: kvartoli.

See also

note value.


1.247 quality

ES: variante [de acorde o intervalo], I: qualità (?), F: qualité (?), D: Modus (Dur oder Moll), NL: ?, DK: ?, S: ?, FI: laatu.

The quality of a triad is determined by the precise arrangement of its intervals. Tertian triads can be described as a series of three notes. The first element is the root note (or simply ‘root’) of the chord, the second note is the ‘third’ of the chord, and the last note is the ‘fifth’ of the chord. These are described below:

Chord nameComponent intervalsExampleSymbol
major triadmajor third/perfect fifthC-E-GC, CM, Cma, Cmaj, CΔ
minor triadminor third/perfect fifthC-E♭-GCm, Cmi, Cmin, C-
augmented triadmajor third/augmented fifthC-E-G♯C+, C^+, Caug
diminished triadminor third/diminished fifthC-E♭-G♭Cm(♭5), Cº, Cdim

There are various types of seventh chords depending on the quality of the original chord and the quality of the seventh added.

Five common types of seventh chords have standard symbols. The chord quality indications are sometimes superscripted and sometimes not (e.g. Dm7, Dm^7, and D^m7 are all identical). The last three chords are not commonly used except in jazz.

See also

chord.


1.248 quarter note

See also

note value.


1.249 quarter rest

See also

note value.


1.250 quarter tone

ES: cuarto de tono, I: quarto di tono, F: quart de ton, D: Viertelton, NL: kwart toon, DK: ?, S: kvartston, FI: neljännessävelaskel.

An interval equal to half a semitone.

See also

interval


1.251 quintuplet

ES: cinquillo, quintillo, I: quintina, F: quintolet, D: Quintole, NL: kwintool, DK: kvintol, S: kvintol, FI: kvintoli.

See also

note value.


1.252 rallentando

ES: rallentando, I: rallentando, F: rallentando, en ralentissant, D: rallentando, langsamer werden, NL: rallentando, DK: rallentando, S: rallentando, FI: rallerdando, hidastuen.

[Italian: ‘slowing down’]

Slackening in speed, more gradual than ritardando. Abbreviated to rall.

See also

ritardando.


1.253 relative key

ES: tono relativo, I: tonalità relativa, F: tonalité relative, D: Paralleltonart, NL: paralleltoonsoort, DK: paralleltoneart, S: parallelltonart, FI: rinnakkaissävellaji.

Major and minor keys that have the same key signature.

[image of music]

[image of music]

See also

key, key signature, major, minor.


1.254 repeat

ES: repetición, I: ripetizione, F: barre de reprise, D: Wiederholung, NL: herhaling, DK: gentagelse, S: repris, FI: toisto.

[image of music]

See also

No cross-references.


1.255 rest

ES: silencio, I: pausa, F: silence, D: Pause, NL: rust, DK: pause, S: paus, FI: tauko.

See also

note value.


1.256 rhythm

ES: ritmo, I: ritmo, F: rythme, D: Rhythmus, NL: ritme, DK: rytme, S: rytm, FI: rytmi.

See also

accent, beat, measure, meter.


1.257 ritardando

ES: ritardando, retardando, I: ritardando, F: ritardando, en ralentissant, D: ritardando, langsamer werden, NL: ritardando, DK: ritardando, S: ritardando, FI: ritardando, hidastuen,

[Italian: ‘lagging’]

Gradual slowing down, more pronounced than rallentando. Mostly abbreviated to rit. or ritard.

See also

rallentando.


1.258 ritenuto

ES: ritenuto, reteniendo, I: ritenuto, F: ritenuto, en retenant, D: ritenuto, NL: ritenuto, DK: ritenuto, S: ritenuto, FI: ritenuto, hidastaen.

Immediate reduction of speed.

See also

No cross-references.


1.259 scale

ES: escala, I: scala, F: gamme, D: Tonleiter, NL: toonladder, DK: Skala, S: skala, FI: asteikko, sävelasteikko.

See also

diatonic scale.


1.260 scale degree

ES: grado (de la escala), I: grado della scala, F: degré [de la gamme], D: Tonleiterstufe, NL: trap [van de toonladder], DK: skalatrin, S: skalsteg (?), FI: sävelaste, asteikon sävel.

Names and symbols used in harmonic analysis to denote tones of the scale as roots of chords. The most important are degrees I = tonic (T), IV = subdominant (S) and V = dominant (D).

[image of music]

See also

functional harmony.


1.261 scordatura

ES: encordado, I: scordatura, F: à cordes ravallées, D: Skordatur, NL: ?, DK: ?, S: ?, FI: epätavallinen viritys.

[Italian: scordare, ‘to mistune’] Unconventional tuning of stringed instruments, particularly lutes or violins. Used to:

Tunings that could be called scordatura first appeared early in the 16th Century and became commonplace in the 17th.

See also

No cross-references.


