1.3.3 Expressive marks as lines

This section explains how to create various expressive marks that follow a linear path: glissandos, arpeggios, and trills.


Glissando

A glissando is created by appending \glissando to a note:

g2\glissando g'
c2\glissando c,
\afterGrace f,1\glissando f'16

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A glissando can connect notes across staves:

\new PianoStaff <<
  \new Staff = "right" {
    e'''2\glissando
    \change Staff = "left"
    a,,4\glissando
    \change Staff = "right"
    b''8 r |
  }
  \new Staff = "left" {
    \clef bass
    s1
  }
>>

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A glissando can connect notes in chords. If anything other than a direct one-to-one pairing of the notes in the two chords is required the connections between the notes are defined by setting \glissandoMap, where the notes of a chord are assumed to be numbered from zero in the order in which they appear in the input ‘.ly’ file.

<c, e>1\glissando g' |
<c, e>1\glissando |
<g' b> |
\break
\set glissandoMap = #'((0 . 1) (1 . 0))
<c, g'>1\glissando |
<d a'> |
\set glissandoMap = #'((0 . 0) (0 . 1) (0 . 2))
c1\glissando |
<d f a> |
\set glissandoMap = #'((2 . 0) (1 . 0) (0 . 1))
<f d a'>1\glissando |
<c c'> |

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Different styles of glissandi can be created. For details, see Line styles.

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Contemporary glissando

A contemporary glissando without a final note can be typeset using a hidden note and cadenza timing.

\relative c'' {
  \time 3/4
  \override Glissando #'style = #'zigzag
  c4 c
  \cadenzaOn
  c4\glissando
  \hideNotes
  c,,4
  \unHideNotes
  \cadenzaOff
  \bar "|"
}

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Adding timing marks to long glissandi

Skipped beats in very long glissandi are sometimes indicated by timing marks, often consisting of stems without noteheads. Such stems can also be used to carry intermediate expression markings.

If the stems do not align well with the glissando, they may need to be repositioned slightly.

glissandoSkipOn = {
  \override NoteColumn #'glissando-skip = ##t
  \override NoteHead #'transparent = ##t
  \override NoteHead #'no-ledgers = ##t
}

glissandoSkipOff = {
  \revert NoteColumn #'glissando-skip
  \revert NoteHead #'transparent
  \revert NoteHead #'no-ledgers
}

\relative c'' {
  r8 f8\glissando
  \glissandoSkipOn
  f4 g a a8\noBeam
  \glissandoSkipOff
  a8

  r8 f8\glissando
  \glissandoSkipOn
  g4 a8
  \glissandoSkipOff
  a8 |

  r4 f\glissando \<
  \glissandoSkipOn
  a4\f \>
  \glissandoSkipOff
  b8\! r |
}

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Making glissandi breakable

Setting the breakable property to #t in combination with after-line-breaking allows a glissando to break if it occurs at a line break:

glissandoSkipOn = {
  \override NoteColumn #'glissando-skip = ##t
  \override NoteHead #'transparent = ##t
  \override NoteHead #'no-ledgers = ##t
}

\relative c'' {
  \override Glissando #'breakable = ##t
  \override Glissando #'after-line-breaking = ##t
  f1\glissando |
  \break
  a4 r2. |
  f1\glissando
  \once \glissandoSkipOn
  \break
  a2 a4 r4 |
}

[image of music]

Vedi anche

Music Glossary: glissando.

Notation Reference: Line styles.

Snippets: Expressive marks.

Internals Reference: Glissando.

Problemi noti e avvertimenti

Printing text over the line (such as gliss.) is not supported.


Arpeggio

An arpeggio on a chord (also known as a broken chord) is denoted by appending \arpeggio to the chord construct:

<c e g c>1\arpeggio

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Different types of arpeggios may be written. \arpeggioNormal reverts to a normal arpeggio:

<c e g c>2\arpeggio

\arpeggioArrowUp
<c e g c>2\arpeggio

\arpeggioArrowDown
<c e g c>2\arpeggio

\arpeggioNormal
<c e g c>2\arpeggio

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Special bracketed arpeggio symbols can be created:

<c e g c>2

\arpeggioBracket
<c e g c>2\arpeggio

\arpeggioParenthesis
<c e g c>2\arpeggio

\arpeggioParenthesisDashed
<c e g c>2\arpeggio

\arpeggioNormal
<c e g c>2\arpeggio

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The dash properties of the parenthesis arpeggio are controlled with the 'dash-details property, which is described at Slurs.

