### 2.6.1 Common notation for wind instruments

This section discusses notation common to most wind instruments.

#### References for wind instruments

Many notation issues for wind instruments pertain to breathing and tonguing:

Other aspects of musical notation that can apply to wind instruments:

• Many wind instruments are transposing instruments, see Instrument transpositions.
• Slide glissandi are characteristic of the trombone, but other winds may perform keyed or valved glissandi. See Glissando.
• Harmonic series glissandi, which are possible on all brass instruments but common for French Horns, are usually written out as Grace notes.
• Pitch inflections at the end of a note are discussed in Falls and doits.
• Key slaps or valve slaps are often shown by the `cross` style of Special note heads.
• Woodwinds can overblow low notes to sound harmonics. These are shown by the `flageolet` articulation. See List of articulations.
• The use of brass mutes is usually indicated by a text markup, but where there are many rapid changes it is better to use the `stopped` and `open` articulations. See Articulations and ornamentations and List of articulations.
• Stopped horns are indicated by the `stopped` articulation. See Articulations and ornamentations.

#### Selected Snippets

Changing \flageolet mark size

To make the `\flageolet` circle smaller use the following Scheme function.

```smallFlageolet =
#(let ((m (make-articulation "flageolet")))
(set! (ly:music-property m 'tweaks)
(acons 'font-size -3
(ly:music-property m 'tweaks)))
m)

\layout { ragged-right = ##f }

\relative c'' {
d4^\flageolet_\markup { default size } d_\flageolet
c4^\smallFlageolet_\markup { smaller } c_\smallFlageolet
}
```

Snippets: Winds.

#### Fingerings

All wind instruments other than the trombone require the use of several fingers to produce each pitch. Some fingering examples are shown in the snippets below.

Woodwind diagrams can be produced and are described in Woodwind diagrams.

#### Selected Snippets

Fingering symbols for wind instruments

Special symbols can be achieved by combining existing glyphs, which is useful for wind instruments.

```centermarkup = {
\once \override TextScript.self-alignment-X = #CENTER
\once \override TextScript.X-offset =#(ly:make-simple-closure
`(,+
,(ly:make-simple-closure (list
ly:self-alignment-interface::centered-on-x-parent))
,(ly:make-simple-closure (list
ly:self-alignment-interface::x-aligned-on-self))))
}
\score
{\relative c'
{
g\open
\once \override TextScript.staff-padding = #-1.0 \centermarkup
g^\markup{\combine \musicglyph #"scripts.open" \musicglyph
#"scripts.tenuto"}
\centermarkup g^\markup{\combine \musicglyph #"scripts.open"
\musicglyph #"scripts.stopped"}
g\stopped
}
}
```

Recorder fingering chart

The following example demonstrates how fingering charts for wind instruments can be realized.

```% range chart for paetzold contrabass recorder

centermarkup = {
\once \override TextScript.self-alignment-X = #CENTER
\once \override TextScript.X-offset =#(ly:make-simple-closure
`(,+
,(ly:make-simple-closure (list
ly:self-alignment-interface::centered-on-x-parent))
,(ly:make-simple-closure (list
ly:self-alignment-interface::x-aligned-on-self))))
}

\score {
\new Staff \with {
\remove "Time_signature_engraver"
\omit Stem
\omit Flag
\consists "Horizontal_bracket_engraver"
}
{
\clef bass
\set Score.timing = ##f
f,1*1/4 \glissando
\clef violin
gis'1*1/4
\stemDown a'4^\markup{1)}
\centermarkup
bes'1*1/4_\markup{\override #'(baseline-skip . 1.7) \column
{ \fontsize #-5 \slashed-digit #0 \finger 1 \finger 2 \finger 3 \finger 4
\finger 5 \finger 6 \finger 7} }
b'1*1/4
c''4^\markup{1)}
\centermarkup
cis''1*1/4
deh''1*1/4
\centermarkup
\once \override Staff.HorizontalBracket.direction = #UP
e''1*1/4_\markup{\override #'(baseline-skip . 1.7) \column
{ \fontsize #-5 \slashed-digit #0 \finger 1 \finger 2 \finger 4
\finger 5} }\startGroup
f''1*1/4^\markup{2)}\stopGroup
}
}
```