# LilyPond — Usage

 This file explains how to execute the programs distributed with LilyPond version 2.14.2. In addition, it suggests some “best practices” for efficient usage.
 For more information about how this manual fits with the other documentation, or to read this manual in other formats, see Manuals. If you are missing any manuals, the complete documentation can be found at http://www.lilypond.org/.

# 1. Running lilypond

This chapter details the technicalities of running LilyPond.

## 1.1 Normal usage

Most users run LilyPond through a GUI; if you have not done so already, please read the Tutorial. If you use an alternate editor to write lilypond files, see the documentation for that program.

## 1.2 Command-line usage

This section contains extra information about using LilyPond on the command-line. This may be desirable to pass extra options to the program. In addition, there are certain extra ‘helper’ programs (such as midi2ly) which are only available on the command-line.

By ‘command-line’, we mean the command line in the operating system. Windows users might be more familiar with the terms ‘DOS shell’ or ‘command shell’. MacOS X users might be more familiar with the terms ‘terminal’ or ‘console’. Some additional setup is required for MacOS X users; please see MacOS X.

Describing how to use this part of an operating system is outside the scope of this manual; please consult other documentation on this topic if you are unfamiliar with the command-line.

### Invoking lilypond

The lilypond executable may be called as follows from the command line.

lilypond [option]… file…


When invoked with a filename that has no extension, the ‘.ly’ extension is tried first. To read input from stdin, use a dash (-) for file.

When ‘filename.ly’ is processed it will produce ‘filename.ps’ and ‘filename.pdf’ as output. Several files can be specified; they will each be processed independently. 1

If ‘filename.ly’ contains more than one \book block, then the rest of the scores will be output in numbered files, starting with ‘filename-1.pdf’. In addition, the value of output-suffix will be inserted between the basename and the number. An input file containing

#(define output-suffix "violin")
\score { … }
#(define output-suffix "cello")
\score { … }


will output base-violin.pdf’ and base-cello-1.pdf’.

#### Standard shell commands

If your shell (i.e. command window) supports normal redirects, then you might find it useful to use the following commands to redirect console output to a file:

• lilypond file.ly 1>stdout.log to redirect normal output
• lilypond file.ly 2>stderr.log to redirect error messages
• lilypond file.ly &>all.log to redirect all output

Consult the documentation for your shell to see if it supports these options, or if the syntax is different. Note that these are shell commands and have nothing to do with lilypond.

### Command line options for lilypond

The following options are supported:

-e,--evaluate=expr

Evaluate the Scheme expr before parsing any ‘.ly’ files. Multiple -e options may be given, they will be evaluated sequentially.

The expression will be evaluated in the guile-user module, so if you want to use definitions in expr, use

lilypond -e '(define-public a 42)'


on the command-line, and include

#(use-modules (guile-user))


at the top of the .ly file.

-f,--format=format

which formats should be written. Choices for format are ps, pdf, and png.

Example: lilypond -fpng filename.ly

-d,--define-default=var=val

This sets the internal program option var to the Scheme value val. If val is not supplied, then #t is used. To switch off an option, no- may be prefixed to var, e.g.

-dno-point-and-click


is the same as

-dpoint-and-click='#f'


Here are a few interesting options.

help

Running lilypond -dhelp will print all of the -d options available.

paper-size

This option sets the default paper-size,

-dpaper-size=\"letter\"


Note that the string must be enclosed in escaped quotes ( \" ).

safe

Do not trust the .ly input.

When LilyPond formatting is available through a web server, either the --safe or the --jail option MUST be passed. The --safe option will prevent inline Scheme code from wreaking havoc, for example

#(system "rm -rf /")
{
c4^#(ly:export (ly:gulp-file "/etc/passwd"))
}


The -dsafe option works by evaluating in-line Scheme expressions in a special safe module. This safe module is derived from GUILE ‘safe-r5rs’ module, but adds a number of functions of the LilyPond API. These functions are listed in ‘scm/safe-lily.scm’.

In addition, safe mode disallows \include directives and disables the use of backslashes in TeX strings.

In safe mode, it is not possible to import LilyPond variables into Scheme.

-dsafe does not detect resource overuse. It is still possible to make the program hang indefinitely, for example by feeding cyclic data structures into the backend. Therefore, if using LilyPond on a publicly accessible webserver, the process should be limited in both CPU and memory usage.

The safe mode will prevent many useful LilyPond snippets from being compiled. The --jail is a more secure alternative, but requires more work to set up.

backend

the output format to use for the back-end. Choices for format are

ps

for PostScript.

Postscript files include TTF, Type1 and OTF fonts. No subsetting of these fonts is done. When using oriental character sets, this can lead to huge files.

eps

for encapsulated PostScript. This dumps every page (system) as a separate ‘EPS’ file, without fonts, and as one collated ‘EPS’ file with all pages (systems) including fonts.

This mode is used by default by lilypond-book.

svg

for SVG (Scalable Vector Graphics).

This creates a single SVG file, without embedded fonts, for every page of output. It is recommended to install the Century Schoolbook fonts, included with your LilyPond installation, for optimal rendering. Under UNIX, simply copy these fonts from the LilyPond directory (typically ‘/usr/share/lilypond/VERSION/fonts/otf/’) to ‘~/.fonts/’. The SVG output should be compatible with any SVG editor or user agent.

scm

for a dump of the raw, internal Scheme-based drawing commands.

null

do not output a printed score; has the same effect as -dno-print-pages.

Example: lilypond -dbackend=svg filename.ly

preview

Generate an output file containing the titles and the first system of music. If \bookpart blocks are used, the titles and first system of every \bookpart will appear in the output. The ps, eps, and svg backends support this option.

print-pages

Generate the full pages, the default. -dno-print-pages is useful in combination with -dpreview.

-h,--help

Show a summary of usage.

-H,--header=FIELD

Dump a header field to file ‘BASENAME.FIELD’.

--include, -I=directory

Add directory to the search path for input files.

Multiple -I options may be given. The search will start in the first defined directory, and if the file to be included is not found the search will continue in subsequent directories.

-i,--init=file

Set init file to file (default: ‘init.ly’).

-o,--output=FILE or FOLDER

Set the default output file to FILE or, if a folder with that name exists, direct the output to FOLDER, taking the file name from the input file. The appropriate suffix will be added (e.g. .pdf for pdf) in both cases.

--ps

Generate PostScript.

--png

Generate pictures of each page, in PNG format. This implies --ps. The resolution in DPI of the image may be set with

-dresolution=110

--pdf

Generate PDF. This implies --ps.

-j,--jail=user,group,jail,dir

Run lilypond in a chroot jail.

The --jail option provides a more flexible alternative to --safe when LilyPond formatting is available through a web server or whenever LilyPond executes externally provided sources.

The --jail option works by changing the root of lilypond to jail just before starting the actual compilation process. The user and group are then changed to match those provided, and the current directory is changed to dir. This setup guarantees that it is not possible (at least in theory) to escape from the jail. Note that for --jail to work lilypond must be run as root, which is usually accomplished in a safe way using sudo.

Setting up a jail is a slightly delicate matter, as we must be sure that LilyPond is able to find whatever it needs to compile the source inside the jail. A typical setup comprises the following items:

Setting up a separate filesystem

A separate filesystem should be created for LilyPond, so that it can be mounted with safe options such as noexec, nodev, and nosuid. In this way, it is impossible to run executables or to write directly to a device from LilyPond. If you do not want to create a separate partition, just create a file of reasonable size and use it to mount a loop device. A separate filesystem also guarantees that LilyPond cannot write more space than it is allowed.

Setting up a separate user

A separate user and group (say, lily/lily) with low privileges should be used to run LilyPond inside the jail. There should be a single directory writable by this user, which should be passed in dir.

Preparing the jail

LilyPond needs to read a number of files while running. All these files are to be copied into the jail, under the same path they appear in the real root filesystem. The entire content of the LilyPond installation (e.g., ‘/usr/share/lilypond’) should be copied.

If problems arise, the simplest way to trace them down is to run LilyPond using strace, which will allow you to determine which files are missing.

Running LilyPond

In a jail mounted with noexec it is impossible to execute any external program. Therefore LilyPond must be run with a backend that does not require any such program. As we already mentioned, it must be also run with superuser privileges (which, of course, it will lose immediately), possibly using sudo. It is a good idea to limit the number of seconds of CPU time LilyPond can use (e.g., using ulimit -t), and, if your operating system supports it, the amount of memory that can be allocated.

-v,--version

Show version information.

-V,--verbose

Be verbose: show full paths of all files read, and give timing information.

-w,--warranty

Show the warranty with which GNU LilyPond comes. (It comes with NO WARRANTY!)

### Environment variables

lilypond recognizes the following environment variables:

LILYPOND_DATADIR

This specifies a directory where locale messages and data files will be looked up by default. The directory should contain subdirectories called ‘ly/’, ‘ps/’, ‘tex/’, etc.

LANG

This selects the language for the warning messages.

LILYPOND_GC_YIELD

A variable, as a percentage, that tunes memory management behavior. A higher values means the program uses more memory, a smaller value means more CPU time is used. The default value is 70.

### LilyPond in chroot jail

Setting up the server to run LilyPond in a chroot jail is a complicated task. The steps are listed below. Examples in the steps are from Ubuntu Linux, and may require the use of sudo as appropriate.

• Install the necessary packages: LilyPond, GhostScript, and ImageMagick.
• Create a new user by the name of lily:
adduser lily


This will create a new group for the lily user as well, and a home folder, /home/lily

• In the home folder of the lily user create a file to use as a separate filesystem:
dd if=/dev/zero of=/home/lily/loopfile bs=1k count= 200000


This example creates a 200MB file for use as the jail filesystem.

• Create a loop device, make a file system and mount it, then create a folder that can be written by the lily user:
mkdir /mnt/lilyloop
losetup /dev/loop0 /home/lily/loopfile
mkfs -t ext3 /dev/loop0 200000
mount -t ext3 /dev/loop0 /mnt/lilyloop
mkdir /mnt/lilyloop/lilyhome
chown lily /mnt/lilyloop/lilyhome

• In the configuration of the servers, the JAIL will be /mnt/lilyloop and the DIR will be /lilyhome.
• Create a big directory tree in the jail by copying the necessary files, as shown in the sample script below.

