### 3.2.1 Creating titles headers and footers

#### Title blocks explained

There are two types of title blocks: the main title block that appears above of the first \score of a book, and individual title blocks that appear within each \score block. Text fields for both types are entered using a \header block.

If the book only has a single score, the \header block may be placed inside or outside of the \score block.

Note: Remember when adding a \header block inside a \score block, that the music expression must come before the \header block.

\header {
title = "SUITE I."
composer = "J. S. Bach."
}

\score {
\new Staff \relative g, {
\clef bass
\key g \major
\repeat unfold 2 { g16( d' b') a b d, b' d, } |
\repeat unfold 2 { g,16( e' c') b c e, c' e, } |
}
piece = "Prélude."
}
}

\score {
\new Staff \relative b {
\clef bass
\key g \major
\partial 16 b16 |
<g, d' b'~>4 b'16 a( g fis) g( d e fis) g( a b c) |
d16( b g fis) g( e d c) b(c d e) fis( g a b) |
}
piece = "Allemande."
}
}


Text fields from the main title block of a book can be displayed in all \score blocks, or manually suppressed:

\book {
\paper {
}
title = "DAS WOHLTEMPERIRTE CLAVIER"
subtitle = "TEIL I"
% Do not display the tagline for this book
tagline = ##f
}
\markup { \vspace #1 }
\score {
\new PianoStaff <<
\new Staff { s1 }
\new Staff { \clef "bass" s1 }
>>
title = "PRAELUDIUM I"
opus = "BWV 846"
% Do not display the subtitle for this score
subtitle = ##f
}
}
\score {
\new PianoStaff <<
\new Staff { s1 }
\new Staff { \clef "bass" s1 }
>>
title = "FUGA I"
subsubtitle = "A 4 VOCI"
opus = "BWV 846"
% Do not display the subtitle for this score
subtitle = ##f
}
}
}


Notation Reference: File structure, Custom layout for title blocks.

#### Default layout of book and score title blocks

This example demonstrates all \header variables:

\book {
% The following fields are centered
dedication = "Dedication"
title = "Title"
subtitle = "Subtitle"
subsubtitle = "Subsubtitle"
% The following fields are evenly spread on one line
% the field "instrument" also appears on following pages
instrument = \markup \with-color #green "Instrument"
poet = "Poet"
composer = "Composer"
% The following fields are placed at opposite ends of the same line
meter = "Meter"
arranger = "Arranger"
% The following fields are centered at the bottom
tagline = "tagline goes at the bottom of the last page"
}
\score {
{ s1 }
% The following fields are placed at opposite ends of the same line
piece = "Piece 1"
opus = "Opus 1"
}
}
\score {
{ s1 }
% The following fields are placed at opposite ends of the same line
piece = "Piece 2 on the same page"
opus = "Opus 2"
}
}
\pageBreak
\score {
{ s1 }
% The following fields are placed at opposite ends of the same line
piece = "Piece 3 on a new page"
opus = "Opus 3"
}
}
}


Note that

• The instrument name will be repeated on every page.
• Only piece and opus are printed in a \score when the paper variable print-all-headers is set to ##f (the default).
• Text fields left unset in a \header block are replaced with \null markups so that the space is not wasted.
• The default settings for scoreTitleMarkup place the piece and opus text fields at opposite ends of the same line.

To change the default layout see Custom layout for title blocks.

Use the breakbefore variable inside a \header block that is itself in a \score block, to make the top-level \header block titles appear on the first page on their own, with the music (defined in the \score block) starting on the next.

\book {
title = "This is my Title"
subtitle = "This is my Subtitle"
copyright = "This is the bottom of the first page"
}
\score {
\repeat unfold 4 { e'' e'' e'' e'' }
piece = "This is the Music"
breakbefore = ##t
}
}
}


Learning Manual: How LilyPond input files work,

Notation Reference: Custom layout for title blocks, File structure.

Installed Files: ‘ly/titling-init.ly’.

#### Default layout of headers and footers

Headers and footers are lines of text appearing at the top and bottom of pages, separate from the main text of a book. They are controlled by the following \paper variables:

• oddHeaderMarkup
• evenHeaderMarkup
• oddFooterMarkup
• evenFooterMarkup

These markup variables can only access text fields from top-level \header blocks (which apply to all scores in the book) and are defined in ‘ly/titling-init.ly’. By default:

• page numbers are automatically placed on the top far left (if even) or top far right (if odd), starting from the second page.
• the instrument text field is placed in the center of every page, starting from the second page.
• the copyright text is centered on the bottom of the first page.
• the tagline is centered on the bottom of the last page, and below the copyright text if there is only a single page.

The default tagline can be changed by adding a tagline in the top-level \header block.

\book {
tagline = "... music notation for Everyone"
}
\score {
\relative c' {
c4 d e f
}
}
}


To remove the tagline set the value to ##f.

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