1.262 score

ES: partitura, I: partitura, F: partition, conducteur (full score), D: Partitur (full score), Klavierauszug (vocal score), NL: partituur, DK: partitur, S: partitur, FI: partituuri.

A copy of orchestral, choral, or chamber music showing what each instrument is to play, each voice to sing, having each part arranged one underneath the other on different staves staff.

See also

No cross-references.


1.263 second

ES: segunda, I: seconda, F: seconde, D: Sekunde, NL: secunde, DK: sekund, S: sekund, FI: sekunti.

The interval between two neighboring tones of a scale. A diatonic scale consists of alternating semitones and whole tones, hence the size of a second depends on the scale degrees in question.

See also

diatonic scale, interval, semitone, whole tone.


1.264 semibreve

Note value: called whole note in the US.

The semibreve is the basis for the tactus in mensural notation (i.e. music written before ca. 1600).

See also

mensural notation, note value.


1.265 semitone

ES: semitono, I: semitono, F: demi-ton, D: Halbton, NL: halve toon, DK: halvtone, S: halvton, FI: puolisävel.

The interval of a minor second. The (usually) smallest interval in European composed music. The interval between two neighboring tones on the piano keyboard – including black and white keys – is a semitone. An octave may be divided into 12 semitones.

[image of music]

See also

interval, chromatic scale.


1.266 seventh

ES: séptima, I: settima, F: septième, D: Septime, NL: septiem, DK: septim, S: septim, FI: septimi.

See also

interval.


1.267 sextolet

See also

sextuplet, note value.


1.268 sextuplet

ES: seisillo, I: sestina, F: sextolet, D: Sextole, NL: sextool, DK: sekstol, S: sextol, FI: sekstoli.

See also

note value.


1.269 shake

See also

trill.


1.270 sharp

ES: sostenido, I: diesis, F: dièse, D: Kreuz, NL: kruis, DK: kryds, S: korsförtecken, FI: korotusmerkki.

See also

accidental.


1.271 simile

ES: simile, similar, I: simile, F: simile, D: simile, gleichartig, NL: ?, DK: ?, S: ?, FI: samoin.

[Italian: ‘in the same manner’] Performance direction: the music thus marked is to be played in the same manner (i.e. with the same articulations, dynamics, etc.) as the music that precedes it.

See also

TODO: Where else could I refer the reader?


1.272 simple meter

ES: compás simple, compás de subdivisión binaria, I: tempo semplice, F: mesure binaire, D: grader Takt, NL: ?, DK: ?, S: ?, FI: kaksijakoinen tahtiosoitus.

A meter in which the basic beat is subdivided in two: that is, a meter that does not include triplet subdivision of the beat.

See also

compound meter, meter.


1.273 sixteenth note

See also

note value.


1.274 sixteenth rest

See also

note value.


1.275 sixth

ES: sexta, I: sesta, F: sixte, D: Sexte, NL: sext, DK: sekst, S: sext, FI: seksti.

See also

interval.


1.276 sixty-fourth note

See also

note value.


1.277 sixty-fourth rest

See also

note value.


1.278 slash repeat

See also

percent repeat.


1.279 slur

ES: ligadura de expresión, I: legatura (di portamento o espressiva), F: liaison, coulé, D: Bogen (Legatobogen, Phrasierungsbogen), NL: fraseringsboog, legatoboog, streekboog, DK: legatobue, fraseringsbue, S: båge, FI: kaari.

A slur above or below a group of notes indicates that they are to be played legato, e.g., with one stroke of the violin bow or with one breath in singing.

See also

No cross-references.


1.280 solmization

ES: solmisación, I: solmisazione, F: solmisation, D: Solmisation, NL: solmizatie, DK: solmisation, S: solmisation, FI: suhteelliset laulunimet.

General term for systems of designating the degrees of the scale, not by letters, but by syllables (do (ut), re, mi, fa, sol, la, si (ti)).

See also

scale, scale degree.


1.281 sonata

ES: sonata, I: sonata, F: sonate, D: Sonate, NL: sonate, DK: sonate, S: sonat, FI: sonaatti.

In its present-day meaning a sonata denotes an instrumental composition for piano or for some other instrument with piano accompaniment, which consists of three or four independent pieces, called movements.

See also

No cross-references.


1.282 sonata form

ES: forma sonata, I: forma sonata, F: [en] forme de sonate, D: Sonatenform, NL: hoofdvorm, sonatevorm, DK: sonateform, S: sonatform, FI: sonaattimuoto.

A form used frequently for single movements of the sonata, symphony, quartet, etc. A movement written in sonata form falls into three sections called exposition, development and recapitulation. In the exposition the composer introduces some musical ideas, consisting of a number of themes; in the development section the composer develops this material, and in the recapitulation the composer repeats the exposition, with certain modifications. The exposition contains a number of themes that fall into two groups, often called first and second subject. Other melodies occurring in each group are considered as continuations of these two. The second theme is in another key, normally in the key of the dominant if the tonic is major, and in the relative key if the tonic is minor.

