1.3.2 Expressive marks as curves

This section explains how to create various expressive marks that are curved: normal slurs, phrasing slurs, breath marks, falls, and doits.


Slurs

Slurs are entered using parentheses:

Nota: In polyphonic music, a slur must be terminated in the same voice it began.

f4( g a) a8 b(
a4 g2 f4)
<c e>2( <b d>2)

[image of music]

Slurs may be manually placed above or below the staff; see Direction and placement.

Simultaneous or overlapping slurs are not permitted, but a phrasing slur can overlap a slur. This permits two slurs to be printed at once. For details, see Phrasing slurs.

Slurs can be solid, dotted, or dashed. Solid is the default slur style:

c4( e g2)
\slurDashed
g4( e c2)
\slurDotted
c4( e g2)
\slurSolid
g4( e c2)

[image of music]

Slurs can also be made half-dashed (the first half dashed, the second half solid) or half-solid (the first half solid, the second half dashed):

c4( e g2)
\slurHalfDashed
g4( e c2)
\slurHalfSolid
c4( e g2)
\slurSolid
g4( e c2)

[image of music]

Custom dash patterns for slurs can be defined:

c4( e g2)
\slurDashPattern #0.7 #0.75
g4( e c2)
\slurDashPattern #0.5 #2.0
c4( e g2)
\slurSolid
g4( e c2)

[image of music]

Comandi predefiniti

\slurUp, \slurDown, \slurNeutral, \slurDashed, \slurDotted, \slurHalfDashed, \slurHalfSolid, \slurDashPattern, \slurSolid.

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Using double slurs for legato chords

Some composers write two slurs when they want legato chords. This can be achieved by setting doubleSlurs.

\relative c' {
  \set doubleSlurs = ##t
  <c e>4( <d f> <c e> <d f>)
}

[image of music]

Positioning text markups inside slurs

Text markups need to have the outside-staff-priority property set to false in order to be printed inside slurs.

\relative c'' {
  \override TextScript #'avoid-slur = #'inside
  \override TextScript #'outside-staff-priority = ##f
  c2(^\markup { \halign #-10 \natural } d4.) c8
}

[image of music]

Making slurs with complex dash structure

Slurs can be made with complex dash patterns by defining the dash-definition property. dash-definition is a list of dash-elements. A dash-element is a list of parameters defining the dash behavior for a segment of the slur.

The slur is defined in terms of the bezier parameter t which ranges from 0 at the left end of the slur to 1 at the right end of the slur. dash-element is a list (start-t stop-t dash-fraction dash-period). The region of the slur from start-t to stop-t will have a fraction dash-fraction of each dash-period black. dash-period is defined in terms of staff spaces. dash-fraction is set to 1 for a solid slur.

\relative c' {
  \once \override
    Slur #'dash-definition = #'((0 0.3 0.1 0.75)
                                (0.3 0.6 1 1)
                                (0.65 1.0 0.4 0.75))
  c4( d e f)
  \once \override
    Slur #'dash-definition = #'((0 0.25 1 1)
                                (0.3 0.7 0.4 0.75)
                                (0.75 1.0 1 1))
  c4( d e f)
}

[image of music]

Vedi anche

Music Glossary: slur.

Learning Manual: On the un-nestedness of brackets and ties.

Notation Reference: Direction and placement, Phrasing slurs.

Snippets: Expressive marks.

Internals Reference: Slur.


Phrasing slurs

Phrasing slurs (or phrasing marks) that indicate a musical sentence are written using the commands \( and \) respectively:

c4\( d( e) f(
e2) d\)

[image of music]

Typographically, a phrasing slur behaves almost exactly like a normal slur. However, they are treated as different objects; a \slurUp will have no effect on a phrasing slur. Phrasing may be manually placed above or below the staff; see Direction and placement.

Simultaneous or overlapping phrasing slurs are not permitted.

Phrasing slurs can be solid, dotted, or dashed. Solid is the default style for phrasing slurs:

c4\( e g2\)
\phrasingSlurDashed
g4\( e c2\)
\phrasingSlurDotted
c4\( e g2\)
\phrasingSlurSolid
g4\( e c2\)

[image of music]

Phrasing slurs can also be made half-dashed (the first half dashed, the second half solid) or half-solid (the first half solid, the second half dashed):

c4\( e g2\)
\phrasingSlurHalfDashed
g4\( e c2\)
\phrasingSlurHalfSolid
c4\( e g2\)
\phrasingSlurSolid
g4\( e c2\)

[image of music]

Custom dash patterns for phrasing slurs can be defined:

c4\( e g2\)
\phrasingSlurDashPattern #0.7 #0.75
g4\( e c2\)
\phrasingSlurDashPattern #0.5 #2.0
c4\( e g2\)
\phrasingSlurSolid
g4\( e c2\)

[image of music]

Dash pattern definitions for phrasing slurs have the same structure as dash pattern definitions for slurs. For more information about complex dash patterns, see the snippets under Slurs.

Comandi predefiniti

\phrasingSlurUp, \phrasingSlurDown, \phrasingSlurNeutral, \phrasingSlurDashed, \phrasingSlurDotted, \phrasingSlurHalfDashed, \phrasingSlurHalfSolid, \phrasingSlurDashPattern, \phrasingSlurSolid.

Vedi anche

Learning Manual: On the un-nestedness of brackets and ties.

Notation Reference: Direction and placement, Slurs.

Snippets: Expressive marks.

Internals Reference: PhrasingSlur.


Breath marks

Breath marks are entered using \breathe:

c2. \breathe d4

[image of music]

A breath mark will end an automatic beam; to override this behavior, see Manual beams.

c8 \breathe d e f g2

[image of music]

Musical indicators for breath marks in ancient notation, divisiones, are supported. For details, see Divisiones.

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Changing the breath mark symbol

The glyph of the breath mark can be tuned by overriding the text property of the BreathingSign layout object with any markup text.

\relative c'' {
  c2
  \override BreathingSign #'text =
    \markup { \musicglyph #"scripts.rvarcomma" }
  \breathe
  d2
}

[image of music]

Inserting a caesura

Caesura marks can be created by overriding the 'text property of the BreathingSign object. A curved caesura mark is also available.

\relative c'' {
  \override BreathingSign #'text = \markup {
    \musicglyph #"scripts.caesura.straight"
  }
  c8 e4. \breathe g8. e16 c4

  \override BreathingSign #'text = \markup {
    \musicglyph #"scripts.caesura.curved"
  }
  g8 e'4. \breathe g8. e16 c4
}

[image of music]

Vedi anche

Music Glossary: caesura.

Notation Reference: Divisiones.

Snippets: Expressive marks.

Internals Reference: BreathingEvent, BreathingSign, Breathing_sign_engraver.


Falls and doits

Falls and doits can be added to notes using the \bendAfter command. The direction of the fall or doit is indicated with a plus or minus (up or down). The number indicates the pitch interval that the fall or doit will extend beyond the main note.

c2\bendAfter #+4
c2\bendAfter #-4
c2\bendAfter #+6.5
c2\bendAfter #-6.5
c2\bendAfter #+8
c2\bendAfter #-8

[image of music]

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Adjusting the shape of falls and doits

The shortest-duration-space property may be tweaked to adjust the shape of falls and doits.

\relative c'' {
  \override Score.SpacingSpanner #'shortest-duration-space = #4.0
  c2-\bendAfter #5
  c2-\bendAfter #-4.75
  c2-\bendAfter #8.5
  c2-\bendAfter #-6
}

[image of music]

Vedi anche

Music Glossary: fall, doit.

Snippets: Expressive marks.


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