You can use sed to create the necessary copy commands for a given executable:

for i in "/usr/local/lilypond/usr/bin/lilypond" "/bin/sh" "/usr/bin/;  \
do ldd $i | sed 's/.*=> \/$$.*\/$$$$[^(]*$$.*/mkdir -p \1 \&\& \ cp -L \/\1\2 \1\2/' | sed 's/\t\/$$.*\/$$$$.*$$ (.*)$/mkdir -p  \
\1 \&\& cp -L \/\1\2 \1\2/' | sed '/.*=>.*/d'; done


### Example script for 32-bit Ubuntu 8.04

#!/bin/sh
## defaults set here

home=/home
loopdevice=/dev/loop0
jaildir=/mnt/lilyloop
# the prefix (without the leading slash!)
lilyprefix=usr/local
# the directory where lilypond is installed on the system
lilydir=/$lilyprefix/lilypond/ userhome=$home/$username loopfile=$userhome/loopfile
adduser $username dd if=/dev/zero of=$loopfile bs=1k count=200000
mkdir $jaildir losetup$loopdevice $loopfile mkfs -t ext3$loopdevice 200000
mount -t ext3 $loopdevice$jaildir
mkdir $jaildir/lilyhome chown$username $jaildir/lilyhome cd$jaildir

mkdir -p bin usr/bin usr/share usr/lib usr/share/fonts $lilyprefix tmp chmod a+w tmp cp -r -L$lilydir $lilyprefix cp -L /bin/sh /bin/rm bin cp -L /usr/bin/convert /usr/bin/gs usr/bin cp -L /usr/share/fonts/truetype usr/share/fonts # Now the library copying magic for i in "$lilydir/usr/bin/lilypond" "$lilydir/usr/bin/guile" "/bin/sh" \ "/bin/rm" "/usr/bin/gs" "/usr/bin/convert"; do ldd$i | sed 's/.*=>  \
\/$$.*\/$$$$[^(]*$$.*/mkdir -p \1 \&\& cp -L \/\1\2 \1\2/' | sed  \
's/\t\/$$.*\/$$$$.*$$ (.*)$/mkdir -p \1 \&\& cp -L \/\1\2 \1\2/' \ | sed '/.*=>.*/d'; done | sh -s # The shared files for ghostscript... cp -L -r /usr/share/ghostscript usr/share # The shared files for ImageMagick cp -L -r /usr/lib/ImageMagick* usr/lib ### Now, assuming that you have test.ly in /mnt/lilyloop/lilyhome, ### you should be able to run: ### Note that /$lilyprefix/bin/lilypond is a script, which sets the
### LD_LIBRARY_PATH - this is crucial
/$lilyprefix/bin/lilypond -jlily,lily,/mnt/lilyloop,/lilyhome test.ly  ## 1.3 Error messages Different error messages can appear while compiling a file: Warning Something looks suspect. If you are requesting something out of the ordinary then you will understand the message, and can ignore it. However, warnings usually indicate that something is wrong with the input file. Error Something is definitely wrong. The current processing step (parsing, interpreting, or formatting) will be finished, but the next step will be skipped. Fatal error Something is definitely wrong, and LilyPond cannot continue. This happens rarely. The most usual cause is misinstalled fonts. Scheme error Errors that occur while executing Scheme code are caught by the Scheme interpreter. If running with the verbose option (-V or --verbose) then a call trace of the offending function call is printed. Programming error There was some internal inconsistency. These error messages are intended to help the programmers and debuggers. Usually, they can be ignored. Sometimes, they come in such big quantities that they obscure other output. Aborted (core dumped) This signals a serious programming error that caused the program to crash. Such errors are considered critical. If you stumble on one, send a bug-report. If warnings and errors can be linked to some part of the input file, then error messages have the following form filename:lineno:columnno: message offending input line  A line-break is inserted in the offending line to indicate the column where the error was found. For example, test.ly:2:19: error: not a duration: 5 { c'4 e' 5 g' }  These locations are LilyPond’s best guess about where the warning or error occurred, but (by their very nature) warnings and errors occur when something unexpected happens. If you can’t see an error in the indicated line of your input file, try checking one or two lines above the indicated position. More information about errors is given in Common errors. ## 1.4 Common errors The error conditions described below occur often, yet the cause is not obvious or easily found. Once seen and understood, they are easily handled. ### Music runs off the page Music running off the page over the right margin or appearing unduly compressed is almost always due to entering an incorrect duration on a note, causing the final note in a measure to extend over the bar line. It is not invalid if the final note in a measure does not end on the automatically entered bar line, as the note is simply assumed to carry over into the next measure. But if a long sequence of such carry-over measures occurs the music can appear compressed or may flow off the page because automatic line breaks can be inserted only at the end of complete measures, i.e., where all notes end before or at the end of the measure. Note: An incorrect duration can cause line breaks to be inhibited, leading to a line of highly compressed music or music which flows off the page. The incorrect duration can be found easily if bar checks are used, see Bar and bar number checks. If you actually intend to have a series of such carry-over measures you will need to insert an invisible bar line where you want the line to break. For details, see Bar lines. ### An extra staff appears If contexts are not created explicitly with \new or \context, they will be silently created as soon as a command is encountered which cannot be applied to an existing context. In simple scores the automatic creation of contexts is useful, and most of the examples in the LilyPond manuals take advantage of this simplification. But occasionally the silent creation of contexts can give rise to unexpected new staves or scores. For example, it might be expected that the following code would cause all note heads within the following staff to be colored red, but in fact it results in two staves with the note heads remaining the default black in the lower staff. \override Staff.NoteHead #'color = #red \new Staff { a }  This is because a Staff context does not exist when the override is processed, so one is implicitly created and the override is applied to it, but then the \new Staff command creates another, separate, staff into which the notes are placed. The correct code to color all note heads red is \new Staff { \override Staff.NoteHead #'color = #red a }  As a second example, if a \relative command is placed inside a \repeat command, two staves result, the second offset from the first, because the \repeat command generates two \relative blocks, which each implicitly create Staff and Voice blocks. \repeat unfold 2 { \relative c' { c4 d e f } }  Explicitly instantiating the Voice context fixes the problem: \new Voice { \repeat unfold 2 { \relative c' { c4 d e f } } }  ### Apparent error in ../ly/init.ly Various obscure error messages may appear about syntax errors in ‘../ly/init.ly’ if the input file is not correctly formed, for example, if it does not contain correctly matched braces or quote signs. The most common error is a missing brace, (}), at the end of a score block. Here the solution is obvious: check the score block is correctly terminated. The correct structure of an input file is described in How LilyPond input files work. Using an editor which automatically highlights matching brackets and braces is helpful to avoid such errors. A second common cause is no white space between the last syllable of a lyrics block and the terminating brace, (}). Without this separation the brace is taken to be part of the syllable. It is always advisable to ensure there is white space before and after every brace. For the importance of this when using lyrics, see Entering lyrics. This error message can also appear if a terminating quote sign, ("), is omitted. In this case an accompanying error message should give a line number close to the line in error. The mismatched quote will usually be on the line one or two above. ### Error message Unbound variable % This error message will appear at the bottom of the console output or log file together with a “GUILE signalled an error ...” message every time a Scheme routine is called which (invalidly) contains a LilyPond rather than a Scheme comment. LilyPond comments begin with a percent sign, (%), and must not be used within Scheme routines. Scheme comments begin with a semi-colon, (;). ### Error message FT_Get_Glyph_Name This error messages appears in the console output or log file if an input file contains a non-ASCII character and was not saved in UTF-8 encoding. For details, see Text encoding. ### Warning staff affinities should only decrease This warning can appear if there are no staves in the printed output, for example if there are just a ChordName context and a Lyrics context as in a lead sheet. The warning messages can be avoided by making one of the contexts behave as a staff by inserting \override VerticalAxisGroup #'staff-affinity = ##f  at its start. For details, see “Spacing of non-staff lines” in Flexible vertical spacing within systems. # 2. Updating files with convert-ly The LilyPond input syntax is routinely changed to simplify it or improve it in different ways. As a side effect of this, the LilyPond interpreter often is no longer compatible with older input files. To remedy this, the program convert-ly can be used to deal with most of the syntax changes between LilyPond versions. ## 2.1 Why does the syntax change? The LilyPond input syntax occasionally changes. As LilyPond itself improves, the syntax (input language) is modified accordingly. Sometimes these changes are made to make the input easier to read and write or sometimes the changes are made to accommodate new features of LilyPond. For example, all \paper and \layout property names are supposed to be written in the form first-second-third. However, in version 2.11.60, we noticed that the printallheaders property did not follow this convention. Should we leave it alone (confusing new users who must deal with an inconsistent input format), or change it (annoying old users with existing scores)? In this case, we decided to change the name to print-all-headers. Fortunately, this change can be automated with our convert-ly tool. Unfortunately, convert-ly cannot handle all input changes. For example, in LilyPond 2.4 and earlier, accents and non-English letters were entered using LaTeX – displaying the French word for Christmas was entered as No\"el. But in LilyPond 2.6 and above, the special ë must be entered directly into the LilyPond file as an UTF-8 character. convert-ly cannot change all the LaTeX special characters into UTF-8 characters; you must manually update your old LilyPond input files. ## 2.2 Invoking convert-ly convert-ly uses \version statements in the input file to detect the old version number. In most cases, to upgrade your input file it is sufficient to run convert-ly -e myfile.ly  in the directory containing the file. This will upgrade ‘myfile.ly’ in-place and preserve the original file in ‘myfile.ly~’. Note: convert-ly always converts up to the last syntax change handled by it. This means that the version number left in the file is usually lower than the version of convert-ly itself. To convert all the input files in a directory together use convert-ly -e *.ly  Alternatively, if you want to specify a different name for the upgraded file, preserving the original file and name unchanged, use convert-ly myfile.ly > mynewfile.ly  The program will list the version numbers for which conversions have been made. If no version numbers are listed the file is already up to date. MacOS X users may execute these commands under the menu entry Compile > Update syntax. Windows users should enter these commands in a Command Prompt window, which is usually found under Start > Accessories > Command Prompt. ## 2.3 Command line options for convert-ly The program is invoked as follows: convert-ly [option]… filename…  The following options can be given: -e,--edit Apply the conversions direct to the input file, modifying it in-place. -f,--from=from-patchlevel Set the version to convert from. If this is not set, convert-ly will guess this, on the basis of \version strings in the file. E.g. --from=2.10.25 -n,--no-version Normally, convert-ly adds a \version indicator to the output. Specifying this option suppresses this. -s, --show-rules Show all known conversions and exit. --to=to-patchlevel Set the goal version of the conversion. It defaults to the latest available version. E.g. --to=2.12.2 -h, --help Print usage help. To upgrade LilyPond fragments in texinfo files, use convert-ly --from=... --to=... --no-version *.itely  To see the changes in the LilyPond syntax between two versions, use convert-ly --from=... --to=... -s  ## 2.4 Problems running convert-ly When running convert-ly in a Command Prompt window under Windows on a file which has spaces in the filename or in the path to it, it is necessary to surround the entire input file name with three (!) sets of double quotes: convert-ly """D:/My Scores/Ode.ly""" > "D:/My Scores/new Ode.ly"  If the simple convert-ly -e *.ly command fails because the expanded command line becomes too long, the convert-ly command may be placed in a loop instead. This example for UNIX will upgrade all ‘.ly’ files in the current directory for f in *.ly; do convert-ly -e$f; done;


In the Windows Command Prompt window the corresponding command is

for %x in (*.ly) do convert-ly -e """%x"""


Not all language changes are handled. Only one output option can be specified. Automatically updating scheme and LilyPond scheme interfaces is quite unlikely; be prepared to tweak scheme code manually.

## 2.5 Manual conversions

In theory, a program like convert-ly could handle any syntax change. After all, a computer program interprets the old version and the new version, so another computer program can translate one file into another2.