See also

dominant, major, minor, relative key, sonata, symphony, tonic.


1.283 song texts

See also

lyrics.


1.284 soprano

ES: soprano, I: soprano, F: soprano, D: Sopran, NL: sopraan, DK: sopran, S: sopran, FI: sopraano, korkea naisääni.

The highest female voice.

See also

No cross-references.


1.285 staccato

ES: picado, I: staccato, F: staccato, piqué, détaché, D: staccato, NL: staccato, DK: staccato, S: staccato, FI: staccato, lyhyesti, terävästi.

Playing the note(s) short. Staccato is indicated by a dot above or below the note head.

[image of music]

See also

No cross-references.


1.286 staff

UK: stave, ES: pentagrama, pauta, I: pentagramma, rigo (musicale), F: portée, D: Notensystem, Notenzeile, NL: (noten)balk, partij, DK: nodesystem, S: notsystem, FI: nuottiviivasto.

A staff (plural: staves) is a series of (normally five) horizontal lines upon and between which the musical notes are written, thus indicating (in connection with a clef) their pitch. Staves for percussion instruments may have fewer lines.

[image of music]

See also

system.


1.287 staves

See also

staff.


1.288 stem

ES: plica, I: gamba, F: hampe, D: Hals, Notenhals, Stiel, NL: stok, DK: hals, S: skaft, FI: nuottipalkki.

Vertical line above or below a note head shorter than a whole note.

[image of music]

See also

beam.


1.289 stringendo

ES: stringendo, acelerando, I: stringendo, F: stringendo, en accélérant, D: stringendo, NL: ?, DK: ?, S: ?, FI: kiihdyttäen, nopeuttaen.

[Italian: ‘pressing’] Pressing, urging, or hastening the time, as to a climax.

See also

accelerando.


1.290 strings

ES: arcos, cuerdas, I: archi, F: cordes, D: Streicher, NL: strijkers, DK: strygere, S: stråkar, FI: jouset.

A family of stringed musical instruments played with a bow. Strings commonly used in a symphony orchestra are violin, viola, violoncello, and double bass.

See also

No cross-references.


1.291 strong beat

ES: tiempo fuerte, I: tempo forte, F: temps fort, D: betonter Taktteil oder Taktschlag, NL: thesis, D: betonet taktslag, S: betonat taktslag, FI: tahdin vahva isku.

See also

beat, accent, measure, rhythm.


1.292 subdominant

ES: subdominante, I: sottodominante, F: sous-dominante, D: Subdominante, NL: subdominant, DK: subdominant, S: subdominant, FI: subdominantti, alidominantti.

The fourth scale degree.

See also

functional harmony, scale degree.


1.293 submediant

ES: submediante, I: sopradominante, F: sous-médiante, D: Submediante, NL: submediant, DK: Submediant, S: submediant, FI: alikeskisävel.

The sixth scale degree.

See also

functional harmony, scale degree, superdominant.


1.294 subtonic

ES: subtónica, I: sottotonica, F: sous-tonique, D: Subtonika, NL: subtonica, DK: Subtonika, S: subtonika, FI: subtoonika, alitoonika.

The seventh scale degree.

See also

functional harmony, scale degree.


1.295 sul G

ES: sobre la cuerda de Sol, I: sul Sol, F: sur la G, D: auf G, auf der G-Saite, NL: ?, DK: ?, S: ?, FI: G-kielellä.

Indicates that the indicated passage (or note) should be played on the G string.

See also

No cross-references.


1.296 superdominant

ES: superdominante, I: sopradominante, F: sus-dominante, D: Superdominante, NL: superdominant, DK: superdominant, S: superdominant, FI: ylidominantti.

The sixth scale degree. Equivalent to the submediant, q.v.

See also

functional harmony, scale degree, submediant.


1.297 supertonic

ES: supertónica, I: sopratonica, F: sus-tonique, D: Supertonika, NL: supertonica, DK: supertonika, S: supertonika, FI: ylitoonika.

The second scale degree.

See also

functional harmony, scale degree.


1.298 symphony

ES: sinfonía, I: sinfonia, F: symphonie, D: Sinfonie, Symphonie, NL: symfonie, DK: symfoni, S: symfoni, FI: sinfonia.

A symphony may be defined as a sonata for orchestra.

See also

sonata.


1.299 syncopation

ES: síncopa, I: sincope, F: syncope, D: Synkope, NL: syncope, DK: synkope, S: synkop, FI: synkooppi.

Any deliberate upsetting of the normal pulse of meter, accent, and rhythm. The occidental system of musical rhythm rests upon the grouping of equal beats into groups of two or three, with a regularly recurrent accent on the first beat of each group. Any deviation from this scheme is felt as a disturbance or contradiction between the underlaying (normal) pulse and the actual (abnormal) rhythm.

