### 1.3.2 Curves

This section explains how to create various expressive marks that are curved: normal slurs, phrasing slurs, breath marks, falls, and doits.

#### Slurs

Slurs are entered using parentheses:

```f4( g a) a8 b(
a4 g2 f4)
<c e>2( <b d>2)
```

Slurs may be manually placed above or below the notes, see Direction and placement.

```c2( d)
\slurDown
c2( d)
\slurNeutral
c2( d)
```

Simultaneous or overlapping slurs are not permitted, but a phrasing slur can overlap a slur. This permits two slurs to be printed at once. For details, see Phrasing slurs.

Slurs can be solid, dotted, or dashed. Solid is the default slur style:

```c4( e g2)
\slurDashed
g4( e c2)
\slurDotted
c4( e g2)
\slurSolid
g4( e c2)
```

#### Predefined commands

`\slurUp`, `\slurDown`, `\slurNeutral`, `\slurDashed`, `\slurDotted`, `\slurSolid`.

#### Selected Snippets

Using double slurs for legato chords

Some composers write two slurs when they want legato chords. This can be achieved by setting `doubleSlurs`.

```\relative c' {
\set doubleSlurs = ##t
<c e>4( <d f> <c e> <d f>)
}

```

Positioning text markups inside slurs

Text markups need to have the `outside-staff-priority` property set to false in order to be printed inside slurs.

```\relative c'' {
\override TextScript #'avoid-slur = #'inside
\override TextScript #'outside-staff-priority = ##f
c2(^\markup { \halign #-10 \natural } d4.) c8
}

```

Music Glossary: slur.

Learning Manual: On the un-nestedness of brackets and ties.

Notation Reference: Direction and placement, Phrasing slurs.

Snippets: Expressive marks.

Internals Reference: Slur.

#### Phrasing slurs

Phrasing slurs (or phrasing marks) that indicate a musical sentence are written using the commands `\(` and `\)` respectively:

```c4\( d( e) f(
e2) d\)
```

Typographically, a phrasing slur behaves almost exactly like a normal slur. However, they are treated as different objects; a `\slurUp` will have no effect on a phrasing slur. Phrasing slurs may be manually placed above or below the notes, see Direction and placement.

```c4\( g' c,( b) | c1\)
\phrasingSlurUp
c4\( g' c,( b) | c1\)
```

Simultaneous or overlapping phrasing slurs are not permitted.

Phrasing slurs can be solid, dotted, or dashed. Solid is the default style for phrasing slurs:

```c4\( e g2\)
\phrasingSlurDashed
g4\( e c2\)
\phrasingSlurDotted
c4\( e g2\)
\phrasingSlurSolid
g4\( e c2\)
```

#### Predefined commands

`\phrasingSlurUp`, `\phrasingSlurDown`, `\phrasingSlurNeutral`, `\phrasingSlurDashed`, `\phrasingSlurDotted`, `\phrasingSlurSolid`.

Learning Manual: On the un-nestedness of brackets and ties.

Notation Reference: Direction and placement.

Snippets: Expressive marks.

Internals Reference: PhrasingSlur.

#### Breath marks

Breath marks are entered using `\breathe`:

```c2. \breathe d4
```

Musical indicators for breath marks in ancient notation, divisiones, are supported. For details, see Divisiones.

#### Selected Snippets

Changing the breath mark symbol

The glyph of the breath mark can be tuned by overriding the text property of the `BreathingSign` layout object with any markup text.

```\relative c'' {
c2
\override BreathingSign #'text = \markup { \musicglyph #"scripts.rvarcomma" }
\breathe
d2
}
```

Inserting a caesura

Caesura marks can be created by overriding the `'text` property of the `BreathingSign` object. A curved caesura mark is also available.

```\relative c'' {
\override BreathingSign #'text = \markup {
\musicglyph #"scripts.caesura.straight"
}
c8 e4. \breathe g8. e16 c4

\override BreathingSign #'text = \markup {
\musicglyph #"scripts.caesura.curved"
}
g8 e'4. \breathe g8. e16 c4
}
```

Music Glossary: caesura.

Notation Reference: Divisiones.

Snippets: Expressive marks.

Internals Reference: BreathingSign.

#### Falls and doits

Falls and doits can be added to notes using the `\bendAfter` command. The direction of the fall or doit is indicated with a plus or minus (up or down). The number indicates the pitch interval that the fall or doit will extend beyond the main note.

```c2-\bendAfter #+4
c2-\bendAfter #-4
c2-\bendAfter #+8
c2-\bendAfter #-8
```

The dash `-` immediately preceding the `\bendAfter` command is required when writing falls and doits.

#### Selected Snippets

Adjusting the shape of falls and doits

The `shortest-duration-space` property may have to be tweaked to adjust the shape of falls and doits.

```\relative c'' {
\override Score.SpacingSpanner #'shortest-duration-space = #4.0
c2-\bendAfter #+5
c2-\bendAfter #-3
c2-\bendAfter #+8
c2-\bendAfter #-6
}

```