However, the LilyPond project has limited resources: not all conversions are performed automatically. Below is a list of known problems.

1.6->2.0:
Doesn't always convert figured bass correctly, specifically things like {<
>}.  Mats' comment on working around this:
To be able to run convert-ly
on it, I first replaced all occurrences of '{<' to some dummy like '{#'
and similarly I replaced '>}' with '&}'.  After the conversion, I could
then change back from '{ #' to '{ <' and from '& }' to '> }'.
Doesn't convert all text markup correctly.  In the old markup syntax,
it was possible to group a number of markup commands together within
parentheses, e.g.
-#'((bold italic) "string")
This will incorrectly be converted into
-\markup{{\bold italic} "string"}
-\markup{\bold \italic "string"}
2.0->2.2:
Doesn't handle \partcombine
Doesn't do \addlyrics => \lyricsto, this breaks some scores with multiple
stanzas.
2.0->2.4:
\magnify isn't changed to \fontsize.
- \magnify #m => \fontsize #f, where f = 6ln(m)/ln(2)
remove-tag isn't changed.
- \applyMusic #(remove-tag '. . .) => \keepWithTag #'. . .
first-page-number isn't changed.
- first-page-number no => print-first-page-number = ##f
Line breaks in header strings aren't converted.
- \\\\  as line break in \header strings => \markup \center-align <
"First Line" "Second Line" >
Crescendo and decrescendo terminators aren't converted.
- \rced => \!
- \rc => \!
2.2->2.4:
\turnOff (used in \set Staff.VoltaBracket = \turnOff) is not properly
converted.
2.4.2->2.5.9
\markup{ \center-align <{ ... }> } should be converted to:
\markup{ \center-align {\line { ... }} }
but now, \line is missing.
2.4->2.6
Special LaTeX characters such as $~$ in text are not converted to UTF8.
2.8
\score{} must now begin with a music expression.  Anything else
(particularly \header{}) must come after the music.


# 3. Running lilypond-book

If you want to add pictures of music to a document, you can simply do it the way you would do with other types of pictures. The pictures are created separately, yielding PostScript output or PNG images, and those are included into a LaTeX or HTML document.

lilypond-book provides a way to automate this process: This program extracts snippets of music from your document, runs lilypond on them, and outputs the document with pictures substituted for the music. The line width and font size definitions for the music are adjusted to match the layout of your document.

This is a separate program from lilypond itself, and is run on the command line; for more information, see Command-line usage. If you have MacOS 10.3 or 10.4 and you have trouble running lilypond-book, see MacOS X.

This procedure may be applied to LaTeX, HTML, Texinfo or DocBook documents.

## 3.1 An example of a musicological document

Some texts contain music examples. These texts are musicological treatises, songbooks, or manuals like this. Such texts can be made by hand, simply by importing a PostScript figure into the word processor. However, there is an automated procedure to reduce the amount of work involved in HTML, LaTeX, Texinfo and DocBook documents.

A script called lilypond-book will extract the music fragments, format them, and put back the resulting notation. Here we show a small example for use with LaTeX. The example also contains explanatory text, so we will not comment on it further.

### Input

\documentclass[a4paper]{article}

\begin{document}

Documents for \verb+lilypond-book+ may freely mix music and text.
For example,

\begin{lilypond}
\relative c' {
c2 e2 \times 2/3 { f8 a b } a2 e4
}
\end{lilypond}

Options are put in brackets.

\begin{lilypond}[fragment,quote,staffsize=26,verbatim]
c'4 f16
\end{lilypond}

Larger examples can be put into a separate file, and introduced with
\verb+\lilypondfile+.

\lilypondfile[quote,noindent]{screech-boink.ly}

(If needed, replace @file{screech-boink.ly} by any @file{.ly} file
you put in the same directory as this file.)

\end{document}


### Processing

Save the code above to a file called ‘lilybook.lytex’, then in a terminal run

lilypond-book --output=out --pdf lilybook.lytex
lilypond-book (GNU LilyPond) 2.14.2
..lots of stuff deleted..
Compiling lilybook.tex...
cd out
pdflatex lilybook
..lots of stuff deleted..
xpdf lilybook
(replace xpdf by your favorite PDF viewer)


Running lilypond-book and latex creates a lot of temporary files, which would clutter up the working directory. To remedy this, use the --output=dir option. It will create the files in a separate subdirectory ‘dir’.

Finally the result of the LaTeX example shown above.3 This finishes the tutorial section.

### Output

Documents for lilypond-book may freely mix music and text. For example,

Options are put in brackets.

c'4 f16


Larger examples can be put into a separate file, and introduced with \lilypondfile.

If a tagline is required, either default or custom, then the entire snippet must be enclosed in a \book { } construct.

\book{
title = "A scale in LilyPond"
}

\relative c' {
c d e f g a b c
}
}


## 3.2 Integrating music and text

Here we explain how to integrate LilyPond with various output formats.

### 3.2.1 LaTeX

LaTeX is the de-facto standard for publishing layouts in the exact sciences. It is built on top of the TeX typesetting engine, providing the best typography available anywhere.

See The Not So Short Introduction to LaTeX for an overview on how to use LaTeX.

Music is entered using

\begin{lilypond}[options,go,here]
\end{lilypond}


or

\lilypondfile[options,go,here]{filename}


or

\lilypond[options,go,here]{ YOUR LILYPOND CODE }


Additionally, \lilypondversion displays the current version of lilypond. Running lilypond-book yields a file that can be further processed with LaTeX.

We show some examples here. The lilypond environment

\begin{lilypond}[quote,fragment,staffsize=26]
c' d' e' f' g'2 g'2
\end{lilypond}


produces

The short version

\lilypond[quote,fragment,staffsize=11]{<c' e' g'>}


produces

Currently, you cannot include { or } within \lilypond{}, so this command is only useful with the fragment option.

The default line width of the music will be adjusted by examining the commands in the document preamble, the part of the document before \begin{document}. The lilypond-book command sends these to LaTeX to find out how wide the text is. The line width for the music fragments is then adjusted to the text width. Note that this heuristic algorithm can fail easily; in such cases it is necessary to use the line-width music fragment option.

Each snippet will call the following macros if they have been defined by the user:

• \preLilyPondExample called before the music,
• \postLilyPondExample called after the music,
• \betweenLilyPondSystem[1] is called between systems if lilypond-book has split the snippet into several PostScript files. It must be defined as taking one parameter and will be passed the number of files already included in this snippet. The default is to simply insert a \linebreak.

#### Selected Snippets

Sometimes it is useful to display music elements (such as ties and slurs) as if they continued after the end of the fragment. This can be done by breaking the staff and suppressing inclusion of the rest of the LilyPond output.

In LaTeX, define \betweenLilyPondSystem in such a way that inclusion of other systems is terminated once the required number of systems are included. Since \betweenLilyPondSystem is first called after the first system, including only the first system is trivial.

\def\betweenLilyPondSystem#1{\endinput}

\begin{lilypond}[fragment]
c'1$$e'( c'~ \break c' d) e f$$
\end{lilypond}


If a greater number of systems is requested, a TeX conditional must be used before the \endinput. In this example, replace ‘2’ by the number of systems you want in the output.

\def\betweenLilyPondSystem#1{
\ifnum#1<2\else\expandafter\endinput\fi
}


(Since \endinput immediately stops the processing of the current input file we need \expandafter to delay the call of \endinput after executing \fi so that the \if-\fi clause is balanced.)

Remember that the definition of \betweenLilyPondSystem is effective until TeX quits the current group (such as the LaTeX environment) or is overridden by another definition (which is, in most cases, for the rest of the document). To reset your definition, write

\let\betweenLilyPondSystem\undefined


This may be simplified by defining a TeX macro

\def\onlyFirstNSystems#1{
\def\betweenLilyPondSystem##1{%
\ifnum##1<#1\else\expandafter\endinput\fi}
}


and then saying only how many systems you want before each fragment,

\onlyFirstNSystems{3}
\begin{lilypond}...\end{lilypond}
\onlyFirstNSystems{1}
\begin{lilypond}...\end{lilypond}


There are specific lilypond-book command line options and other details to know when processing LaTeX documents, see Invoking lilypond-book.

### 3.2.2 Texinfo

Texinfo is the standard format for documentation of the GNU project. An example of a Texinfo document is this manual. The HTML, PDF, and Info versions of the manual are made from the Texinfo document.

In the input file, music is specified with

@lilypond[options,go,here]
@end lilypond


or

@lilypond[options,go,here]{ YOUR LILYPOND CODE }


or

@lilypondfile[options,go,here]{filename}


Additionally, @lilypondversion displays the current version of lilypond.

When lilypond-book is run on it, this results in a Texinfo file (with extension ‘.texi’) containing @image tags for HTML, Info and printed output. lilypond-book generates images of the music in EPS and PDF formats for use in the printed output, and in PNG format for use in HTML and Info output.

We show two simple examples here. A lilypond environment

@lilypond[fragment]
c' d' e' f' g'2 g'
@end lilypond


produces

The short version

@lilypond[fragment,staffsize=11]{<c' e' g'>}


produces

Contrary to LaTeX, @lilypond{...} does not generate an in-line image. It always gets a paragraph of its own.

### 3.2.3 HTML

Music is entered using

<lilypond fragment relative=2>
\key c \minor c4 es g2
</lilypond>


lilypond-book then produces an HTML file with appropriate image tags for the music fragments:

For inline pictures, use <lilypond ... />, where the options are separated by a colon from the music, for example

Some music in <lilypond relative=2: a b c/> a line of text.


To include separate files, say

<lilypondfile option1 option2 ...>filename</lilypondfile>


For a list of options to use with the lilypond or lilypondfile tags, see Music fragment options.

Additionally, <lilypondversion/> displays the current version of lilypond.

### 3.2.4 DocBook

For inserting LilyPond snippets it is good to keep the conformity of our DocBook document, thus allowing us to use DocBook editors, validation etc. So we don’t use custom tags, only specify a convention based on the standard DocBook elements.

### Common conventions

For inserting all type of snippets we use the mediaobject and inlinemediaobject element, so our snippets can be formatted inline or not inline. The snippet formatting options are always provided in the role property of the innermost element (see in next sections). Tags are chosen to allow DocBook editors format the content gracefully. The DocBook files to be processed with lilypond-book should have the extension ‘.lyxml’.

### Including a LilyPond file

This is the most simple case. We must use the ‘.ly’ extension for the included file, and insert it as a standard imageobject, with the following structure:

<mediaobject>
<imageobject>
<imagedata fileref="music1.ly" role="printfilename" />
</imageobject>
</mediaobject>


Note that you can use mediaobject or inlinemediaobject as the outermost element as you wish.

### Including LilyPond code

Including LilyPond code is possible by using a programlisting, where the language is set to lilypond with the following structure:

<inlinemediaobject>
<textobject>
<programlisting language="lilypond" role="fragment verbatim staffsize=16 ragged-right relative=2">
\context Staff \with {
\remove Time_signature_engraver
\remove Clef_engraver}
{ c4( fis) }
</programlisting>
</textobject>
</inlinemediaobject>


As you can see, the outermost element is a mediaobject or inlinemediaobject, and there is a textobject containing the programlisting inside.