[image of music]

See also

No cross-references.


1.300 syntonic comma

ES: coma sintónica, coma de Dídimo, I: comma sintonico (o didimico), F: comma syntonique, D: syntonisches Komma, NL: syntonische komma, DK: syntonisk komma, S: syntoniskt komma, FI: syntoninen komma, terssien taajuusero luonnollisessa ja Pytagorisessa viritysjärjestelmässä.

Named after Ptolemy’s syntonic diatonic genus. Originally, the difference by which the ditone exceeds the pure major third obtained by Pythagorean tuning – (9:8)^2 - 5:4 = 81:80, or 21.5 cents.

Modern acoustical theory defines it as the interval by which four fifths exceed the sum of two octaves plus a major third. (3:2)^4 - (2:1)^2 + (5:4)

This comma is also known as the comma of Didymus, or didymic comma.

See also

Pythagorean comma


1.301 system

ES: sistema, I: sistema, F: système, D: Notensystem, Partitur, NL: systeem, DK: system, S: system, FI: nuottiviivasto.

The collection of staves (staff), two or more, as used for writing down keyboard, chamber, choral, or orchestral music; a section of the score spanning the width of a single page.

See also

staff.


1.302 temperament

ES: temperamento, I: temperamento, F: tempérament, D: Stimmung, Temperatur, NL: stemming, temperatuur, DK: temperatur, S: temperatur, FI: viritysjärjestelmä.

Systems of tuning in which the intervals deviate from the acoustically pure intervals.

See also

meantone temperament, equal temperament.


1.303 tempo indication

ES: indicación de tempo, I: indicazione di tempo, F: indication de tempo, D: Zeitmaß, Tempobezeichnung, NL: tempo aanduiding, DK: tempobetegelse, S: tempobeteckning, FI: tempomerkintä.

The rate of speed of a composition or a section thereof, ranging from the slowest to the quickest, as is indicated by tempo marks as largo, adagio, andante, allegro, and presto.

See also

adagio, allegro, andante, largo, presto.


1.304 tenor

ES: tenor, I: tenore, F: ténor, D: Tenor, NL: tenor, DK: tenor, S: tenor, FI: tenori, korkea miesääni.

The highest ‘natural’ male voice (apart from countertenor).

See also

countertenor.


1.305 tenth

ES: décima, I: decima, F: dixième, D: Dezime, NL: deciem, DK: decim, S: decima, FI: desimi.

See also

note value.


1.306 tenuto

ES: subrayado (tenuto), I: tenuto, F: tenue, tenuto, D: gehalten, tenuo, NL: tenuto, DK: tenuto, S: tenuto, FI: viiva, tenuto.

An indication that a particular note should be held for the whole length, although this can vary depending on the composer and era.

See also

No cross-references.


1.307 third

ES: tercera, I: terza, F: tierce, D: Terz, NL: terts, DK: terts, S: ters, FI: terssi.

See also

interval.


1.308 thirty-second note

See also

note value.


1.309 thirty-second rest

See also

note value.


1.310 thorough bass

See also

figured bass.


1.311 tie

ES: ligadura de unión (o de prolongación), I: legatura (di valore), F: liaison (de tenue), D: Haltebogen, Bindebogen, NL: overbinding, bindingsboog, DK: bindebue, S: bindebåge, överbindning, FI: sitominen.

A curved line, identical in appearance with the slur, which connects two succesive notes of the same pitch, and which has the function of uniting them into a single sound (tone) equal to the combined durations.

[image of music]


1.312 time

See also

meter.


1.313 time signature

ES: indicación de compás, I: segni di tempo, F: métrique, chiffrage (chiffres indicateurs), indication de mesure, D: Taktangabe, Angabe der Taktart, NL: maatsoort, DK: taktangivelse, S: taktartssignatur, FI: tahtiosoitus.

The sign placed at the beginning of a composition to indicate its meter. It most often takes the form of a fraction, but a few signs derived from mensural notation and proportions are also employed.

See also

mensural notation, mensuration sign, meter.


1.314 tone

ES: tono, I: suono, F: ton, son, D: Ton, NL: toon, DK: tone, S: ton, FI: ääni.

A sound of definite pitch and duration, as distinct from noise. Tone is a primary building material of music.

See also

No cross-references.


1.315 tonic

ES: tónica, I: tonica, F: tonique, D: Tonika, NL: tonica, DK: tonika, S: tonika, FI: toonika.

The first scale degree.

See also

functional harmony, scale degree.


1.316 transposing instrument

ES: instrumento transpositor, I: strumento traspositore, F: instrument transpositeur, D: transponierende Instrumente, NL: ?, DK: ?, S: ?, FI: transponoitava soitin.

Instruments whose notated pitch is different from their sounded pitch. Except for those whose notated and sounding pitches differ by one or more octaves (to reduce the number of ledger lines needed), most such instruments are identified by the letter name of the pitch class of their fundamental. The pitch class is the note that sounds (disregarding the octave in which it sounds) when the instrument plays a notated C.