Arpeggios can be explicitly written out with ties. For more information, see Ties.

Comandi predefiniti

\arpeggio, \arpeggioArrowUp, \arpeggioArrowDown, \arpeggioNormal, \arpeggioBracket, \arpeggioParenthesis \arpeggioParenthesisDashed.

Frammenti di codice selezionati

Creating cross-staff arpeggios in a piano staff

In a PianoStaff, it is possible to let an arpeggio cross between the staves by setting the property PianoStaff.connectArpeggios.

\new PianoStaff \relative c'' <<
  \set PianoStaff.connectArpeggios = ##t
  \new Staff {
    <c e g c>4\arpeggio
    <g c e g>4\arpeggio
    <e g c e>4\arpeggio
    <c e g c>4\arpeggio
  }
  \new Staff {
    \clef bass
    \repeat unfold 4 {
      <c,, e g c>4\arpeggio
    }
  }
>>

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Creating cross-staff arpeggios in other contexts

Cross-staff arpeggios can be created in contexts other than GrandStaff, PianoStaff and StaffGroup if the Span_arpeggio_engraver is included in the Score context.

\score {
  \new ChoirStaff {
    \set Score.connectArpeggios = ##t
    <<
      \new Voice \relative c' {
        <c e>2\arpeggio
        <d f>2\arpeggio
        <c e>1\arpeggio
      }
      \new Voice \relative c {
        \clef bass
        <c g'>2\arpeggio
        <b g'>2\arpeggio
        <c g'>1\arpeggio
      }
    >>
  }
  \layout {
    \context {
      \Score
      \consists "Span_arpeggio_engraver"
    }
  }
}

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Creating arpeggios across notes in different voices

An arpeggio can be drawn across notes in different voices on the same staff if the Span_arpeggio_engraver is added to the Staff context:

\new Staff \with {
  \consists "Span_arpeggio_engraver"
}
\relative c' {
  \set Staff.connectArpeggios = ##t
  <<
    { <e' g>4\arpeggio <d f> <d f>2 }
    \\
    { <d, f>2\arpeggio <g b>2 }
  >>
}

[image of music]

Vedi anche

Music Glossary: arpeggio.

Notation Reference: Slurs, Ties.

Snippets: Expressive marks.

Internals Reference: Arpeggio, Slur, PianoStaff.

Problemi noti e avvertimenti

It is not possible to mix connected arpeggios and unconnected arpeggios in one PianoStaff at the same point in time.

The parenthesis-style arpeggio brackets do not work for cross-staff arpeggios.


Trills

Short trills without an extender line are printed with \trill; see Articulations and ornamentations.

Longer trills with an extender line are made with \startTrillSpan and \stopTrillSpan:

d1\startTrillSpan
d1
c2\stopTrillSpan
r2

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A trill spanner crossing a line break will restart exactly above the first note on the new line.

d1\startTrillSpan
\break
d1
c2\stopTrillSpan
r2

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Consecutive trill spans will work without explicit \stopTrillSpan commands, since successive trill spanners will automatically become the right bound of the previous trill.

d1\startTrillSpan
d1
b1\startTrillSpan
d2\stopTrillSpan
r2

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Trills can also be combined with grace notes. The syntax of this construct and the method to precisely position the grace notes are described in Grace notes.

d1~\afterGrace
d1\startTrillSpan { c32[ d]\stopTrillSpan }
c2 r2

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Trills that require an auxiliary note with an explicit pitch can be typeset with the \pitchedTrill command. The first argument is the main note, and the second is the trilled note, printed as a stemless note head in parentheses.

\pitchedTrill
d2\startTrillSpan fis
d2
c2\stopTrillSpan
r2

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Subsequent accidentals of the same note in the same measure will need to be added manually. Only the accidental of the first pitched trill in a measure is printed.

\pitchedTrill
eis4\startTrillSpan fis
eis4\stopTrillSpan
\pitchedTrill
eis4\startTrillSpan cis
eis4\stopTrillSpan
\pitchedTrill
eis4\startTrillSpan fis
eis4\stopTrillSpan
\pitchedTrill
eis4\startTrillSpan fis!
eis4\stopTrillSpan

[image of music]

Comandi predefiniti

\startTrillSpan, \stopTrillSpan.

Vedi anche

Music Glossary: trill.

Notation Reference: Articulations and ornamentations, Grace notes.

Snippets: Expressive marks.

Internals Reference: TrillSpanner.


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