### Processing the DocBook document

Running lilypond-book on our ‘.lyxml’ file will create a valid DocBook document to be further processed with ‘.xml’ extension. If you use dblatex, it will create a PDF file from this document automatically. For HTML (HTML Help, JavaHelp etc.) generation you can use the official DocBook XSL stylesheets, however, it is possible that you have to make some customization for it.

## 3.3 Music fragment options

In the following, a ‘LilyPond command’ refers to any command described in the previous sections which is handled by lilypond-book to produce a music snippet. For simplicity, LilyPond commands are only shown in LaTeX syntax.

Note that the option string is parsed from left to right; if an option occurs multiple times, the last one is taken.

The following options are available for LilyPond commands:

staffsize=ht

Set staff size to ht, which is measured in points.

ragged-right

Produce ragged-right lines with natural spacing, i.e., ragged-right = ##t is added to the LilyPond snippet. This is the default for the \lilypond{} command if no line-width option is present. It is also the default for the lilypond environment if the fragment option is set, and no line width is explicitly specified.

noragged-right

For single-line snippets, allow the staff length to be stretched to equal that of the line width, i.e., ragged-right = ##f is added to the LilyPond snippet.

line-width
line-width=size\unit

Set line width to size, using unit as units. unit is one of the following strings: cm, mm, in, or pt. This option affects LilyPond output (this is, the staff length of the music snippet), not the text layout.

If used without an argument, set line width to a default value (as computed with a heuristic algorithm).

If no line-width option is given, lilypond-book tries to guess a default for lilypond environments which don’t use the ragged-right option.

papersize=string

Where string is a paper size defined in ‘scm/paper.scm’ i.e. a5, quarto, 11x17 etc.

Values not defined in ‘scm/paper.scm’ will be ignored, a warning will be posted and the snippet will be printed using the default a4 size.

notime

Do not print the time signature, and turns off the timing (time signature, bar lines) in the score.

fragment

Make lilypond-book add some boilerplate code so that you can simply enter, say,

c'4


without \layout, \score, etc.

nofragment

Do not add additional code to complete LilyPond code in music snippets. Since this is the default, nofragment is redundant normally.

indent=size\unit

Set indentation of the first music system to size, using unit as units. unit is one of the following strings: cm, mm, in, or pt. This option affects LilyPond, not the text layout.

noindent

Set indentation of the first music system to zero. This option affects LilyPond, not the text layout. Since no indentation is the default, noindent is redundant normally.

quote

Reduce line length of a music snippet by 2*0.4in and put the output into a quotation block. The value ‘0.4in’ can be controlled with the exampleindent option.

exampleindent

Set the amount by which the quote option indents a music snippet.

relative
relative=n

Use relative octave mode. By default, notes are specified relative to middle C. The optional integer argument specifies the octave of the starting note, where the default 1 is middle C. relative option only works when fragment option is set, so fragment is automatically implied by relative, regardless of the presence of any (no)fragment option in the source.

LilyPond also uses lilypond-book to produce its own documentation. To do that, some more obscure music fragment options are available.

verbatim

The argument of a LilyPond command is copied to the output file and enclosed in a verbatim block, followed by any text given with the intertext option (not implemented yet); then the actual music is displayed. This option does not work well with \lilypond{} if it is part of a paragraph.

If verbatim is used in a lilypondfile command, it is possible to enclose verbatim only a part of the source file. If the source file contain a comment containing ‘begin verbatim’ (without quotes), quoting the source in the verbatim block will start after the last occurrence of such a comment; similarly, quoting the source verbatim will stop just before the first occurrence of a comment containing ‘end verbatim’, if there is any. In the following source file example, the music will be interpreted in relative mode, but the verbatim quote will not show the relative block, i.e.

\relative c' { % begin verbatim
c4 e2 g4
f2 e % end verbatim
}


will be printed with a verbatim block like

  c4 e2 g4
f2 e


If you would like to translate comments and variable names in verbatim output but not in the sources, you may set the environment variable LYDOC_LOCALEDIR to a directory path; the directory should contain a tree of ‘.mo’ message catalogs with lilypond-doc as a domain.

addversion

(Only for Texinfo output.) Prepend line \version @w{"@version{}"} to verbatim output.

texidoc

(Only for Texinfo output.) If lilypond is called with the ‘--header=texidoc’ option, and the file to be processed is called ‘foo.ly’, it creates a file ‘foo.texidoc’ if there is a texidoc field in the \header. The texidoc option makes lilypond-book include such files, adding its contents as a documentation block right before the music snippet.

Assuming the file ‘foo.ly’ contains

\header {
texidoc = "This file demonstrates a single note."
}
{ c'4 }


and we have this in our Texinfo document ‘test.texinfo

@lilypondfile[texidoc]{foo.ly}


the following command line gives the expected result

lilypond-book --pdf --process="lilypond \


Most LilyPond test documents (in the ‘input’ directory of the distribution) are small ‘.ly’ files which look exactly like this.

For localization purpose, if the Texinfo document contains @documentlanguage LANG and ‘foo.ly’ header contains a texidocLANG field, and if lilypond is called with ‘--header=texidocLANG’, then ‘foo.texidocLANG’ will be included instead of ‘foo.texidoc’.

lilyquote

(Only for Texinfo output.) This option is similar to quote, but only the music snippet (and the optional verbatim block implied by verbatim option) is put into a quotation block. This option is useful if you want to quote the music snippet but not the texidoc documentation block.

doctitle

(Only for Texinfo output.) This option works similarly to texidoc option: if lilypond is called with the ‘--header=doctitle’ option, and the file to be processed is called ‘foo.ly’ and contains a doctitle field in the \header, it creates a file ‘foo.doctitle’. When doctitle option is used, the contents of ‘foo.doctitle’, which should be a single line of text, is inserted in the Texinfo document as @lydoctitle text. @lydoctitle should be a macro defined in the Texinfo document. The same remark about texidoc processing with localized languages also applies to doctitle.

nogettext

(Only for Texinfo output.) Do not translate comments and variable names in the snippet quoted verbatim.

printfilename

If a LilyPond input file is included with \lilypondfile, print the file name right before the music snippet. For HTML output, this is a link. Only the base name of the file is printed, i.e. the directory part of the file path is stripped.

## 3.4 Invoking lilypond-book

lilypond-book produces a file with one of the following extensions: ‘.tex’, ‘.texi’, ‘.html’ or ‘.xml’, depending on the output format. All of ‘.tex’, ‘.texi’ and ‘.xml’ files need further processing.

### Format-specific instructions

#### LaTeX

There are two ways of processing your LaTeX document for printing or publishing: getting a PDF file directly with PDFLaTeX, or getting a PostScript file with LaTeX via a DVI to PostScript translator like dvips. The first way is simpler and recommended4, and whichever way you use, you can easily convert between PostScript and PDF with tools, like ps2pdf and pdf2ps included in Ghostscript package.

To produce a PDF file through PDFLaTeX, use

lilypond-book --pdf yourfile.lytex
pdflatex yourfile.tex


To produce PDF output via LaTeX/dvips/ps2pdf, you should do

lilypond-book yourfile.lytex
latex yourfile.tex
dvips -Ppdf yourfile.dvi
ps2pdf yourfile.ps


The ‘.dvi’ file created by this process will not contain note heads. This is normal; if you follow the instructions, they will be included in the ‘.ps’ and ‘.pdf’ files.

Running dvips may produce some warnings about fonts; these are harmless and may be ignored. If you are running latex in twocolumn mode, remember to add -t landscape to the dvips options.

#### Texinfo

To produce a Texinfo document (in any output format), follow the normal procedures for Texinfo; this is, either call texi2pdf or texi2dvi or makeinfo, depending on the output format you want to create. See the documentation of Texinfo for further details.

### Command line options

lilypond-book accepts the following command line options:

-f format
--format=format

Specify the document type to process: html, latex, texi (the default) or docbook. If this option is missing, lilypond-book tries to detect the format automatically, see Filename extensions. Currently, texi is the same as texi-html.

-F filter
--filter=filter

Pipe snippets through filter. lilypond-book will not –filter and –process at the same time. For example,

lilypond-book --filter='convert-ly --from=2.0.0 -' my-book.tely

-h
--help

Print a short help message.

-I dir
--include=dir

Add dir to the include path. lilypond-book also looks for already compiled snippets in the include path, and does not write them back to the output directory, so in some cases it is necessary to invoke further processing commands such as makeinfo or latex with the same -I dir options.

-o dir
--output=dir

Place generated files in directory dir. Running lilypond-book generates lots of small files that LilyPond will process. To avoid all that garbage in the source directory, use the ‘--output’ command line option, and change to that directory before running latex or makeinfo.

lilypond-book --output=out yourfile.lytex
cd out
...

--skip-lily-check

Do not fail if no lilypond output is found. It is used for LilyPond Info documentation without images.

--skip-png-check

Do not fail if no PNG images are found for EPS files. It is used for LilyPond Info documentation without images.

--lily-output-dir=dir

Write lily-XXX files to directory dir, link into --output directory. Use this option to save building time for documents in different directories which share a lot of identical snippets.

--info-images-dir=dir

Format Texinfo output so that Info will look for images of music in dir.

--latex-program=prog

Run executable prog instead of latex. This is useful if your document is processed with xelatex, for example.

--left-padding=amount

Pad EPS boxes by this much. amount is measured in millimeters, and is 3.0 by default. This option should be used if the lines of music stick out of the right margin.

The width of a tightly clipped system can vary, due to notation elements that stick into the left margin, such as bar numbers and instrument names. This option will shorten each line and move each line to the right by the same amount.

-P command
--process=command

Process LilyPond snippets using command. The default command is lilypond. lilypond-book will not --filter and --process at the same time.

--pdf

Create PDF files for use with PDFLaTeX.

--use-source-file-names

Write snippet output files with the same base name as their source file. This option works only for snippets included with lilypondfile and only if directories implied by --output-dir and --lily-output-dir options are different.

-V
--verbose

Be verbose.

-v
--version

Print version information.

#### Known issues and warnings

The Texinfo command @pagesizes is not interpreted. Similarly, LaTeX commands that change margins and line widths after the preamble are ignored.

Only the first \score of a LilyPond block is processed.

## 3.5 Filename extensions

You can use any filename extension for the input file, but if you do not use the recommended extension for a particular format you may need to manually specify the output format; for details, see Invoking lilypond-book. Otherwise, lilypond-book automatically selects the output format based on the input filename’s extension.

 extension output format ‘.html’ HTML ‘.htmly’ HTML ‘.itely’ Texinfo ‘.latex’ LaTeX ‘.lytex’ LaTeX ‘.lyxml’ DocBook ‘.tely’ Texinfo ‘.tex’ LaTeX ‘.texi’ Texinfo ‘.texinfo’ Texinfo ‘.xml’ HTML

If you use the same filename extension for the input file than the extension lilypond-book uses for the output file, and if the input file is in the same directory as lilypond-book working directory, you must use --output option to make lilypond-book running, otherwise it will exit with an error message like “Output would overwrite input file”.