For example: when played on the B-flat clarinet, the note middle C sounds the B-flat one tone lower. If played on the A clarinet, the same written note sounds the A (one and half tones – a minor third – lower).

Not all transposing instruments include the pitch class in their name:

See also

concert pitch.


1.317 transposition

ES: transporte, transposición, I: trasposizione, F: transposition, D: Transposition, NL: transpositie, DK: transposition, S: transponering, FI: transponointi.

Shifting a melody up or down in pitch, while keeping the same relative pitches.

[image of music]

[image of music]

See also

No cross-references.


1.318 treble clef

ES: clave de sol en segunda, I: chiave di violino, F: clef de sol, D: Violinschlüssel, Sopranschlüssel, NL: viool sleutel, DK: diskantnøgle, S: diskantklav, FI: diskanttiavain.

See also

G clef.


1.319 tremolo

ES: trémolo, I: tremolo, F: trémolo, D: Tremolo, NL: tremolo, DK: tremolo, S: tremolo, FI: tremolo.

On stringed instruments:

  1. The quick reiteration of the same tone, produced by a rapid up-and-down movement of the bow.
  2. Or, the rapid alternation between two notes of a chord, usually in the distance of a third (interval).

[image of music]

See also

strings


1.320 triad

ES: tríada, I: triade, F: triade, accord parfait, accord de trois sons, D: Dreiklang, NL: drieklank, DK: treklang, S: treklang, FI: kolmisointu.

See also

chord.


1.321 trill

ES: trino, I: trillo, F: trille, tremblement, battement (cadence), D: Triller, NL: triller, DK: trille, S: drill, FI: trilli.

See also

ornament.


1.322 triple meter

ES: compás ternario, I: tempo ternario, F: mesure ternaire, D: Dreiertakt, ungerader Takt, NL: driedelige maatsoort, DK: tredelt takt, S: tretakt, FI: kolmijakoinen.

See also

meter.


1.323 triplet

ES: tresillo, I: terzina, F: triolet, D: Triole, NL: triool, DK: triol, S: triol, FI: trioli.

See also

note value.


1.324 tritone

ES: tritono, I: tritono, F: triton, D: Tritonus, NL: tritoon, DK: tritonus, S: tritonus, FI: tritonus.

See also

interval.


1.325 tuning fork

ES: diapasón [de horquilla], I: diapason, corista, F: diapason, D: Stimmgabel, NL: stemvork, DK: stemmegaffel, S: stämgaffel, FI: viritysavain, äänirauta.

A two-pronged piece of steel used to indicate an absolute pitch, usually for A above middle C (440 cps/Hz), which is the international tuning standard. Tuning forks for other pitches are available.

See also

middle C.


1.326 tuplet

ES: grupo de valoración especial, I: gruppi irregolari, F: N-olet, D: N-tole, NL: Antimetrische figuur, DK: ?, S: ?, FI: ?.

A non-standard subdivision of a beat or part of a beat, usually indicated with a bracket and a number indicating the number of subdivisions.

See also

triplet, note value.


1.327 turn

ES: grupeto (circular), I: gruppetto, F: grupetto, D: Doppelschlag, NL: dubbelslag, DK: dobbeltslag, S: dubbelslag, FI: korukuvio.

See also

ornament.


1.328 unison

ES: unísono, I: unisono, F: unisson, D: unisono, NL: unisono, DK: unison, S: unison, FI: unisono, yksiäänisesti.

Playing of the same notes or the same melody by various instruments (voices) or by the whole orchestra (choir), either at exactly the same pitch or in a different octave.

See also

No cross-references.


1.329 upbeat

ES: anacrusa, I: anacrusi, F: anacrouse, levée, D: Auftakt, NL: opmaat, DK: optakt, S: upptakt, FI: kohotahti.

See also

anacrusis


1.330 voice

ES: voz, I: voce, F: voix, D: Stimme, NL: stem, DK: stemme, S: stämma, FI: ääni, lauluääni.

See also

No cross-references.


1.331 volta

ES: vez, primera y segunda vez, I: volta, F: volta, fois, D: volta-Klammer, Wiederholungsklammer, NL: ?, DK: ?, S: ?, FI: yksi kertauksen maaleista.

[Italian: ‘time’ (instance, not duration)] An ending, such as a first or second ending. LilyPond extends this idea to any number, and allows any text (not just a number) – to serve as the volta text.

See also

No cross-references.


1.332 weak beat

ES: tiempo débil, I: tempo debole, arsi, F: temps faible, D: unbetonter Taktteil oder Taktschlag, NL: arsis, DK: ubetonet taktslag, S: obetonat taktslag, FI: tahdin heikko isku.

See also

beat, measure, rhythm.


1.333 whole note

See also

note value.


1.334 whole rest

See also

note value.


1.335 whole tone

ES: tono (entero), I: tono intero, F: ton entier, D: Ganzton, NL: hele toon, DK: heltone, S: helton, FI: kokoaskel.

The interval of a major second. The interval between two tones on the piano keyboard with exactly one key between them – including black and white keys – is a whole tone.

See also

interval.


1.336 woodwind

ES: maderas, I: legni, F: les bois, D: Holzbläser, NL: houtblazers, DK træblæsere, S: träblåsare, FI: puupuhaltimet.

A family of blown wooden musical instruments. Today some of these instruments are actually made from metal. The woodwind instruments commonly used in a symphony orchestra are flute, oboe, clarinet, saxophone, and bassoon.

See also

No cross-references.


2. Duration names notes and rests

Lang.note namerest namenote namerest name
USlonglong restbrevebreve rest
UKlongalonga restbrevebreve rest
ESlongasilencio de longacuadradasilencio de cuadrada
ITlongapausa di longabrevepausa di breve
FRlongaquadruple-pausebrèvedouble-pause
DELongalonga PauseBrevisbrevis Pause
NLlongalonga rustbrevisbrevis rust
DKlongalonganodespausebrevisbrevis(nodes)pause
SElongalongapausbrevisbrevispaus
FIlonga-nuottilonga-taukobrevis-nuotti, kaksoiskokonuottibrevis-tauko, kaksoiskokotauko
Lang.note namerest namenote namerest name
USwhole notewhole resthalf notehalf rest
UKsemibrevesemibreve restminimminim rest
ESredondasilencio de redondablancasilencio de blanca
ITsemibrevepause di semibreveminimapausa di minima
FRrondepauseblanchedemi-pause
DEganze Noteganze Pausehalbe Notehalbe Pause
NLhele noothele rusthalve noothalve rust
DKhelnodehelnodespausehalvnodehalvnodespause
SEhelnothelpaushalvnothalvpaus
FIkokonuottikokotaukopuolinuottipuolitauko
Lang.note namerest namenote namerest name
USquarter notequarter resteighth noteeighth rest
UKcrotchetcrotchet restquaverquaver rest
ESnegrasilencio de negracorcheasilencio de corchea
ITsemiminima, nerapausa di semiminima, pausa di neracromapausa di croma
FRnoiresoupir*croche*demi-soupir
DEViertelnoteViertelpauseAchtelnoteAchtelpause
NLkwartnootkwartrustachtste nootachtste rust
DKfjerdedelsnodefjerdedelspauseottendedelsnodeottendedelspause
SEfjärdedelsnotfjärdedelspausåttondelsnotåttondelspaus
FIneljäsosanuottineljäsosataukokahdeksasosanuottikahdeksasosatauko

* About the French naming system: croche refers to the note’s ‘hook’. Therefore, from the eighth note on, the note names mean ‘hook’, ‘doubled hook’, ‘trebled hook’, and so on.

The rest names are based on the soupir, or quarter rest. Subsequent rests are expressed as fractions thereof: half a soupir, a quarter of a soupir, and so on.

Each of the following tables contains one type of note and its matching rest, with abbreviations that apply to both notes and rests. Just switch the part that means ‘note’ with the part that means ‘rest’, for example:

Editor’s note: I put a dash ‘-’ when I could not find a language-specific abbreviation for a duration name. If you know of one that I missed, please send it to me, care of the lilypond-user discussion list.