## 3.6 lilypond-book templates

These templates are for use with lilypond-book. If you’re not familiar with this program, please refer to Running lilypond-book.

### 3.6.1 LaTeX

You can include LilyPond fragments in a LaTeX document.

\documentclass[]{article}

\begin{document}

Normal LaTeX text.

\begin{lilypond}
\relative c'' {
a4 b c d
}
\end{lilypond}

More LaTeX text, and options in square brackets.

\begin{lilypond}[fragment,relative=2,quote,staffsize=26,verbatim]
d4 c b a
\end{lilypond}
\end{document}


### 3.6.2 Texinfo

You can include LilyPond fragments in Texinfo; in fact, this entire manual is written in Texinfo.

\input texinfo @node Top
@top

Texinfo text

@lilypond
\relative c' {
a4 b c d
}
@end lilypond

More Texinfo text, and options in brackets.

@lilypond[verbatim,fragment,ragged-right]
d4 c b a
@end lilypond

@bye


### 3.6.3 html

<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN">
<HTML>
<body>

<p>
Documents for lilypond-book may freely mix music and text.  For
example,
<lilypond>
\relative c'' {
a4 b c d
}
</lilypond>
</p>

<p>
Another bit of lilypond, this time with options:

<lilypond fragment quote staffsize=26 verbatim>
a4 b c d
</lilypond>
</p>

</body>
</html>



### 3.6.4 xelatex

\documentclass{article}
\usepackage{ifxetex}
\ifxetex
%xetex specific stuff
\usepackage{xunicode,fontspec,xltxtra}
\setmainfont[Numbers=OldStyle]{Times New Roman}
\setsansfont{Arial}
\else
%This can be empty if you are not going to use pdftex
\usepackage[T1]{fontenc}
\usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
\usepackage{mathptmx}%Times
\usepackage{helvet}%Helvetica
\fi
%Here you can insert all packages that pdftex also understands
\usepackage[ngerman,finnish,english]{babel}
\usepackage{graphicx}

\begin{document}
\title{A short document with LilyPond and xelatex}
\maketitle

Normal \textbf{font} commands inside the \emph{text} work,
because they \textsf{are supported by \LaTeX{} and XeteX.}
If you want to use specific commands like \verb+\XeTeX+, you
should include them again in a \verb+\ifxetex+ environment.
You can use this to print the \ifxetex \XeTeX{} command \else
XeTeX command \fi which is not known to normal \LaTeX .

In normal text you can easily use LilyPond commands, like this:

\begin{lilypond}
{a2 b c'8 c' c' c'}
\end{lilypond}

\noindent
and so on.

The fonts of snippets set with LilyPond will have to be set from
inside
of the snippet.  For this you should read the AU on how to use
lilypond-book.

\selectlanguage{ngerman}
Auch Umlaute funktionieren ohne die \LaTeX -Befehle, wie auch alle
anderen
seltsamen Zeichen: __ ______, wenn sie von der Schriftart
unterst__tzt werden.
\end{document}


These functions already exist in the OrchestralLily package:

http://repo.or.cz/w/orchestrallily.git


#### Exporting the ToC from LilyPond

This assumes that your score has multiple movements in the same lilypond output file.

 #(define (oly:create-toc-file layout pages) (let* ((label-table (ly:output-def-lookup layout 'label-page-table))) (if (not (null? label-table)) (let* ((format-line (lambda (toc-item) (let* ((label (car toc-item)) (text (caddr toc-item)) (label-page (and (list? label-table) (assoc label label-table))) (page (and label-page (cdr label-page)))) (format #f "~a, section, 1, {~a}, ~a" page text label)))) (formatted-toc-items (map format-line (toc-items))) (whole-string (string-join formatted-toc-items ",\n")) (output-name (ly:parser-output-name parser)) (outfilename (format "~a.toc" output-name)) (outfile (open-output-file outfilename))) (if (output-port? outfile) (display whole-string outfile) (ly:warning (_ "Unable to open output file ~a for the TOC information") outfilename)) (close-output-port outfile))))) \paper { #(define (page-post-process layout pages) (oly:create-toc-file layout pages)) } 

#### Importing the ToC into LaTeX

In LaTeX, the header should include:

 \usepackage{pdfpages} \includescore{nameofthescore} 

where \includescore is defined as:

 %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% % \includescore{PossibleExtension} %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% % Read in the TOC entries for a PDF file from the corresponding .toc file. % This requires some heave latex tweaking, since reading in things from a file % and inserting it into the arguments of a macro is not (easily) possible % Solution by Patrick Fimml on #latex on April 18, 2009: % \readfile{filename}{\variable} % reads in the contents of the file into \variable (undefined if file % doesn't exist) \newread\readfile@f \def\readfile@line#1{% {\catcode\^^M=10\global\read\readfile@f to \readfile@tmp}% \edef\do{\noexpand\g@addto@macro{\noexpand#1}{\readfile@tmp}}\do% \ifeof\readfile@f\else% \readfile@line{#1}% \fi% } \def\readfile#1#2{% \openin\readfile@f=#1 % \ifeof\readfile@f% \typeout{No TOC file #1 available!}% \else% \gdef#2{}% \readfile@line{#2}% \fi \closein\readfile@f% }% \newcommand{\includescore}[1]{ \def\oly@fname{\oly@basename\@ifmtarg{#1}{}{_#1}} \let\oly@addtotoc\undefined \readfile{\oly@xxxxxxxxx}{\oly@addtotoc} \ifx\oly@addtotoc\undefined \includepdf[pages=-]{\oly@fname} \else \edef\includeit{\noexpand\includepdf[pages=-,addtotoc={\oly@addtotoc}] {\oly@fname}}\includeit \fi } 

## 3.8 Alternative methods of mixing text and music

Other means of mixing text and music (without lilypond-book) are discussed in LilyPond output in other programs.

# 4. External programs

LilyPond can interact with other programs in various ways.

## 4.1 Point and click

Point and click lets you find notes in the input by clicking on them in the PDF viewer. This makes it easier to find input that causes some error in the sheet music.

When this functionality is active, LilyPond adds hyperlinks to the PDF file. These hyperlinks are sent to the web-browser, which opens a text-editor with the cursor in the right place.

To make this chain work, you should configure your PDF viewer to follow hyperlinks using the ‘lilypond-invoke-editor’ script supplied with LilyPond.

For Xpdf on UNIX, the following should be present in ‘xpdfrc5

urlCommand     "lilypond-invoke-editor %s"


The program ‘lilypond-invoke-editor’ is a small helper program. It will invoke an editor for the special textedit URIs, and run a web browser for others. It tests the environment variable EDITOR for the following patterns,

emacs

this will invoke

emacsclient --no-wait +line:column file

gvim

this will invoke

gvim --remote +:line:normcolumn file

nedit

this will invoke

  nc -noask +line file'


The environment variable LYEDITOR is used to override this. It contains the command line to start the editor, where %(file)s, %(column)s, %(line)s is replaced with the file, column and line respectively. The setting

emacsclient --no-wait +%(line)s:%(column)s %(file)s


for LYEDITOR is equivalent to the standard emacsclient invocation.

The point and click links enlarge the output files significantly. For reducing the size of PDF and PS files, point and click may be switched off by issuing

\pointAndClickOff


in a ‘.ly’ file. Point and click may be explicitly enabled with

\pointAndClickOn


Alternately, you may disable point and click with a command-line option:

lilypond -dno-point-and-click file.ly


Note: You should always turn off point and click in any LilyPond files to be distributed to avoid including path information about your computer in the .pdf file, which can pose a security risk.

## 4.2 Text editor support

There is support for different text editors for LilyPond.

### Emacs mode

Emacs has a ‘lilypond-mode’, which provides keyword autocompletion, indentation, LilyPond specific parenthesis matching and syntax coloring, handy compile short-cuts and reading LilyPond manuals using Info. If ‘lilypond-mode’ is not installed on your platform, see below.

An Emacs mode for entering music and running LilyPond is contained in the source archive in the ‘elisp’ directory. Do make install to install it to elispdir. The file ‘lilypond-init.el’ should be placed to load-path/site-start.d/’ or appended to your ‘~/.emacs’ or ‘~/.emacs.el’.

(setq load-path (append (list (expand-file-name "~/site-lisp")) load-path))