Lang.Note nameRest nameAbbr.
USsixteenth notesixteenth rest16th note
UKsemiquaversemiquaver rest-
ESsemicorcheasilencio de semicorchea-
ITsemicromapausa di semicroma-
FRdouble crochequart de soupir-
DESechzehntelnoteSechzehntelpause16tel-Note
NLzestiende nootzestiende rust16e noot
DKsekstendedelsnodesekstendedelspause-
SEsextondelsnotsextondelspaus-
FIkuudestoistaosanuottikuudestoistaosatauko16-osanuotti
Lang.Note nameRest nameAbbr.
USthirty-second notethirty-second rest32nd note
UKdemisemiquaverdemisemiquaver rest-
ESfusasilencio de fusa-
ITbiscromapausa di biscroma-
FRtriple crochehuitième de soupir-
DEZweiunddreißigstelnoteZweiunddreißigstelpause32tel-Note
NLtweeendertigste noottweeendertigste rust32e noot
DKtoogtredivtedelsnodetoogtredivtedelspause-
SEtrettiotvåondelsnottrettiotvåondelspaus-
FIkolmaskymmeneskahdesosanuottikolmaskymmeneskahdesosatauko32-osanuotti
Lang.Note nameRest nameAbbr.
USsixty-fourth notesixty-fourth rest64th note
UKhemidemisemiquaverhemidemisemiquaver rest-
ESsemifusasilencio de semifusa-
ITsemibiscromapausa di semibiscroma-
FRquadruple crocheseizième de soupir-
DEVierundsechzigstelnoteVierundsechzigstelpause64tel-Note
NLvierenzestigste nootvierenzestigste rust64e noot
DKfireogtredsindstyvendedelsnodefireogtredsindstyvendedelspause-
SEsextiofjärdedelsnotsextiofjärdedelspaus-
FIkuudeskymmenesneljäsosanuottikuudeskymmenesneljäsosatauko64-osanuotti
Lang.Note nameRest nameAbbr.
USone-hundred-twenty-eighth noteone-hundred-twenty-eighth rest128th note
UKsemihemidemisemiquaversemihemidemisemiquaver rest-
ESgarrapateasilencio de garrapatea-
ITfusapausa di fusa-
FRquintuple crochetrente-deuxième de soupir-
DEHundertachtundzwanzigstelnoteHundertachtundzwanzigstelpause128tel-Note
NLhonderdachtentwintigste noothonderdachtentwintigste rust128e noot
DKhundredeotteogtyvendedelsnodehundredeotteogtyvendedelspause-
SEhundratjugoåttondelsnothundratjugoåttondelspaus-
FIsadaskahdeskymmeneskahdeksasosanuottisadaskahdeskymmeneskahdeksasosatauko128-osanuotti
Lang.Note nameRest nameAbbr.
UStwo-hundred-fifty-sixth notetwo-hundred-fifty-sixth rest256th note
UKdemisemihemidemisemiquaverdemisemihemidemisemiquaver rest-
ESsemigarrapateasilencio de semigarrapatea-
ITsemifusapausa di semifusa-
FRsextuple crochesoixante-quatrième de soupir-
DEZweihundertsechsundfünfzigstelnoteZweihundertsechsundfünfzigstelpause256tel-Note
NLtweehonderdzesenvijftigste noottweehonderdzesenvijftigste rust256e noot
DKtohundredeseksoghalvtredsendedelsnodetohundredeseksoghalvtredsendedelspause-
SEtvåhundrafemtiosjättedelsnottvåhundrafemtiosjättedelspaus-
FIkahdessadasviideskymmeneskuudesosanuottikahdessadasviideskymmeneskuudesosatauko256-osanuotti

See also

mensural notation


3. Pitch names

ENESIFDNLDKSFI
cdodoutCcccc
c-sharpdo sostenidodo diesisut dièseCiscisciscisscis
d-flatre bemolre bemolleré bémolDesdesdesdessdes
drereDdddd
d-sharpre sostenidore diesisre dièseDisdisdisdissdis
e-flatmi bemolmi bemollemi bémolEsesesesses
emimimiEeeee
f-flat = efa bemolfa bemollefa bémolFesfesfesfessfes
ffafafaFffff
e-sharp = fmi sostenidomi diesismi dièseEiseiseiseisseis
f-sharpfa sostenidofa diesisfa dièseFisfisfisfissfis
g-flatsol bemolsol bemollesol bémolGesgesgesgessges
gsolsolsolGgggg
g-sharpsol sostenidosol diesissol dièseGisgisgisgissgis
a-flatla bemolla bemollela bémolAsasasassas
alalalaAaaaa
a-sharpla sostenidola diesisla dièseAisaisaisaissais
b-flatsi bemolsi bemollesi bémolBbesbbb
bsisisiHbhhh
c-flat = bdo bemoldo bemolleut bémolCescescescessces
b-sharp = csi sostenidosi diesissi dièseHisbishishisshis

4. Non-Western terms A-Z


4.1 bayati

This is a stub for bayati.

See also

Notation Reference: Arabic key signatures.


4.2 iraq

This is a stub for iraq.

See also

Notation Reference: Arabic key signatures.


4.3 kurd

This is a stub for kurd.

See also

Notation Reference: Arabic key signatures.


4.4 makam

This is a stub for makam.

See also

Notation Reference: Turkish classical music.


4.5 makamlar

This is a stub for makamlar.

See also

Notation Reference: Turkish classical music.


4.6 maqam

This is a stub for maqam.

See also

Notation Reference: Arabic music, Arabic key signatures.


4.7 rast

This is a stub for rast.

See also

Notation Reference: Arabic key signatures.


4.8 semai

This is a stub for semai.

See also

Notation Reference: Arabic key signatures.


4.9 sikah

This is a stub for sikah.

See also

Notation Reference: Arabic key signatures.


4.10 taqasim

This is a stub for taqasim.

See also

Notation Reference: Arabic key signatures.


A. Literature used


B. GNU Free Documentation License

Version 1.3, 3 November 2008

 
Copyright © 2000, 2001, 2002, 2007, 2008 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
http://fsf.org/

Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
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    The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License give permission to use their names for publicity for or to assert or imply endorsement of any Modified Version.

  6. COMBINING DOCUMENTS

    You may combine the Document with other documents released under this License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for modified versions, provided that you include in the combination all of the Invariant Sections of all of the original documents, unmodified, and list them all as Invariant Sections of your combined work in its license notice, and that you preserve all their Warranty Disclaimers.