### Vim mode

For Vim, a filetype plugin, indent mode, and syntax-highlighting mode are available to use with LilyPond. To enable all of these features, create (or modify) your ‘$HOME/.vimrc’ to contain these three lines, in order: filetype off set runtimepath+=/usr/local/share/lilypond/current/vim/ filetype on  If LilyPond is not installed in the ‘/usr/local/’ directory, change the path appropriately. This topic is discussed in Other sources of information. ### Other editors Other editors (both text and graphical) support LilyPond, but their special configuration files are not distributed with LilyPond. Consult their documentation for more information. Such editors are listed in Easier editing. ## 4.3 Converting from other formats Music can be entered also by importing it from other formats. This chapter documents the tools included in the distribution to do so. There are other tools that produce LilyPond input, for example GUI sequencers and XML converters. Refer to the website for more details. These are separate programs from lilypond itself, and are run on the command line; see Command-line usage for more information. If you have MacOS 10.3 or 10.4 and you have trouble running some of these scripts, e.g. convert-ly, see MacOS X. #### Known issues and warnings We unfortunately do not have the resources to maintain these programs; please consider them “as-is”. Patches are appreciated, but bug reports will almost certainly not be resolved. ### 4.3.1 Invoking midi2ly midi2ly translates a Type 1 MIDI file to a LilyPond source file. MIDI (Music Instrument Digital Interface) is a standard for digital instruments: it specifies cabling, a serial protocol and a file format. The MIDI file format is a de facto standard format for exporting music from other programs, so this capability may come in useful when importing files from a program that has a converter for a direct format. midi2ly converts tracks into Staff and channels into Voice contexts. Relative mode is used for pitches, durations are only written when necessary. It is possible to record a MIDI file using a digital keyboard, and then convert it to ‘.ly’. However, human players are not rhythmically exact enough to make a MIDI to LY conversion trivial. When invoked with quantizing (-s and -d options) midi2ly tries to compensate for these timing errors, but is not very good at this. It is therefore not recommended to use midi2ly for human-generated midi files. It is invoked from the command-line as follows, midi2ly [option]… midi-file  Note that by ‘command-line’, we mean the command line of the operating system. See Converting from other formats, for more information about this. The following options are supported by midi2ly. -a, --absolute-pitches Print absolute pitches. -d, --duration-quant=DUR Quantize note durations on DUR. -e, --explicit-durations Print explicit durations. -h,--help Show summary of usage. -k, --key=acc[:minor] Set default key. acc > 0 sets number of sharps; acc < 0 sets number of flats. A minor key is indicated by :1. -o, --output=file Write output to file. -s, --start-quant=DUR Quantize note starts on DUR. -t, --allow-tuplet=DUR*NUM/DEN Allow tuplet durations DUR*NUM/DEN. -v, --verbose Be verbose. -V, --version Print version number. -w, --warranty Show warranty and copyright. -x, --text-lyrics Treat every text as a lyric. #### Known issues and warnings Overlapping notes in an arpeggio will not be correctly rendered. The first note will be read and the others will be ignored. Set them all to a single duration and add phrase markings or pedal indicators. ### 4.3.2 Invoking musicxml2ly MusicXML is an XML dialect for representing music notation. musicxml2ly extracts the notes, articulations, score structure, lyrics, etc. from part-wise MusicXML files, and writes them to a ‘.ly’ file. It is invoked from the command-line. It is invoked from the command-line as follows, musicxml2ly [option]… xml-file  Note that by ‘command-line’, we mean the command line of the operating system. See Converting from other formats, for more information about this. If the given filename is ‘-’, musicxml2ly reads input from the command line. The following options are supported by musicxml2ly: -a, --absolute convert pitches in absolute mode. -h,--help print usage and option summary. -l, --language=LANG use LANG for pitch names, e.g. ’deutsch’ for note names in German. --lxml use the lxml.etree Python package for XML-parsing; uses less memory and cpu time. --nd --no-articulation-directions do not convert directions (^, _ or -) for articulations, dynamics, etc. --no-beaming do not convert beaming information, use LilyPond’s automatic beaming instead. -o,--output=file set output filename to file. If file is ‘-’, the output will be printed on stdout. If not given, xml-file.ly’ will be used. -r,--relative convert pitches in relative mode (default). -v,--verbose be verbose. --version print version information. -z,--compressed input file is a zip-compressed MusicXML file. ### 4.3.3 Invoking abc2ly Note: This program is not supported, and may be remove from future versions of LilyPond. ABC is a fairly simple ASCII based format. It is described at the ABC site: abc2ly translates from ABC to LilyPond. It is invoked as follows: abc2ly [option]… abc-file  The following options are supported by abc2ly: -b,--beams=None preserve ABC’s notion of beams -h,--help this help -o,--output=file set output filename to file. -s,--strict be strict about success --version print version information. There is a rudimentary facility for adding LilyPond code to the ABC source file. If you say: %%LY voices \set autoBeaming = ##f  This will cause the text following the keyword ‘voices’ to be inserted into the current voice of the LilyPond output file. Similarly, %%LY slyrics more words  will cause the text following the ‘slyrics’ keyword to be inserted into the current line of lyrics. #### Known issues and warnings The ABC standard is not very ‘standard’. For extended features (e.g., polyphonic music) different conventions exist. Multiple tunes in one file cannot be converted. ABC synchronizes words and notes at the beginning of a line; abc2ly does not. abc2ly ignores the ABC beaming. ### 4.3.4 Invoking etf2ly Note: This program is not supported, and may be remove from future versions of LilyPond. ETF (Enigma Transport Format) is a format used by Coda Music Technology’s Finale product. etf2ly will convert part of an ETF file to a ready-to-use LilyPond file. It is invoked from the command-line as follows. etf2ly [option]… etf-file  Note that by ‘command-line’, we mean the command line of the operating system. See Converting from other formats, for more information about this. The following options are supported by etf2ly: -h,--help this help -o,--output=FILE set output filename to FILE --version version information #### Known issues and warnings The list of articulation scripts is incomplete. Empty measures confuse etf2ly. Sequences of grace notes are ended improperly. ### 4.3.5 Other formats LilyPond itself does not come with support for any other formats, but some external tools can also generate LilyPond files. These are listed in Easier editing. ## 4.4 LilyPond output in other programs This section shows methods to integrate text and music, different than the automated method with lilypond-book. ### Many quotes from a large score If you need to quote many fragments from a large score, you can also use the clip systems feature, see Extracting fragments of music. ### Inserting LilyPond output into OpenOffice.org LilyPond notation can be added to OpenOffice.org with OOoLilyPond. ### Inserting LilyPond output into other programs To insert LilyPond output in other programs, use lilypond instead of lilypond-book. Each example must be created individually and added to the document; consult the documentation for that program. Most programs will be able to insert LilyPond output in ‘PNG’, ‘EPS’, or ‘PDF’ formats. To reduce the white space around your LilyPond score, use the following options \paper{ indent=0\mm line-width=120\mm oddFooterMarkup=##f oddHeaderMarkup=##f bookTitleMarkup = ##f scoreTitleMarkup = ##f } { c1 }  To produce a useful ‘EPS’ file, use lilypond -dbackend=eps -dno-gs-load-fonts -dinclude-eps-fonts myfile.ly ‘PNG’: lilypond -dbackend=eps -dno-gs-load-fonts -dinclude-eps-fonts --png myfile.ly  ## 4.5 Independent includes Some people have written large (and useful!) code that can be shared between projects. This code might eventually make its way into LilyPond itself, but until that happens, you must download and \include them manually. ### 4.5.1 MIDI articulation LilyPond can be used to produce MIDI output, for “proof-hearing” what has been written. However, only dynamics, explicit tempo markings, and the notes and durations themselves are produced in the output. The articulate project is one attempt to get more of the information in the score into he MIDI. It works by shortening notes not under slurs, to ‘articulate’ the notes. The amount of shortening depends on any articulation markings attached to a note: staccato halves the note value, tenuto gives a note its full duration, and so on. The script also realises trills and turns, and could be extended to expand other ornaments such as mordents. http://www.nicta.com.au/people/chubbp/articulate  #### Known issues and warnings Its main limitation is that it can only affect things it knows about: anything that is merely textual markup (instead of a note property) is still ignored. # 5. Suggestions for writing files Now you’re ready to begin writing larger LilyPond input files – not just the little examples in the tutorial, but whole pieces. But how should you go about doing it? As long as LilyPond can understand your input files and produce the output that you want, it doesn’t matter what your input files look like. However, there are a few other things to consider when writing LilyPond input files. • What if you make a mistake? The structure of a LilyPond file can make certain errors easier (or harder) to find. • What if you want to share your input files with somebody else? In fact, what if you want to alter your own input files in a few years? Some LilyPond input files are understandable at first glance; others may leave you scratching your head for an hour. • What if you want to upgrade your LilyPond file for use with a later version of LilyPond? The input syntax changes occasionally as LilyPond improves. Most changes can be done automatically with convert-ly, but some changes might require manual assistance. LilyPond input files can be structured in order to be easier (or harder) to update. ## 5.1 General suggestions Here are a few suggestions that can help you to avoid or fix problems: • Include \version numbers in every file. Note that all templates contain \version information. We highly recommend that you always include the \version, no matter how small your file is. Speaking from personal experience, it’s quite frustrating to try to remember which version of LilyPond you were using a few years ago. convert-ly requires you to declare which version of LilyPond you used. • Include checks: Bar and bar number checks, Octave checks. If you include checks every so often, then if you make a mistake, you can pinpoint it quicker. How often is ‘every so often’? It depends on the complexity of the music. For very simple music, perhaps just once or twice. For very complex music, perhaps every bar. • One bar per line of text. If there is anything complicated, either in the music itself or in the output you desire, it’s often good to write only one bar per line. Saving screen space by cramming eight bars per line just isn’t worth it if you have to ‘debug’ your input files. • Comment your input files. Use either bar numbers (every so often) or references to musical themes (‘second theme in violins,’ ‘fourth variation,’ etc.). You may not need comments when you’re writing the piece for the first time, but if you want to go back to change something two or three years later, or if you pass the source over to a friend, it will be much more challenging to determine your intentions or how your file is structured if you didn’t comment the file. • Indent your braces. A lot of problems are caused by an imbalance in the number of { and }. • Explicitly add durations at the beginnings of sections and variables. If you specify c4 d e at the beginning of a phrase (instead of just c d e) you can save yourself some problems if you rearrange your music later. • Separate tweaks from music definitions. See Saving typing with variables and functions, and Style sheets. ## 5.2 Typesetting existing music If you are entering music from an existing score (i.e., typesetting a piece of existing sheet music), • Enter the manuscript (the physical copy of the music) into LilyPond one system at a time (but still only one bar per line of text), and check each system when you finish it. You may use the showLastLength or showFirstLength properties to speed up processing – see Skipping corrected music. • Define mBreak = { \break } and insert \mBreak in the input file whenever the manuscript has a line break. This makes it much easier to compare the LilyPond music to the original music. When you are finished proofreading your score, you may define mBreak = { } to remove all those line breaks. This will allow LilyPond to place line breaks wherever it feels are best. • When entering a part for a transposing instrument into a variable, it is recommended that the notes are wrapped in \transpose c natural-pitch {...}  (where natural-pitch is the open pitch of the instrument) so that the music in the variable is effectively in C. You can transpose it back again when the variable is used, if required, but you might not want to (e.g., when printing a score in concert pitch, converting a trombone part from treble to bass clef, etc.) Mistakes in transpositions are less likely if all the music in variables is at a consistent pitch. Also, only ever transpose to/from C. That means that the only other keys you will use are the natural pitches of the instruments - bes for a B-flat trumpet, aes for an A-flat clarinet, etc. ## 5.3 Large projects When working on a large project, having a clear structure to your lilypond input files becomes vital. • Use a variable for each voice, with a minimum of structure inside the definition. The structure of the \score section is the most likely thing to change; the violin definition is extremely unlikely to change in a new version of LilyPond. violin = \relative c'' { g4 c'8. e16 } ... \score { \new GrandStaff { \new Staff { \violin } } }  • Separate tweaks from music definitions. This point was made previously, but for large projects it is absolutely vital. We might need to change the definition of fthenp, but then we only need to do this once, and we can still avoid touching anything inside violin. fthenp = _\markup{ \dynamic f \italic \small { 2nd } \hspace #0.1 \dynamic p } violin = \relative c'' { g4\fthenp c'8. e16 }  ## 5.4 Troubleshooting Sooner or later, you will write a file that LilyPond cannot compile. The messages that LilyPond gives may help you find the error, but in many cases you need to do some investigation to determine the source of the problem. The most powerful tools for this purpose are the single line comment (indicated by %) and the block comment (indicated by %{ ... %}). If you don’t know where a problem is, start commenting out huge portions of your input file. After you comment out a section, try compiling the file again. If it works, then the problem must exist in the portion you just commented. If it doesn’t work, then keep on commenting out material until you have something that works. In an extreme case, you might end up with only \score { << % \melody % \harmony % \bass >> \layout{} }  (in other words, a file without any music) If that happens, don’t give up. Uncomment a bit – say, the bass part – and see if it works. If it doesn’t work, then comment out all of the bass music (but leave \bass in the \score uncommented. bass = \relative c' { %{ c4 c c c d d d d %} }  Now start slowly uncommenting more and more of the bass part until you find the problem line. Another very useful debugging technique is constructing Tiny examples. ## 5.5 Make and Makefiles Pretty well all the platforms Lilypond can run on support a software facility called make. This software reads a special file called a Makefile that defines what files depend on what others and what commands you need to give the operating system to produce one file from another. For example the makefile would spell out how to produce ‘ballad.pdf’ and ‘ballad.midi’ from ‘ballad.ly’ by running Lilypond. There are times when it is a good idea to create a Makefile for your project, either for your own convenience or as a courtesy to others who might have access to your source files. This is true for very large projects with many included files and different output options (e.g. full score, parts, conductor’s score, piano reduction, etc.), or for projects that require difficult commands to build them (such as lilypond-book projects). Makefiles vary greatly in complexity and flexibility, according to the needs and skills of the authors. The program GNU Make comes installed on GNU/Linux distributions and on MacOS X, and it is also available for Windows. See the GNU Make Manual for full details on using make, as what follows here gives only a glimpse of what it can do. The commands to define rules in a makefile differ according to platform; for instance the various forms of Linux and MacOS use bash, while Windows uses cmd. Note that on MacOS X, you need to configure the system to use the command-line interpreter. Here are some example makefiles, with versions for both Linux/MacOS and Windows. The first example is for an orchestral work in four movements with a directory structure as follows: Symphony/ |-- MIDI/ |-- Makefile |-- Notes/ | |-- cello.ily | |-- figures.ily | |-- horn.ily | |-- oboe.ily | |-- trioString.ily | |-- viola.ily | |-- violinOne.ily | -- violinTwo.ily |-- PDF/ |-- Parts/ | |-- symphony-cello.ly | |-- symphony-horn.ly | |-- symphony-oboes.ly | |-- symphony-viola.ly | |-- symphony-violinOne.ly | -- symphony-violinTwo.ly |-- Scores/ | |-- symphony.ly | |-- symphonyI.ly | |-- symphonyII.ly | |-- symphonyIII.ly | -- symphonyIV.ly -- symphonyDefs.ily  The ‘.ly’ files in the ‘Scores’ and ‘Parts’ directories get their notes from ‘.ily’ files in the ‘Notes’ directory: %%% top of file "symphony-cello.ly" \include ../definitions.ily \include ../Notes/cello.ily  The makefile will have targets of score (entire piece in full score), movements (individual movements in full score), and parts (individual parts for performers). There is also a target archive that will create a tarball of the source files, suitable for sharing via web or email. Here is the makefile for GNU/Linux or MacOS X. It should be saved with the name Makefile in the top directory of the project: Note: When a target or pattern rule is defined, the subsequent lines must begin with tabs, not spaces. # the name stem of the output files piece = symphony # determine how many processors are present CPU_CORES=cat /proc/cpuinfo | grep -m1 "cpu cores" | sed s/".*: "// # The command to run lilypond LILY_CMD = lilypond -ddelete-intermediate-files \ -dno-point-and-click -djob-count=$(CPU_CORES)

# The suffixes used in this Makefile.
.SUFFIXES: .ly .ily .pdf .midi

# Input and output files are searched in the directories listed in
# the VPATH variable.  All of them are subdirectories of the current
# directory (given by the GNU make variable CURDIR').
VPATH = \
$(CURDIR)/Scores \$(CURDIR)/PDF \
$(CURDIR)/Parts \$(CURDIR)/Notes

# The pattern rule to create PDF and MIDI files from a LY input file.
# The .pdf output files are put into the PDF' subdirectory, and the
# .midi files go into the MIDI' subdirectory.
%.pdf %.midi: %.ly
$(LILY_CMD)$<; \           # this line begins with a tab
if test -f "$*.pdf"; then \ mv "$*.pdf" PDF/; \
fi; \
if test -f "$*.midi"; then \ mv "$*.midi" MIDI/; \
fi

notes = \
cello.ily \
horn.ily \
oboe.ily \
viola.ily \
violinOne.ily \
violinTwo.ily

# The dependencies of the movements.
$(piece)I.pdf:$(piece)I.ly $(notes)$(piece)II.pdf: $(piece)II.ly$(notes)
$(piece)III.pdf:$(piece)III.ly $(notes)$(piece)IV.pdf: $(piece)IV.ly$(notes)

# The dependencies of the full score.
$(piece).pdf:$(piece).ly $(notes) # The dependencies of the parts.$(piece)-cello.pdf: $(piece)-cello.ly cello.ily$(piece)-horn.pdf: $(piece)-horn.ly horn.ily$(piece)-oboes.pdf: $(piece)-oboes.ly oboe.ily$(piece)-viola.pdf: $(piece)-viola.ly viola.ily$(piece)-violinOne.pdf: $(piece)-violinOne.ly violinOne.ily$(piece)-violinTwo.pdf: $(piece)-violinTwo.ly violinTwo.ily # Type make score' to generate the full score of all four # movements as one file. .PHONY: score score:$(piece).pdf

# Type make parts' to generate all parts.
# Type make foo.pdf' to generate the part for instrument foo'.
# Example: make symphony-cello.pdf'.
.PHONY: parts
parts: $(piece)-cello.pdf \$(piece)-violinOne.pdf \
$(piece)-violinTwo.pdf \$(piece)-viola.pdf \
$(piece)-oboes.pdf \$(piece)-horn.pdf

# Type make movements' to generate files for the
# four movements separately.
.PHONY: movements
movements: $(piece)I.pdf \$(piece)II.pdf \
$(piece)III.pdf \$(piece)IV.pdf

all: score parts movements

archive:
tar -cvvf stamitz.tar \       # this line begins with a tab
--exclude=*pdf --exclude=*~ \
--exclude=*midi --exclude=*.tar \
../Stamitz/*


There are special complications on the Windows platform. After downloading and installing GNU Make for Windows, you must set the correct path in the system’s environment variables so that the DOS shell can find the Make program. To do this, right-click on "My Computer," then choose Properties and Advanced. Click Environment Variables, and then in the System Variables pane, highlight Path, click edit, and add the path to the GNU Make executable file, which will look something like this:

C:\Program Files\GnuWin32\bin


The makefile itself has to be altered to handle different shell commands and to deal with spaces that are present in some default system directories. The archive target is eliminated since Windows does not have the tar command, and Windows also has a different default extension for midi files.

## WINDOWS VERSION
##
piece = symphony
LILY_CMD = lilypond -ddelete-intermediate-files \
-dno-point-and-click \
-djob-count=$(NUMBER_OF_PROCESSORS) #get the 8.3 name of CURDIR (workaround for spaces in PATH) workdir =$(shell for /f "tokens=*" %%b in ("$(CURDIR)") \ do @echo %%~sb) .SUFFIXES: .ly .ily .pdf .mid VPATH = \$(workdir)/Scores \
$(workdir)/PDF \$(workdir)/Parts \
$(workdir)/Notes %.pdf %.mid: %.ly$(LILY_CMD) $< # this line begins with a tab if exist "$*.pdf"  move /Y "$*.pdf" PDF/ # begin with tab if exist "$*.mid" move /Y "$*.mid" MIDI/ # begin with tab notes = \ cello.ily \ figures.ily \ horn.ily \ oboe.ily \ trioString.ily \ viola.ily \ violinOne.ily \ violinTwo.ily$(piece)I.pdf: $(piece)I.ly$(notes)
$(piece)II.pdf:$(piece)II.ly $(notes)$(piece)III.pdf: $(piece)III.ly$(notes)
$(piece)IV.pdf:$(piece)IV.ly $(notes)$(piece).pdf: $(piece).ly$(notes)

$(piece)-cello.pdf:$(piece)-cello.ly cello.ily
$(piece)-horn.pdf:$(piece)-horn.ly horn.ily
$(piece)-oboes.pdf:$(piece)-oboes.ly oboe.ily
$(piece)-viola.pdf:$(piece)-viola.ly viola.ily
$(piece)-violinOne.pdf:$(piece)-violinOne.ly violinOne.ily
$(piece)-violinTwo.pdf:$(piece)-violinTwo.ly violinTwo.ily

.PHONY: score
score: $(piece).pdf .PHONY: parts parts:$(piece)-cello.pdf \
$(piece)-violinOne.pdf \$(piece)-violinTwo.pdf \
$(piece)-viola.pdf \$(piece)-oboes.pdf \
$(piece)-horn.pdf .PHONY: movements movements:$(piece)I.pdf \
$(piece)II.pdf \$(piece)III.pdf \
$(piece)IV.pdf all: score parts movements  The next Makefile is for a lilypond-book document done in LaTeX. This project has an index, which requires that the latex command be run twice to update links. Output files are all stored in the out directory for .pdf output and in the htmlout directory for the html output. SHELL=/bin/sh FILE=myproject OUTDIR=out WEBDIR=htmlout VIEWER=acroread BROWSER=firefox LILYBOOK_PDF=lilypond-book --output=$(OUTDIR) --pdf $(FILE).lytex LILYBOOK_HTML=lilypond-book --output=$(WEBDIR) $(FILE).lytex PDF=cd$(OUTDIR) && pdflatex $(FILE) HTML=cd$(WEBDIR) && latex2html $(FILE) INDEX=cd$(OUTDIR) && makeindex $(FILE) PREVIEW=$(VIEWER) $(OUTDIR)/$(FILE).pdf &

all: pdf web keep

pdf:
$(LILYBOOK_PDF) # begin with tab$(PDF)           # begin with tab
$(INDEX) # begin with tab$(PDF)           # begin with tab
$(PREVIEW) # begin with tab web:$(LILYBOOK_HTML) # begin with tab
$(HTML) # begin with tab cp -R$(WEBDIR)/$(FILE)/ ./ # begin with tab$(BROWSER) $(FILE)/$(FILE).html &  # begin with tab

keep: pdf
cp $(OUTDIR)/$(FILE).pdf $(FILE).pdf # begin with tab clean: rm -rf$(OUTDIR) # begin with tab

web-clean:
rm -rf \$(WEBDIR) # begin with tab

archive:
tar -cvvf myproject.tar \ # begin this line with tab
--exclude=out/* \
--exclude=htmlout/* \
--exclude=myproject/* \
--exclude=*midi \
--exclude=*pdf \
--exclude=*~ \
../MyProject/*


TODO: make this thing work on Windows

The previous makefile does not work on Windows. An alternative for Windows users would be to create a simple batch file containing the build commands. This will not keep track of dependencies the way a makefile does, but it at least reduces the build process to a single command. Save the following code as build.bat or build.cmd. The batch file can be run at the DOS prompt or by simply double-clicking its icon.

lilypond-book --output=out --pdf myproject.lytex
cd out
pdflatex myproject
makeindex myproject
pdflatex myproject
cd ..
copy out\myproject.pdf MyProject.pdf


This manual: Command-line usage, Running lilypond-book

# A. GNU Free Documentation License

Version 1.3, 3 November 2008

 Copyright © 2000, 2001, 2002, 2007, 2008 Free Software Foundation, Inc. http://fsf.org/ Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document, but changing it is not allowed. 
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The “Title Page” means, for a printed book, the title page itself, plus such following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the material this License requires to appear in the title page. For works in formats which do not have any title page as such, “Title Page” means the text near the most prominent appearance of the work’s title, preceding the beginning of the body of the text.

The “publisher” means any person or entity that distributes copies of the Document to the public.