    The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single copy. If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name but different contents, make the title of each such section unique by adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the original author or publisher of that section if known, or else a unique number. Make the same adjustment to the section titles in the list of Invariant Sections in the license notice of the combined work.

    In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled “History” in the various original documents, forming one section Entitled “History”; likewise combine any sections Entitled “Acknowledgements”, and any sections Entitled “Dedications”. You must delete all sections Entitled “Endorsements.”

  7. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS

    You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other documents released under this License, and replace the individual copies of this License in the various documents with a single copy that is included in the collection, provided that you follow the rules of this License for verbatim copying of each of the documents in all other respects.

    You may extract a single document from such a collection, and distribute it individually under this License, provided you insert a copy of this License into the extracted document, and follow this License in all other respects regarding verbatim copying of that document.

  8. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS

    A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or distribution medium, is called an “aggregate” if the copyright resulting from the compilation is not used to limit the legal rights of the compilation’s users beyond what the individual works permit. When the Document is included in an aggregate, this License does not apply to the other works in the aggregate which are not themselves derivative works of the Document.

    If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one half of the entire aggregate, the Document’s Cover Texts may be placed on covers that bracket the Document within the aggregate, or the electronic equivalent of covers if the Document is in electronic form. Otherwise they must appear on printed covers that bracket the whole aggregate.

  9. TRANSLATION

    Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section 4. Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special permission from their copyright holders, but you may include translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the original versions of these Invariant Sections. You may include a translation of this License, and all the license notices in the Document, and any Warranty Disclaimers, provided that you also include the original English version of this License and the original versions of those notices and disclaimers. In case of a disagreement between the translation and the original version of this License or a notice or disclaimer, the original version will prevail.

    If a section in the Document is Entitled “Acknowledgements”, “Dedications”, or “History”, the requirement (section 4) to Preserve its Title (section 1) will typically require changing the actual title.

  10. TERMINATION

    You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document except as expressly provided under this License. Any attempt otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute it is void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License.

    However, if you cease all violation of this License, then your license from a particular copyright holder is reinstated (a) provisionally, unless and until the copyright holder explicitly and finally terminates your license, and (b) permanently, if the copyright holder fails to notify you of the violation by some reasonable means prior to 60 days after the cessation.

    Moreover, your license from a particular copyright holder is reinstated permanently if the copyright holder notifies you of the violation by some reasonable means, this is the first time you have received notice of violation of this License (for any work) from that copyright holder, and you cure the violation prior to 30 days after your receipt of the notice.

    Termination of your rights under this section does not terminate the licenses of parties who have received copies or rights from you under this License. If your rights have been terminated and not permanently reinstated, receipt of a copy of some or all of the same material does not give you any rights to use it.

  11. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE

    The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. See http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/.

    Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number. If the Document specifies that a particular numbered version of this License “or any later version” applies to it, you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that specified version or of any later version that has been published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. If the Document does not specify a version number of this License, you may choose any version ever published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. If the Document specifies that a proxy can decide which future versions of this License can be used, that proxy’s public statement of acceptance of a version permanently authorizes you to choose that version for the Document.

  12. RELICENSING

    “Massive Multiauthor Collaboration Site” (or “MMC Site”) means any World Wide Web server that publishes copyrightable works and also provides prominent facilities for anybody to edit those works. A public wiki that anybody can edit is an example of such a server. A “Massive Multiauthor Collaboration” (or “MMC”) contained in the site means any set of copyrightable works thus published on the MMC site.

    “CC-BY-SA” means the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 license published by Creative Commons Corporation, a not-for-profit corporation with a principal place of business in San Francisco, California, as well as future copyleft versions of that license published by that same organization.

    “Incorporate” means to publish or republish a Document, in whole or in part, as part of another Document.

    An MMC is “eligible for relicensing” if it is licensed under this License, and if all works that were first published under this License somewhere other than this MMC, and subsequently incorporated in whole or in part into the MMC, (1) had no cover texts or invariant sections, and (2) were thus incorporated prior to November 1, 2008.

    The operator of an MMC Site may republish an MMC contained in the site under CC-BY-SA on the same site at any time before August 1, 2009, provided the MMC is eligible for relicensing.

ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents

To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of the License in the document and put the following copyright and license notices just after the title page:

 
  Copyright (C)  year  your name.
  Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
  under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3
  or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation;
  with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover
  Texts.  A copy of the license is included in the section entitled ``GNU
  Free Documentation License''.

If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover Texts, replace the “with…Texts.” line with this:

 
    with the Invariant Sections being list their titles, with
    the Front-Cover Texts being list, and with the Back-Cover Texts
    being list.

If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or some other combination of the three, merge those two alternatives to suit the situation.

If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of free software license, such as the GNU General Public License, to permit their use in free software.


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