A section “Entitled XYZ” means a named subunit of the Document whose title either is precisely XYZ or contains XYZ in parentheses following text that translates XYZ in another language. (Here XYZ stands for a specific section name mentioned below, such as “Acknowledgements”, “Dedications”, “Endorsements”, or “History”.) To “Preserve the Title” of such a section when you modify the Document means that it remains a section “Entitled XYZ” according to this definition.

The Document may include Warranty Disclaimers next to the notice which states that this License applies to the Document. These Warranty Disclaimers are considered to be included by reference in this License, but only as regards disclaiming warranties: any other implication that these Warranty Disclaimers may have is void and has no effect on the meaning of this License.

3. VERBATIM COPYING

You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either commercially or noncommercially, provided that this License, the copyright notices, and the license notice saying this License applies to the Document are reproduced in all copies, and that you add no other conditions whatsoever to those of this License. You may not use technical measures to obstruct or control the reading or further copying of the copies you make or distribute. However, you may accept compensation in exchange for copies. If you distribute a large enough number of copies you must also follow the conditions in section 3.

You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above, and you may publicly display copies.

4. COPYING IN QUANTITY

If you publish printed copies (or copies in media that commonly have printed covers) of the Document, numbering more than 100, and the Document’s license notice requires Cover Texts, you must enclose the copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all these Cover Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and Back-Cover Texts on the back cover. Both covers must also clearly and legibly identify you as the publisher of these copies. The front cover must present the full title with all words of the title equally prominent and visible. You may add other material on the covers in addition. Copying with changes limited to the covers, as long as they preserve the title of the Document and satisfy these conditions, can be treated as verbatim copying in other respects.

If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit legibly, you should put the first ones listed (as many as fit reasonably) on the actual cover, and continue the rest onto adjacent pages.

If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document numbering more than 100, you must either include a machine-readable Transparent copy along with each Opaque copy, or state in or with each Opaque copy a computer-network location from which the general network-using public has access to download using public-standard network protocols a complete Transparent copy of the Document, free of added material. If you use the latter option, you must take reasonably prudent steps, when you begin distribution of Opaque copies in quantity, to ensure that this Transparent copy will remain thus accessible at the stated location until at least one year after the last time you distribute an Opaque copy (directly or through your agents or retailers) of that edition to the public.

It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of the Document well before redistributing any large number of copies, to give them a chance to provide you with an updated version of the Document.

5. MODIFICATIONS

You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document under the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you release the Modified Version under precisely this License, with the Modified Version filling the role of the Document, thus licensing distribution and modification of the Modified Version to whoever possesses a copy of it. In addition, you must do these things in the Modified Version:

1. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title distinct from that of the Document, and from those of previous versions (which should, if there were any, be listed in the History section of the Document). You may use the same title as a previous version if the original publisher of that version gives permission.
2. List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or entities responsible for authorship of the modifications in the Modified Version, together with at least five of the principal authors of the Document (all of its principal authors, if it has fewer than five), unless they release you from this requirement.
3. State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the Modified Version, as the publisher.
4. Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.
6. Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license notice giving the public permission to use the Modified Version under the terms of this License, in the form shown in the Addendum below.
7. Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant Sections and required Cover Texts given in the Document’s license notice.
8. Include an unaltered copy of this License.
9. Preserve the section Entitled “History”, Preserve its Title, and add to it an item stating at least the title, year, new authors, and publisher of the Modified Version as given on the Title Page. If there is no section Entitled “History” in the Document, create one stating the title, year, authors, and publisher of the Document as given on its Title Page, then add an item describing the Modified Version as stated in the previous sentence.
10. Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document for public access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and likewise the network locations given in the Document for previous versions it was based on. These may be placed in the “History” section. You may omit a network location for a work that was published at least four years before the Document itself, or if the original publisher of the version it refers to gives permission.
11. For any section Entitled “Acknowledgements” or “Dedications”, Preserve the Title of the section, and preserve in the section all the substance and tone of each of the contributor acknowledgements and/or dedications given therein.
12. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document, unaltered in their text and in their titles. Section numbers or the equivalent are not considered part of the section titles.
13. Delete any section Entitled “Endorsements”. Such a section may not be included in the Modified Version.
14. Do not retitle any existing section to be Entitled “Endorsements” or to conflict in title with any Invariant Section.
15. Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers.

If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no material copied from the Document, you may at your option designate some or all of these sections as invariant. To do this, add their titles to the list of Invariant Sections in the Modified Version’s license notice. These titles must be distinct from any other section titles.

You may add a section Entitled “Endorsements”, provided it contains nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various parties—for example, statements of peer review or that the text has been approved by an organization as the authoritative definition of a standard.

You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and a passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the list of Cover Texts in the Modified Version. Only one passage of Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or through arrangements made by) any one entity. If the Document already includes a cover text for the same cover, previously added by you or by arrangement made by the same entity you are acting on behalf of, you may not add another; but you may replace the old one, on explicit permission from the previous publisher that added the old one.

The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License give permission to use their names for publicity for or to assert or imply endorsement of any Modified Version.

6. COMBINING DOCUMENTS

You may combine the Document with other documents released under this License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for modified versions, provided that you include in the combination all of the Invariant Sections of all of the original documents, unmodified, and list them all as Invariant Sections of your combined work in its license notice, and that you preserve all their Warranty Disclaimers.

The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single copy. If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name but different contents, make the title of each such section unique by adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the original author or publisher of that section if known, or else a unique number. Make the same adjustment to the section titles in the list of Invariant Sections in the license notice of the combined work.

In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled “History” in the various original documents, forming one section Entitled “History”; likewise combine any sections Entitled “Acknowledgements”, and any sections Entitled “Dedications”. You must delete all sections Entitled “Endorsements.”

7. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS

You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other documents released under this License, and replace the individual copies of this License in the various documents with a single copy that is included in the collection, provided that you follow the rules of this License for verbatim copying of each of the documents in all other respects.

You may extract a single document from such a collection, and distribute it individually under this License, provided you insert a copy of this License into the extracted document, and follow this License in all other respects regarding verbatim copying of that document.

8. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS

A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or distribution medium, is called an “aggregate” if the copyright resulting from the compilation is not used to limit the legal rights of the compilation’s users beyond what the individual works permit. When the Document is included in an aggregate, this License does not apply to the other works in the aggregate which are not themselves derivative works of the Document.

If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one half of the entire aggregate, the Document’s Cover Texts may be placed on covers that bracket the Document within the aggregate, or the electronic equivalent of covers if the Document is in electronic form. Otherwise they must appear on printed covers that bracket the whole aggregate.

9. TRANSLATION

Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section 4. Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special permission from their copyright holders, but you may include translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the original versions of these Invariant Sections. You may include a translation of this License, and all the license notices in the Document, and any Warranty Disclaimers, provided that you also include the original English version of this License and the original versions of those notices and disclaimers. In case of a disagreement between the translation and the original version of this License or a notice or disclaimer, the original version will prevail.

If a section in the Document is Entitled “Acknowledgements”, “Dedications”, or “History”, the requirement (section 4) to Preserve its Title (section 1) will typically require changing the actual title.

10. TERMINATION

You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document except as expressly provided under this License. Any attempt otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute it is void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License.

However, if you cease all violation of this License, then your license from a particular copyright holder is reinstated (a) provisionally, unless and until the copyright holder explicitly and finally terminates your license, and (b) permanently, if the copyright holder fails to notify you of the violation by some reasonable means prior to 60 days after the cessation.

Moreover, your license from a particular copyright holder is reinstated permanently if the copyright holder notifies you of the violation by some reasonable means, this is the first time you have received notice of violation of this License (for any work) from that copyright holder, and you cure the violation prior to 30 days after your receipt of the notice.

Termination of your rights under this section does not terminate the licenses of parties who have received copies or rights from you under this License. If your rights have been terminated and not permanently reinstated, receipt of a copy of some or all of the same material does not give you any rights to use it.

11. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE

The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. See http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/.

Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number. If the Document specifies that a particular numbered version of this License “or any later version” applies to it, you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that specified version or of any later version that has been published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. If the Document does not specify a version number of this License, you may choose any version ever published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. If the Document specifies that a proxy can decide which future versions of this License can be used, that proxy’s public statement of acceptance of a version permanently authorizes you to choose that version for the Document.

12. RELICENSING

“Massive Multiauthor Collaboration Site” (or “MMC Site”) means any World Wide Web server that publishes copyrightable works and also provides prominent facilities for anybody to edit those works. A public wiki that anybody can edit is an example of such a server. A “Massive Multiauthor Collaboration” (or “MMC”) contained in the site means any set of copyrightable works thus published on the MMC site.

“Incorporate” means to publish or republish a Document, in whole or in part, as part of another Document.

An MMC is “eligible for relicensing” if it is licensed under this License, and if all works that were first published under this License somewhere other than this MMC, and subsequently incorporated in whole or in part into the MMC, (1) had no cover texts or invariant sections, and (2) were thus incorporated prior to November 1, 2008.

The operator of an MMC Site may republish an MMC contained in the site under CC-BY-SA on the same site at any time before August 1, 2009, provided the MMC is eligible for relicensing.

To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of the License in the document and put the following copyright and license notices just after the title page:

  Copyright (C) year your name. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled GNU Free Documentation License''. 

If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover Texts, replace the “with…Texts.” line with this:

  with the Invariant Sections being list their titles, with the Front-Cover Texts being list, and with the Back-Cover Texts being list. 

If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or some other combination of the three, merge those two alternatives to suit the situation.

If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of free software license, such as the GNU General Public License, to permit their use in free software.

# B. LilyPond index

Jump to: \   A   B   C   D   E   F   H   I   L   M   O   P   S   T   U   V   W
Jump to: \   A   B   C   D   E   F   H   I   L   M   O   P   S   T   U   V   W

# Footnotes

[1] The status of GUILE is not reset after processing a .ly file, so be careful not to change any system defaults from within Scheme.

[2] At least, this is possible in any LilyPond file which does not contain scheme. If there is scheme in the file, then the LilyPond file contains a Turing-complete language, and we run into problems with the famous “Halting Problem” in computer science.

[3] This tutorial is processed with Texinfo, so the example gives slightly different results in layout.

[4] Note that PDFLaTeX and LaTeX may not be both usable to compile any LaTeX document, that is why we explain the two ways.

[5] On UNIX, this file is found either in ‘/etc/xpdfrc’ or as ‘.xpdfrc’ in your home directory.

This document was generated by Graham Percival on July 26, 2011 using texi2html 1.82.

The buttons in the navigation panels have the following meaning:

Button Name Go to From 1.2.3 go to
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[ << ] FastBack Beginning of this chapter or previous chapter 1
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[Top] Top Cover (top) of document
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[ < ] Back Previous section in reading order 1.2.2
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where the Example assumes that the current position is at Subsubsection One-Two-Three of a document of the following structure:

• 1. Section One
• 1.1 Subsection One-One
• ...
• 1.2 Subsection One-Two
• 1.2.1 Subsubsection One-Two-One
• 1.2.2 Subsubsection One-Two-Two
• 1.2.3 Subsubsection One-Two-Three     <== Current Position
• 1.2.4 Subsubsection One-Two-Four
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• ...
• 1.4 Subsection One-Four

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